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70天攻克考研英语阅读 DAY64

2006-7-28 01:05  

  Reading comprehension

  Direction: In this part, there are four passages followed by questions or unfinished statements, each with four suggested answers marked A, B, C and D. Choose the one that you think is the correct answer.

  Passage 1

  In contrast to traditional analyses of minority business, the sociological analysis contends that minority business ownership is a grouplevel phenomenon, in that it is largely dependent upon social group resources for its development. Specifically, this analysis indicates that support networks play a critical role in starting and maintaining minority business enterprises by providing owners with a range of assistance, from the informal encouragement of family members and friends to dependable sources of labor and clientele from the owners ethnic group. Such selfhelp networks, which encourage and support ethnic minority entrepreneurs, consist of “primary” institutions, those closest to the individual in shaping his or her behavior and beliefs. They are characterized by the facetoface association and cooperation of persons united by ties of mutual concern. They form an intermediate social level between the individual and larger “secondary” institutions based on impersonal relationships. Primary institutions comprising the support network include kinship, peer, and neighborhood or community subgroups.

  A major function of selfhelp networks is financial support. Most scholars agree that minority business owners have depended primarily on family funds and ethnic community resources for investment capital. Personal saving have been accumulated, often through frugal living habits that require sacrifices by the entire family and are thus a product of longterm family financial behavior. Additional loans and gifts from relatives forthcoming because of group obligation rather than narrow investment calculation, have supplemented personal savings. Individual entrepreneurs do not necessarily rely on their kin because they cannot obtain financial backing from commercial resources. They may actually avoid banks because they assume that commercial institutions either cannot comprehend the special needs of minority enterprise or charge unreasonably high interest rates.

  Within the larger ethnic community, rotating credit associations have been used to raise capital. These associations are informal clubs of friends and other trusted members of the ethnic group who make regular contributions to a fund that is given to each contributor in rotation. One author estimates that 40 percent of New York Chinatown firms established during 1900-1950 utilized such associations as their initial source of capital. However, recent immigrants and third or fourth generations of older groups now employ rotating credit associations only occasionally to raise investment funds. Some groups, like Black Americans, found other means of financial support for their entrepreneurial efforts. The first Blackoperated banks were created in the late nineteenth century as depositories for dues collected from fraternal or lodge groups, which themselves had spring from Black churches. Black banks made limited investments in American cities organized many building and loan associations to provide capital for home construction and purchase. They in turn, provide work for many Irish homebuilding contractor firms. Other ethnic and minority groups followed similar practices in founding ethnicdirected financial institutions.

  1. Which of the following illustrates the working of a selfhelp support network, as such networks are described in the passage?

  A. The local government in a small city sets up a program that helps teenagers find summer jobs.

  B. A major commercial bank offers low interest loans to experienced individuals who hope to establish their own business.

  C. A neighborhoodbased fraternal organization develops a program of onthejob training for its members and their friends.

  D. A community college offers country residents training programs that can lead to certification in a variety of technical trades.

  2. Which of the following is true about rotating credit associations?

  A. They were developed exclusively by Chinese immigrants.

  B. They accounted for a significant portion of the investment capital used by Chinese immigrants in New York in the early twentieth century.

  C. Thirdgeneration members of an immigrant group who started businesses in the 1920s would have been unlikely to rely on them.

  D. Recent immigrants still frequently turn to rotating credit associations instead of banks for investment capital.

  3. What is the organization of the second paragraph?

  A. An argument is delineated, followed by a counterargument.

  B. An assertion is made and several examples are provided to illustrate it.

  C. A situation is described and its historical background is then outlined.

  D. An example of a phenomenon is given and is then used as a basis for general conclusions.

  4. According to the passage, in what way do selfnetworks contribute to the development of minorityowned business?

  A. To supply information regarding possible expansion of the business into nearby communications.

  B. To encourage a business climate that is nearly free of direct competition.

  C. To create opportunities for the business owner to reinvest profits in other minorityowned business.

  D. To help contact with people who are likely to be customers of the new business.

  5. Which of the following is true about the Irish building and loan associations mentioned in the last paragraph?

  A. They were started by third or fourth generation immigrants.

  B. They originated as offshoots of churchrelated groups.

  C. They frequently helped Irish entrepreneurs to finance business not connected with construction.

  D. They contributed to the employment of many Irish construction workers.

  Passage 2

  The number of women directors appointed to corporate boards in the United States has increased dramatically, but the ratio for female to male directors remains low. Although pressure to recruit women directors, unlike that to employ women in the general work force, does not derive from legislation, it is nevertheless real. Although small companies were the first to have women directors, large corporations currently have a higher percentage of women on their boards. When the chairs of these large corporations began recruiting women to serve on boards, they initially sought women who were chief executive officers of large corporations. However, such women CEOs are still rare. In addition, the ideal of six CEOs (female or male) serving on the board of each of the largest corporations is realizable only if every CEO serves on six boards. This raises the specter of director over commitment and the resultant dilution of contribution. Consequently, the chairs next sought women in business that had the equivalent of CEO experience. However, since it is only recently that large numbers of women have begun to rise in management, the chairs began to recruit women of high achievement outside the business world. Many such women are well known for their contributions in government, education, and the nonprofit sector. The fact that the women from these sectors who were appointed were often acquaintances of the boards chairs seems quite reasonable: chairs have always considered it important for directions to interact comfortably in the boardroom.

  Although many successful women from outside the business world are unknown to corporate leaders, these women are particularly qualified to serve on boards because of the changing nature of corporations. Today a companys ability to be responsive to the concerns of the community and the environment can influence that companys growth and survival. Women are uniquely positioned to be responsive to some of these concerns. Although conditions have changed, it should be remembered that most directors of both sexes are over fifty years old. Women of that generation were often encouraged to direct their attention toward efforts to improve the community. This fact is reflected in the career development of most of the outstandingly successful women of the generation now in their fifties, who currently serve on corporate boards; 25 percent are in education and 22 percent are in government, law, and the nonprofit sector.

  One organization of women directors is helping business become more responsive to the changing needs of society by raising the level of corporate awareness about social issues, such as problems with the economy, government regulation, the aging population, and the environment. This organization also serves as a resource center of information on accomplished women who are potential candidates for corporate boards.

  1. According to the passage, in which of the following ways does the pressure to appoint women to corporate boards differ from the pressure to employ women in the work force?

  A. Corporate boards are under less pressure because they have such a small number of openings.

  B. Corporate boards have received less pressure from stockholders, consumers, and workers within companies to include women on their boards.

  C. Corporate boards have received less pressure from the media and the public to include women on their boards.

  D. Corporations are subject to statutory penalty for failing to include women on their boards.

  2. Which of the following would be the advice given by the organization described in the last paragraph to corporations?

  A. Longterm inflationB. How to develop new markets.

  C. Health and safety regulationsD. Retirement and pension programs.

  3. When seeking to appoint new members to a corporations board, the chair traditionally looked for candidates who

  A. could work easily with other members of the board.

  B. were already involved in establishing policy for that corporation.

  C. had legal and governmental experience.

  D. had influential connections outside the business world.

  4. Which of the following is true about women outside the business world who are currently serving on corporate boards according to the passage?

  A. A large percentage will eventually work on the staff of corporations.

  B. A larger percentage are from government and law than are from the nonprofit sector.

  C. Most were already known to the chairs of the board to which they were appointed.

  D. Most are less than fifty years old.

  5. Whats the difference between the corporation of the past and modern corporations?

  A. Corporations of the past were less responsive to the financial needs of their employees.

  B. It is not crucial for a corporation of the past to keep up with changing markets.

  C. In the past, whether a corporation could satisfy the needs of society effectively would have less influence on its growth.

  D. The government has less power on regulating the modern corporation.

  Passage 3

  Before this century, medicine consisted mainly of amputation saws, morphine and crude remedies that were about as effective as bloodletting. The flu epidemic of 1918 killed as many people in just a few months as perished in four years of World War I. Since then, antibiotics and vaccines have allowed us to vanquish entire classes of diseases. As a result, life expectancy in the U.S. jumped from about 47 years at the beginning of the century to 76 now. But 20th century medicine did little to increase the natural life span of healthy humans. The next medical revolution will change that, because genetic engineering has the potential to conquer cancer, and perhaps even rest the primeval genetic coding that causes cells to age.

  Our children may be able (I hope, I fear) to choose their kids traits: to select their gender and eye color; perhaps to tinker with their IQs, personalities and athletic abilities. They could clone themselves, or their kids, or a celebrity they admire, or maybe even us after weve died.

  In the 5 million years since we hominids separated from apes, our DNA has evolved less than 2%. But in the next century well be able to alter our DNA radically, encoding our visions and vanities while concocting new life forms. When Dr. Frankenstein made his monster, he wrestled with the moral issue of whether he should allow it to reproduce: “Had I the right, for my own benefit, to inflict the curse upon everlasting generations?” Will such question require us to develop new moral philosophies? Probably not. Instead, well reach again for a timetested moral notion which Immanuel Kant, the millenniums most meticulous moralist gussied up into a categorical imperative: Do onto other as you would have them do onto you.

  Under this moral precept we should recoil at human cloning, because it inevitable entails using humans as means to other humans endsvaluing them as copies of others we loved or as collections of body parts, not as individuals in their own right. We should also draw a line, however fuzzy, that would permit using genetic engineering to cure diseases and disabilities, but not to change the personal attributes that make someone an individual.

  The biotech age will also give us more reason to guard our personal privacy. Aldous Huxley, in Brave New World, got it wrong: rather than centralizing power in the hands of the state, DNA technology has empowered individuals and families. But the state will have an important role, making sure that no one, including insurance companies, can look at our genetic data without our permission or use it to discriminate against us. Then we can get ready for the breakthrough that could come at the end of the next century with which we might someday be able to create artificial intelligences.

  1. From the first two paragraphs, we can conclude that

  A. before 20th century, medical remedies were ineffective and cruel.

  B. antibiotics and vaccines were not invented until the beginning of the World War Ⅰ。

  C. it was the invention of antibiotics and vaccines that made the average age of Americans increase sharply.

  D. in 20th century, genetic engineering contributed little to increase the life span of healthy people.

  2. Which of the following statements best reflect the authors attitude towards clone?

  A. He is expecting that clone can be used to perfect human being.

  B. He does not advocate applying clone to human being.

  C. He remains neutral, neither for, nor against.

  D. We cannot infer the authors attitude from this passage.

  3. The sentence “We should also draw a line, however fuzzy……” means

  A. there should be a line to distinguish medicine and morality.

  B. we should make law to prevent the scientists from using clone to alter human nature.

  C. we should make a boundary in order to use the genetic engineering properly.

  D. we should clarity certain medical problems by drawing lines.

  4. The word “hominid” (in paragraph 3, line one) means

  A. a collection of animal and its ancestors.

  B. a collection of man and animals.

  C. all of the creatures.

  D. a family of man and its ancestors.

  5. Why does the author think that Aldous Huxleys view in Brave New World is wrong?

  A. The author believes that Aldous Huxley should not ignore the significant role of the state.

  B. The author supposes that DNA technology has nothing to do with the individual rights.

  C. The author regards the power of the state as highest and unshakable.

  D. The author intends to prove that politics is relevant to the science.

  Passage 4

  Mankinds fascination with gold is as old as civilization itself. The ancient Egyptians esteemed gold, which had religious significance to them, and King Tutankhamen was buried in a solid gold coffin 3,300 years ago.

  Not only is gold beautiful, but it is virtually indestructible. It will not rust or corrode; gold coins and products fabricated from the metal have survived undamaged for centuries. Gold is extremely easy to work with and it conducts electricity better than any other metal except copper and silver, and it is particular important in the modern electronics industry.

  People have always longed to possess gold. Unfortunately this longing has also brought out the worst in the human character. The Spanish conquistadors robbed palaces, graves and killed thousands of Indians in their ruthless search for gold. Even today, the economic running of South Africas gold mines depends largely on the employment of black laborers who are paid about $40 a month, but who must work in conditions that can not only be described as cruel.

  Much of golds value lies in its scarcity. Only about 80,000 tons have mined in the history of the world. All of it could be stored in a vault 60 feet square, or a supertanker.

  Great Britain was the first country to adopt the gold standard, when the Master of the Mint, sir Isaac Newton, established a fixed price for gold in 1717. But until the big discover of gold in the last half of the 19th century — starting in California in 1848 and later in Australia and South Africa — there simply wasnt enough gold around for all the trading nations to link their currencies to the precious metal.

  An outofwork prospector named George Harrison launched South Africa into the gold age in 1886 when he discovered the metal on a farm near what is now Johannesburg. The farmer gave Harrison a $12 reward. He then disappeared and reportedly was eaten by a lion.

  One of the big goldmining areas in Russia is the Kolyma River region, once infamous for its prison camp. The camp has gone, but in a way nothing has changed. Many exprisoners have stayed on to work the mines and are supervised by exguards.

  Despite the current rush to buy gold, 75% of the metal goes into jewelry. Italy is the biggest user of gold for this purpose and many Italian jewelers even tear up their wooden floor and burn them to recover the tiny flecks of gold.

  Historically, the desire to hoard gold at home has been primarily an occupation of the working and peasant classes, who have no faith in paper money. George Bernard Shaw defended their instincts eloquently: “You have to choose between trusting to the natural stability of gold and natural stability of the honesty and intelligence of the members of the government. I advise you……to vote gold.”

  1. According to the passage, which of the following statements is TRUE.

  A. Ancient Greeks valued gold as a significant religious symbol as well as Egyptians.

  B. Gold is fragile but it allows electric current pass through it easily.

  C. Gold was worthless until 1717 when sir Isaac Newton established a fixed price for it.

  D. The purpose of the Spanish conquistadors cruel slaughter of innocent Indians was to search for gold.

  2. What does this passage mainly discuss?

  A. The brief history of gold and humans boundless desire for gold.

  B. The brief process of humans evolution.

  C. The significant function of gold.

  D. Peoples attitude towards gold.

  3. The word “scarcity” (in paragraph 4,line 1) can be replaced by “”。

  A. preciousnessB. insufficiencyC. indestructibilityD. flexibility

  4. Generally speaking, what is the tone of the passage?

  A. CriticalB. IronicC. ObjectiveD. Subjective

  5. The quotation of George Bernard Shaw means that

  A. the members of the government are not honest and intelligent enough to govern the people.

  B. he would trust the value of the stable gold rather than the prestige of the government.

  C. youd better store gold as much as possible since the government is not trustful.

  D. gold is surely the most trustful, stable and precious thing.

  Keys and notes for the passage reading:

  Passage 1

  少数民族企业是以群体为基础的企业,因为他们很大程度上靠社会群体资源支持其发展。互联网在少数民族的启动和维持方面通过向企业主提供一系列帮助,其主要功能就是财政支持。“互贷组织” 常用来筹集资金,但最近的移民只是偶尔用这种方式了。

  Additional loans and gifts from relatives forthcoming because of group obligation rather than narrow investment calculation, have supplemented personal savings. 另外,亲戚之间的贷款也是很常见,并且补充了个人积蓄的不足。这主要是基于一种团体之间的义务感,而不是严格的投资计算。

  1. 「C」 文章第一段说,互联网的帮助包括从非正式的家庭成员、朋友间的帮助,到同一民族内部提供可以信赖的劳动力和客户资源。符合第一段叙述的只有C项,其意思是“邻里基础上的互助协会举办职业培训”。

  2. 「B」 A项“exclusively”与原文不符。由第三段第三句可知B项正确。C项时间和D项“frequently”与原文不符。

  3. 「B」 A项不对,应无counterargument. B项正确,第一句话是结论,后面的都是说明。C项不对,文中应无“historical background”。

  4. 「D」 D项的意思是:帮助联系有可能成为潜在客户的人。与第一段第二句意思相符,是正确的。A,B,C项文中都没有提到。

  5. 「D」 A项说由第三、四代移民启动,文中无。B项说从教会下属机构发源,这是文中所提黑人组织的内容。C 项说还经常帮助爱尔兰企业投资和建筑无关部门,与原文意思不符。D项正确,帮助许多爱尔兰建筑工人取得工作,和最后一段倒数第二句相符。

  Passage 2

  本文从在美国被任命到公司董事会中的妇女董事急剧增多这一现象出发,详细叙述大公司如何开始征用妇女为董事会效力以及征用条件。并介绍了商界妇女的现状,然后总结了妇女董事会组织的作用以及其方式。

  In addition, the ideal of six CEOs (female or male) serving on the board of each of the largest corporations is realizable only if every CEO serves on six boards. 真想让每个公司的董事会中有六个 CEO(不论男女),只有让每人服务于六个董事会才能实现。

  1. 「D」 从第一段第二句可知D正确。如果没雇佣妇女董事,不会受到法律制裁。A, B, C 项不是原文意思。

  2. 「B」 最后一段说到妇女董事组织向公司提的建议,包括经济问题,政府调节,老龄人口,环境问题这些相关方面。A项:长期通货膨胀;B项如何开拓新市场;C项健康,安全措施;D项退休,退休金体制。这几项中只有B未涉及。

  3. 「A」 第一段最后一句话说道,被任命进来的妇女常常是董事长熟悉的人,这看起来相当合情理,董事长总是认为在董事会里愉快舒畅的合作对董事们来说很重要。由此可知,A项为正确答案。

  4. 「C」 C项意思是:大部分已经被她们工作的董事会所熟知。这与第一段末尾意思相符合,是正确答案。A项原文中未提到。B,D项与原文意思不符。

  5. 「C」 文中第二段说道, “Today a companys ability to be responsive to the concerns of the community and the environment can influence that companys growth and survival.” 现在公司对社区和环境的反应能力能影响其生存和发展。因此,C项正确。A,B,D项原文未提到。

  Passage 3

  文章回顾上个世纪的医学概况并展望了本世纪医学发展前景,提出生物工程技术可能带来的利与弊以及作者的态度。

  Do onto others as they would do onto you: 这句话和中国的谚语“己所不欲,勿施于人”同义。

  1. 「C」A指出20世纪以前的医疗技术残忍而无效,是错误的; B,抗生素和疫苗应该是在一战后被发明的; D, 文中所指的贡献小的技术不是genetic engineering;C,抗生素和疫苗的出现极大地增长了美国人均寿命,是正确的。

  2. 「B」从文章第四段第一句可以看出作者不赞成克隆人这一行为。“advocate”是“支持,拥护”的意思。

  3. 「C」“draw a line” 是划清界限的意思,从文章第四段第二句可以看出,作者主张利用基因工程技术来治疗人类的疾病,反对利用这种技术来改变人作为一个独立个体的特征,在这两者之间划清界限。

  4. 「D」“hominid”是人科动物的意思,即人类。 A是指动物及其后代; B是人类和动物的集合; C是指所有的生物,包括人类、动物、植物等。

  5. 「A」从文章第五段可以看出作者认为阿道斯的话忽略了州政府在运用生物工程科学中的重要作用。

  Passage 4

  文章简要介绍了黄金从存在到被人类发现的历史,以及人类不择手段占有寻求黄金的过程。

  You have to choose between trusting to the natural stability of gold and ……这句话意思是“如果要你选择信赖黄金还是政府,你最好选择恒久不变的黄金。”

  1. 「D」答案A,文中没有提到古希腊人也把黄金作为一种重要宗教的信仰标志; B,文中指出黄金的一个重要特性是坚不可摧而不是 “fragile”;C,黄金作为一种贵重金属在没有规定黄金本位制之前也是有价值的,而“worthless”是一文不值的意思; D,从文章第三段第三句可以看出西班牙征服者为了抢夺黄金大量屠杀印第安人。

  2. 「A」文章简要的介绍了黄金的发展史以及人类对黄金无止境的欲望,所以A对;B是人类的进化史;D,人们对黄金的态度,不是文章讨论的中心;C,黄金的重要作用只在第二段简要地介绍了一下。

  3. 「B」“scarcity”是“不足,缺乏”的意思;A, “preciousness”是“珍贵,贵重”的意思; C, “indestructibility”是“坚不可摧”的意思; D, “flexibility”是“柔韧”的意思; B, “insufficiency”是“不足,缺乏”的意思。

  4. 「C」纵观全文,作者是以一种客观的态度来介绍黄金的历史。 A, “critical”是批判的意思;B, “ironic”是讽刺的意思; D, “subjective”是主观的意思; C, “objective”是客观的意思。

  5. 「B」萧伯纳的话暗示了政府是不可信赖的。 A 错在政府不是没有足够的能力统治民众,而是其本身具有不稳定性; B表明了他对政府不信任的态度; C认为人们应该大量储备黄金, 是错误的; D认为黄金是最稳定最珍贵最值得信赖的东西,显然是错误的。

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