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70天攻克考研英语阅读 DAY1

2006-7-28 01:03  

  2004年全国硕士研究生入学考试英语试题(阅读部分)

  Section IIIReading Comprehension

  Part ADirections: Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your mowers on ANSWER SNEET 1. (40 points)

  Text 1 Hunting for a job late last year, lawyer Gant Redmon stumbled across Career Builder, a job database on the Internet. He searched it with no success but was attracted by the sites "personal search agent". Its an interactive feature that lets visitors key in job criteria such as location, title, and salary, then Emails them when a matching position is posted in the database. Redmon chose the keywords legal, intellectual property, and Washington, D.C. Three weeks later, he got his first notification of an opening. "I struck gold," says Redmon, who Emailed his resume to the employer and won a position as inhouse counsel for a company.

  With thousands of careerrelated sites on the Internet, finding promising openings can be timeconsuming and inefficient. Search agents reduce the need for repeated visits to the databases. But although a search agent worked for Redmon, career experts see drawbacks. Narrowing your criteria, for example, may work against you: "Every time you answer a question you eliminate a possibility." says one expert.

  For any job search, you should start with a narrow concept  -  what you think you want to do  -  then broaden it. "None of these programs do that," says another expert. "Theres no career counseling implicit in all of this." Instead, the best strategy is to use the agent as a kind of tip service to keep abreast of jobs in a particular database; when you get Email, consider it a reminder to check the database again. "I would not rely on agents for finding everything that is added to a database that might interest me," says the author of a jobsearching guide.

  Some sites design their agents to tempt job hunters to return. When Career Sites agent sends out messages to those who have signed up for its service, for example, it includes only three potential jobs  -  those it considers the best matches. There may be more matches in the database; job hunters will have to visit the site again to find them  -  and they do. "On the day after we send our messages, we see a sharp increase in our traffic," says Seth Peets, vice president of marketing for Career Site.

  Even those who arent hunting for jobs may find search agents worthwhile. Some use them to keep a close watch on the demand for their line of work or gather information on compensation to arm themselves when negotiating for a raise. Although happily employed, Redmon maintains his agent at Career Builder. "You always keep your eyes open," he says. Working with a personal search agent means having another set of eyes looking out for you.

  41. How did Redmon find his job?

  A. By searching openings in a job database.

  B. By posting a matching position in a database.

  C. By using a special service of a database.

  D. By Emailing his resume to a database.

  42. Which of the following can be a disadvantage of search agents?

  A. Lack of counseling. B. Limited number of visits.

  C. Lower efficiency. D. Fewer successful matches.

  43. The expression "tip service" (Lines 3-4, Paragraph 3) most probably means

  A. advisory. B. compensation.

  C. interaction. D. reminder.

  44. Why does Career Sites agent offer each job hunter only three job options?

  A. To focus on better job matches.

  B. To attract more returning visits.

  C. To reserve space for more messages.

  D. To increase the rate of success.

  45. Which of the following is true according to the text?

  A. Personal search agents are indispensable to jobhunters.

  B. Some sites keep Emailing job seekers to trace their demands.

  C. Personal search agents are also helpful to those already employed.

  D. Some agents stop sending information to people once they are employed.

  Text 2

  Over the past century, all kinds of unfairness and discrimination have been condemned or made illegal. But one insidious form continues to thrive: alphabetism. This, for those as yet unaware of such a disadvantage, refers to discrimination against those whose surnames begin with a letter in the lower half of the alphabet.

  It has long been known that a taxi firm called AAAA cars has a big advantage over Zodiac cars when customers thumb through their phone directories. Less well known is the advantage that Adam Abbott has in life over Zo Zysman. English names are fairly evenly spread between the halves of the alphabet. Yet a suspiciously large number of top people have surnames beginning with letters between A and K.

  Thus the American president and vicepresident have surnames starting with B and C respectively; and 26 of George Bushs predecessors (including his father) had surnames in the first half of the alphabet against just 16 in the second half. Even more striking, six of the seven heads of government of the G7 rich countries are alphabetically advantaged (Berlusconi, Blair, Bush, Chirac, Chrétien and Koizumi)。 The worlds three top central bankers (Greenspan, Duisenberg and Hayami) are all close to the top of the alphabet, even if one of them really uses Japanese characters. As are the worlds five richest men (Gates, Buffett, Allen, Ellison and Albrecht)。

  Can this merely be coincidence? One theory, dreamt up in all the spare time enjoyed by the alphabetically disadvantaged, is that the rot sets in early. At the start of the first year in infant school, teachers seat pupils alphabetically from the front, to make it easier to remember their names. So shortsighted Zysman junior gets stuck in the back row, and is rarely asked the improving questions posed by those insensitive teachers. At the time the alphabetically disadvantaged may think they have had a lucky escape. Yet the result may be worse qualifications, because they get less individual attention, as well as less confidence in speaking publicly.

  The humiliation continues. At university graduation ceremonies, the ABCs proudly get their awards first; by the time they reach the Zysmans most people are literally having a ZZZ. Shortlists for job interviews, election ballot papers, lists of conference speakers and attendees: all tend to be drawn up alphabetically, and their recipients lose interest as they plough through them.

  46. What does the author intend to illustrate with AAAA cars and Zodiac cars?

  A. A kind of overlooked inequality. B. A type of conspicuous bias.

  C. A type of personal prejudice. D. A kind of brand discrimination.

  47. What can we infer from the first three paragraphs?

  A. In both East and West, names are essential to success.

  B. The alphabet is to blame for the failure of Zo Zysman.

  C. Customers often pay a lot of attention to companies names.

  D. Some form of discrimination is too subtle to recognize.

  48. The 4th paragraph suggests that

  A. questions are often put to the more intelligent students.

  B. alphabetically disadvantaged students often escape form class.

  C. teachers should pay attention to all of their students.

  D. students should be seated according to their eyesight.

  49. What does the author mean by "most people are literally having a ZZZ" (Line 2, Paragraph 5)?

  A. They are getting impatient. B. They are noisily dozing off.

  C. They are feeling humiliated. D. They are busy with word puzzles.

  50. Which of the following is true according to the text?

  A. People with surnames beginning with N to Z are often illtreated.

  B. VIPs in the Western world gain a great deal from alphabetism.

  C. The campaign to eliminate alphabetism still has a long way to go.

  D. Putting things alphabetically may lead to unintentional bias.

  Text 3

  When it comes to the slowing economy, Ellen Spero isnt biting her nails just yet. But the 47yearold manicurist isnt cutting, filling or polishing as many nails as shed like to, either. Most of her clients spend $12 to $50 weekly, but last month two longtime customers suddenly stopped showing up. Spero blames the softening economy. "Im a good economic indicator," she says. "I provide a service that people can do without when theyre concerned about saving some dollars." So Spero is downscaling, shopping at middlebrow Dillards department store near her suburban Cleveland home, instead of Neiman Marcus. "I dont know if other clients are going to abandon me, too" she says.

  Even before Alan Greenspans admission that Americas redhot economy is cooling, lots of working folks had already seen signs of the slowdown themselves. From car dealerships to Gap outlets, sales have been lagging for months as shoppers temper their spending. For retailers, who last year took in 24 percent of their revenue between Thanksgiving and Christmas, the cautious approach is coming at a crucial time. Already, experts say, holiday sales are off 7 percent from last years pace. But dont sound any alarms just yet. Consumers seem only concerned, not panicked, and many say they remain optimistic about the economys longterm prospects, even as they do some modest belttightening.

  Consumers say theyre not in despair because, despite the dreadful headlines, their own fortunes still feel pretty good. Home prices are holding steady in most regions. In Manhattan, "theres a new gold rush happening in the $4 million to $10 million range, predominantly fed by Wall Street bonuses," says broker Barbara Corcoran. In San Francisco, prices are still rising even as frenzied overbidding quiets. "Instead of 20 to 30 offers, now maybe you only get two or three," says john Deadly, a Bay Area realestate broker. And most folks still feel pretty comfortable about their ability to find and keep a job.

  Many folks see silver linings to this slowdown. Potential home buyers would cheer for lower interest rates. Employers wouldnt mind a little fewer bubbles in the job market. Many consumers seem to have been influenced by stockmarket swings, which investors now view as a necessary ingredient to a sustained boom. Diners might see an upside, too. Getting a table at Manhattans hot new Alain Ducasse restaurant need to be impossible. Not anymore. For that, Greenspan & Co. may still be worth toasting.

  51. By "Ellen Spero isnt biting her nails just yet"(Line 1, Paragraph 1), the author means

  A. Spero can hardly maintain her business.B. Spero is too much engaged in her work.

  C. Spero has grown out of her bad habit.D. Spero is not in a desperate situation.

  52. How do the public feel about the current economic situation?

  A. Optimistic.B. Confused.

  C. Carefree.D. Panicked.

  53. When mentioning "the $4 million to $10 million range" (Line 3, Paragraph 3) the author is talking about.

  A. gold market.B. real estate.

  C. stock exchange.D. venture investment.

  54. Why can many people see "silver linings" to the economic slowdown?

  A. They would benefit in certain ways.

  B. The stock market shows signs of recovery.

  C. Such a slowdown usually precedes a boom.

  D. The purchasing power would be enhanced.

  55. To which of the following is the author likely to agree?

  A. A now boom, on the horizon.B. Tighten the belt, the single remedy.

  C. Caution all right, panic not.D. The more ventures, the more chances.

  Text 4

  Americans today dont place a very high value on intellect. Our heroes are athletes, entertainers, and entrepreneurs, not scholars. Even our schools are where we send our children to get a practical education  -  not to pursue knowledge for the sake of knowledge. Symptoms of pervasive antiintellectualism in our schools arent difficult to find.

  "Schools have always been in a society where practical is more important than intellectual," says education writer Diane Ravitch. "Schools could be a counterbalance." Razitchs latest book, Left Back: A Century of Failed School Reforms, traces the roots of antiintellectualism in our schools, concluding they are anything but a counterbalance to the American distaste for intellectual pursuits.

  But they could and should be. Encouraging kids to reject the life of the mind leaves them vulnerable to exploitation and control. Without the ability to think critically, to defend their ideas and understand the ideas of others, they cannot fully participate in our democracy. Continuing along this path, says writer Earl Shorris, "We will become a secondrate country. We will have a less civil society."

  "Intellect is resented as a form of power or privilege," writes historian and professor Richard Hofstadter in AntiIntellectualism in American life, a Pulitzer Prize winning book on the roots of antiintellectualism in US politics, religion, and education. From the beginning of our history, says Hofstadter, our democratic and populist urges have driven us to reject anything that smells of elitism. Practicality, common sense, and native intelligence have been considered more noble qualities than anything you could learn from a book.

  Ralph Waldo Emerson and other Transcendentalist philosophers thought schooling and rigorous book learning put unnatural restraints on children:"We are shut up in schools and college recitation rooms for 10 or 15 years and come out at last with a bellyful of words and do not know a thing." Mark Twains Huckleberry Finn exemplified American antiintellectualism. Its hero avoids being civilized  -  going to school and learning to read  -  so he can preserve his innate goodness.

  Intellect, according to Hofstadter, is different from native intelligence, a quality we reluctantly admire. Intellect is the critical, creative, and contemplative side of the mind. Intelligence seeks to grasp, manipulate, reorder, and adjust, while intellect examines, ponders, wonders, theorizes, criticizes and imagines.

  School remains a place where intellect is mistrusted. Hofstadter says our countrys educational system is in the grips of people who "joyfully and militantly proclaim their hostility to intellect and their eagerness to identify with children who show the least intellectual promise."

  56. What do American parents expect their children to acquire in school?

  A. The habit of thinking independently.B. Profound knowledge of the world.

  C. Practical abilities for future career.D. The confidence in intellectual pursuits.

  57. We can learn from the text that Americans have a history of

  A. undervaluing intellect.B. favoring intellectualism.

  C. supporting school reform.D. suppressing native intelligence.

  58. The views of Ravish and Emerson on schooling are

  A. identical.B. similar.

  C. complementary.D. opposite.

  59. Emerson, according to the text, is probably

  A. a pioneer of education reform.B. an opponent of intellectualism.

  C. a scholar in favor of intellect.D. an advocate of regular schooling.

  60. What does the author think of intellect?

  A. It is second to intelligence.B. It evolves from common sense.

  C. It is to be pursued.D. It underlies power.

  41. 「C」问题是:Redmon是怎样找到工作的?

  文章第一段便指出Redmon是在一个名叫Career Builder的网上工作数据库中试图寻找合适他的工作。第二段又提到就在他要放弃时他被一家中介所吸引。第一段后几句又接着说这是一颇有互动色彩的寻工网点。Redmon提供所需的个人资料后,果然得到了称心的工作。段中所提到的"personal search agent" 很显然是这个数据库提供的一项服务,即C项内容。

  42. 「A」问题是:以下哪一项是搜索中介的弊端?

  文章第二段最后一句作者引用专家关于搜索中介讲到, "当你每回答一个问题时,这也意味着一个可能会被排除。"言外之义便是搜索中介的弊端在于它缺乏询问辅助性,这也正是A项内容。

  43. 「D」问题是:"tip service" (第三段第三四行) 的意思可能是

  文章第三段前几句作者引用另外专家的话讲到,"所有的这些项目都不具询问辅助性。"(专家的话轻易地排除了A,B,C项内容)随后作者说道:最好的策略是把这些工作搜索中介当作 "tip service" 来掌握数据库中关于工作信息的最新动态。只有D项内容符合上下文。"reminder" 的意思是 "起提醒某事作用的东西".

  44. 「B」问题是:为什么 Career Site每次只给寻找工作的人三个工作选择?

  文章第四段第一句作者便给出答案。"一些网点特意设计他们的中介以便吸引寻找工作的人再次登录他们的网点。"即B项内容。

  45. 「C」问题是:根据文章内容,以下哪项是正确的?

  文章第二段作者引用了一位专家关于中介弊端的一句话,由此可见 A项内容不是文中提到的。B 项和D项内容文章从未提到。惟有C项内容作者在最后一段有暗示。在最后一段里讲到Redman虽然很满意这份工作,但他还是和那中介保持联系。可见中介对于那些已经找到工作的人还是有用的。

  去年下半年在寻职时,一位名叫Grant  Redmon的律师步入了Career Builder —— 一个网上工作数据库。几经寻找都毫无结果,但他却被一个名叫"personal search agent"所吸引。这个网站颇带互动色彩,它允许访问者键入工作要求,比如地点、职位,及工薪要求,如在数据库中有合适的工作,此站将向访问者发送电子邮件。Redmon选择了像"法律"、"知识产权"和"华盛顿特区"这样的关键词。三星期后,他收到了他面试的第一份通知。"我挖到金矿了!" Redmon说道。他随即将他的个人简历寄给雇主,而且得到了为一家公司做inhouse顾问的这样一个职位。

  在网上有着数以千计的和工作有关的站点,要找到有保证的良机有时既花时间也无效率。搜索网站便降低了在数据库的重复访问。但即使像这样一个对Redmon 有用的搜索网站,专家还是看到了它的弊处。比如说,缩小你的要求,可能会对你带来不利。一位专家讲到:"每当你回答一个问题,那将意味着你也排除了一个可能性。"

  寻找任何工作,你应当以小的概念开始——你认为你想做的——然后再对此扩展。"没有一个程序做到了这一点,"另外一位专家提到,"也没有一家求职询问对此给予暗示。"事实上,最好的办法是把这类站点当作一种信息服务来随时掌握数据库所提供的工作信息。当你收到邮件时,把它当作提醒你再查数据库的东西。"我可不愿依赖这些网点来寻找那些新加到数据库使我感兴趣的东西,"一位寻找工作指南的作者说到。

  一些网站则特意设计他们的中介以便吸引寻找工作的人再次登录他们的站点。例如,当Career Site向那些登录用户发送信息时,它只发送三个潜在的工作——那些它认为是最好的选择。在数据库中可能有更多的选择;寻找工作的人也不得不重新访问这些网点——而且他们也是确实这样做的。"在我们发出信息的第二天,我们也注意到了访问有明显的增加。"Career Site市场部附理,Seth Peets说道。

  即使对于那些不找工作的人搜索中介同样有用。部分人用它来关注他们同行业的需求,或用它来搜索有关补偿金的信息以便用来在加薪谈判中保护自己。虽然工作得很开心,Redmon仍保持着与Career Builder的联系。"你应当睁大眼,时常留心。"他说。当然与个人搜索中介同步也就意味着有一双眼为你留心。

  46. 「A」问题是:作者借用AAAA cars和Zodiac cars想要阐明什么?

  在第一段作者引出了"字母歧视"这个概念后,接着便举出AAAA cars和Zodiac cars的例子用来阐明到底什么是"字母歧视".记住,作者认为这个所谓的"字母歧视"实属不平等和歧视的一种 (all kinds of unfairness and discrimination)。即,A项内容。

  47. 「D」问题是:从前三段我们可以推断出什么?

  文章第一段作者引出了"字母歧视"这个概念。第二段和第三段全部是作者从不同的角度和方面对这种歧视做进一步的阐明。选项 B和C的内容在这三段中作者是直接给出的。A项内容文章既没提及也与文章主题毫无关联。D项意为:一些歧视如此微妙以至无法察觉。这正是这三段暗示而没有直接提出的。选D.

  48. 「C」问题是:文中第四段告诉我们什么?

  文章的第四段作者提出了对"字母歧视"这一现象理论上的解释。即,学校的老师们倾向于按学生姓名的开头字母顺序来排列学生座位的前后。这一做法的结果是一些名字出现在字母表后半部的学生没有得到足够和应有的在学习上的关注。在这里作者实际上告诉读者老师应该注意他所有的学生,而不是名字靠前的一部分。即, C项内容。

  49. 「B」问题是:作者写到 "most people are literally having a ZZZ" (第五段2行)是什么意思?

  文章第五段仍是对"字母歧视"进一步的阐明。在这里,学生们都大学毕业了。但这种歧视仍然存在。 ABC们自豪地上台领取他们的毕业书,轮到Zysmans 时(指受"字母歧视"的学生),大家都真的开始有ZZZ了。在这里作者运用了一点小幽默。"ZZZ" 是人们打瞌睡时发出声音的符号。即,B项内容。

  50. 「D」问题是:根据文章内容,以下哪一项是正确的?

  A项的内容是:姓名以N到Z开头的人经常受到虐待。作者虽然谈到了"字母歧视"可以给某些人带来不利,但文章没有一处提到姓名以N到Z开头的人经常受到虐待。B项内容文中也不曾提到。作者谈过"字母歧视"问题后并未号召大家更改自己的姓名,而是呼吁老师们在早期教育不要忽视受"字母歧视"的学生。因为无心的忽视很有可能会导致无心的 "歧视".即,D项内容。

  在过去的几世纪里,所有的不平等和歧视都会受到谴责或视为触犯法律。但有一种暗中为害的形式仍然繁荣:字母顺序化。这个,对于那些还没有意识到它危险的人,就是所提到的对于那些名字的开头一个字母出现在字母表的后半部分的人的歧视。

  众所周知,当顾客翻开他们的电话簿时,一个名叫AAAA的出租车公司会比一个名为Zodiac的公司更具优势。但是,更少的人才会注意到一个叫Adam Abbott(男人名)的人在生活中要比一个叫Zo(女人名)的人更为优势。英文名平均分布在字母表的两半。但有相当一部分大人物,他们的名字开头一个字母都在A到K之间。

  因此美国总统和副总统的名字各以B和C开头;而且26位乔治·布什的前辈(包括他的父亲),他们名字的开头字母都出现在字母表前半部,但只有16位总统的名字在后一半可以找到。更惊人的是,七位G7政府首脑中的六位要员在这点上名字都占有优势(Berlusconi , Blair,Bush,Chirac,Chrtien和Koizumi)。世界三位首席中央银行家的名字(Greenspan,Duisenberg和 Hayami),全出现在字母表前部,即使他们中的一位用的还是日本名。还有世界前五位首富也是如此(Gates,Buffett,Allen, Ellison和Albrecht)。

  这一切仅仅是巧合吗?一种理论在空闲时间做梦的字母劣势者们认为这样的劣势在早期就已形成了。在学前班第一年的开始,老师便按照字母表顺序从前到后给学生排座,以便记住学生姓名。这样一来戴近视的小Zysman在最后一排被卡住了,从此也极少被麻木不仁老师提问。在那时,字母劣势者可能觉得自己幸运的解脱了(老师的关注)。但结果可能是更差的学习质量,因为他们得到的注意会越来越少,在公众表现的自信也会越来越弱。

  这样的羞辱还在继续。在大学毕业典礼上,ABC们自豪地领取他们的毕业证书,当点到Zysmans时大多数人也开始有ZZZ了。面试人员名单,选举投票,国会发言者和参加者名单:这些都是按字母顺序排列,到人们深入查看时,他们早已丧失兴趣。

  51. 「D」问题是:"Ellen Spero isnt biting her nails just yet" (第一段第一行),作者是什么意思?

  文章第一段第一句作者说道,当经济疲软时,Ellen Spero还没有到啃自己指头的地步。我们从第二句得知Ellen Spero所从事的职业是帮人修指甲。"biting ones nails" 是一个双关语。除了"啃自己指头",它还有"身处绝境"的意思。在这里是指虽然经济疲软,但Ellen Spero还没有到绝望的地步。此题选D.

  52. 「A」问题是:公众如何看待现今的经济状况?

  文章第二段最后一句,作者讲到,消费者似乎只是关注而并无惊慌,而且许多人还说他们对现今经济状况的展望是乐观的。即,A项内容。

  53. 「B」问题是:当提到 "the $4 million to $10 million range"(第三段3行),作者在谈什么?

  文章的第三段主要讲的是公众乐观态度的具体表现。这主要体现在买卖住房上。作者提到,曼哈顿,在四百万到一千万这个价位的住房上出现了"淘金热".在这里作者谈到的是房地产买卖。即, B项内容。

  54. 「A」问题是:为什么还有许多人看到经济萧条发光的一面?

  文章最后一段的第一句是本段的中心句。作者指出,还有许多人看到经济萧条发光的一面。 以下几句全是萧条给老百姓所带来的好处。即,A项内容。

  55. 「C」问题是:以下哪一项作者可能同意?

  参阅第52题答案。

  当经济萧条时,Ellen Spero还不至于到咬自己指甲的地步。但这位47岁的修指工也没有足够多的指甲给她修、添、磨。她的大多数顾客每星期总会花上12到50美元,但上个月两位常客却没露面。Spero把这些怪罪于萧条的经济。"我是经济的晴雨表,"她说,"我所提供的服务是人们在考虑省钱时所不需要的。"所以Spero也缩减了工作比例,在靠她郊外家附近的一个百货商场逛街。Neiman Marcus却不像她,"我不知道其他的顾客会不会也同样离开我。"她说。

  即使在Alan Greenspan承认美国热火朝天的经济正在降温之前,许多人就看到了萧条的迹象。从汽车交易到Gapoutlets,因为购物者缓和花费的缘故,销售这几月来一直落后。对于零售商们,他们去年在感恩节和圣诞节之间就获得了24%的利润,他们也需在关键时刻有所措施。专家讲节假日的销售与去年相比已经降了7%,但还够不上拉警报。消费者似乎只是关心而不至于惊慌,而且许多还说他们对经济未来的长期展望持乐观态度,即使他们还是勒紧裤带。

  尽管报纸的头版头条是如此的可怕,消费者们说他们还不绝望,这是因为他们对自己的前景感觉不错。房屋价格在大多地区还很坚硬。曼哈顿,"在400万和 1000万的价位上有一股新的淘金热,主要来自于华尔街。"经纪人Barbara Corcoran讲道。在旧金山市,价格仍在上扬,即使有的出价已经过高。"现在你可能只有2到3次出价机会,而不是20到30次了。"一位Bay地区的房地产经纪人Joho Deadly说。而且仍有许多人对自己找到并保住工作的能力大有信心。

  许多人都看到了萧条闪光的一面。潜在的房屋购买者为低价而欢呼。雇主们也不在意市场上的几个气泡。许多消费者也似乎被股市的波动所影响,这也被投资者们视为迅速增长的重要因素。就连吃饭的也可受益。要在地处曼哈顿生意兴隆的Alan Ducasse 餐厅订到位子已经不是不可能的事了。光凭那个,Greenspan 还是值得庆祝的。

  56. 「C」问题是:美国的父母亲期望他们的孩子在学校中获得什么?

  文章第一段第一、二句作者提到,如今的美国人倒不是很重视才智的培养。我们崇拜的是运动员、演员和企业家们,而不是学者。本题答案在第三句:即使我们的学校也是如此,我们将我们的孩子送去学校不是为了知识本身去求知,而是为了获得有实用性的教育。这与选项C是同一个意思。选C.

  57. 「A」问题是:我们可以从文中得知美国有一个的历史。

  文章的第二段,作者引用教育作家Diane Ravitch书中的一句话后,简短地对那本书的主题进行了一番扼要的描述。即,此书主要是对美国人的反才智主义的追溯。第四段中,作者又提及另外一本关于类似题材的书,书中说到美国人的反才智主义其实是个历史遗留问题。准确来说第四段主要讲述的就是这个主题,即不重视才智——C项内容。

  58. 「D」问题是:Ravitch和 Emerson对学校所持的观点是。

  文章第二段Ravitch在他所著书中提到, "面临这个问题时(反才智主义)学校应当起一个平衡的作用。"这表明Ravitch对于美国人反才智主义是不给予支持的。而超越主义哲学家Emerson 却认为学习和教育会给孩子们加上不自然的枷锁。这表明Emerson在这一点上与Ravitch所持观点恰恰相反。即,D项内容。

  59. 「B」问题是:根据文章内容,Emerson有可能是

  参阅第58题答案。

  60. 「C」问题是:对于才智作者是怎样认为的?

  文章倒数第二段,作者直截了当地列出了自己对于才智的看法(详见下面译文)。C项内容符合作者本意。

  当今的美国人不够重视才智。我们的英雄全是运动员、演员和企业家,而不是学者。就连我们的学校都成了我们送孩子接受应用教育的地方——不是为知识而去求知。大面积反才智主义的症状并非难以找到。

  "学校总是处于一个实用比才智更重要的社会里,"教育作家Diane Ravitch 说,"其实面临这个问题时学校可以起一个平衡的作用。"《左后卫:一个学校改革失败的世纪》,Ravitch 最新的一本书,追溯了在我们学校中反才智主义的根源,结论是这些改革都没有把学校当作美国人对知识才智厌恶的平衡力。

  但他们可以并且应当这样。鼓励孩子们厌弃理性的生活只会使他们暴露于剥削和控制的伤害。没有严密的思维能力来维护,懂得自己和别人的思想,他们根本不能完全参与我们的民主。像这样继续下去,作家Earl Shorris 说,"我们将会成为一个次等国家。我们社会的文明也会倒退。"

  "才智被憎恨视为力量与特权的象征,"历史学家,教授Richard Hofstadter 在《美国人生活中的反才智主义》一书中写道。这本关于美国在政治、宗教和教育上反才智主义根源的书获得了Pulitzer 的奖项。从我们历史的开始,Hofstadter 讲道,我们的民主便鼓励我们离弃一切带有精英论的东西。实用性、常识和本土的智慧则被视为比任何书本上读来的东西更加高尚。

  Ralh Waldo Emerson 及其他的超越主义哲学家们认为思维教育和艰辛的书本学习给孩子们上了不自然的枷锁:"我们被关进学校和大学的背阅室10年或15年,出校门时满腹文字却什么也不知道。"Mark Twain 所著的Huckleberry Finn 充分代表了美国人的反才智主义。书本中的主人公避免被教化——上学读书——以便保留他与生俱来的善良。

  根据Hofstadter的理论,才智不同于本土智慧,是一种我们极少赞赏的特质。才智是我们大脑具评判力、创造力和竞争力的一面。智慧试图去理解、操纵、重组织和适应,而才智是去仔细考虑、深思、疑惑、理论、批判和幻想。

  学校仍然是才智不受信任的地方。Hofstadter说我们国家的教育系统仍受掌于一些人,他们"愉快地激进地宣扬他们对才智的敌意,同时也不忘向那些对才智没有诚诺的孩子们表示他们的殷勤。"

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