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70天攻克考研英语阅读 DAY10

2006-7-28 01:03  

  1995年全国硕士学位研究生入学考试英语试题

  Part IIIReading Comprehension

  Directions: Each of the passages below is followed by some questions. For each question there are four answers marked A, B, C and D. Read the passages carefully and choose the best answer to each of the questions. Then mark your answer on the ANSWER SHEET 1 by blackening the corresponding letter in the brackets. (40 points)

  Passage 1

  Money spent on advertising is money spent as well as any I know of. It serves directly to assist a rapid distribution of goods at reasonable price, thereby establishing a firm home market and so making it possible to provide for export at competitive prices. By drawing attention to new ideas it helps enormously to raise standards of living. By helping to increase demand it ensures an increased need for labor, and is therefore an effective way to fight unemployment. It lowers the costs of many services: without advertisements your daily newspaper would cost four times as much, the price of your television license would need to be doubled, and travel by bus or tube would cost 20 per cent more.

  And perhaps most important of all, advertising provides a guarantee of reasonable value in the products and services you buy. Apart from the fact that twentyseven acts of Parliament govern the terms of advertising, no regular advertiser dare promote a product that fails to live up to the promise of his advertisements. He might fool some people for a little while through misleading advertising. He will not do so for long, for mercifully the public has the good sense not to buy the inferior article more than once. If you see an article consistently advertised, it is the surest proof I know that the article does what is claimed for it,  and that it represents good value.

  Advertising does more for the material benefit of the community than any other force I can think of.

  There is one more point I feel I ought to touch on. Recently I heard a wellknown television personality declare that he was against advertising because it persuades rather than informs. He was drawing excessively fine distinctions. Of course advertising seeks to persuade.

  If its message were confined merely to information - and that in itself would be difficult if not impossible to achieve, for even a detail such as the choice of the color of a shirt is subtly persuasive - advertising would be so boring that no one would pay any attention. But perhaps that is what the wellknown television personality wants.

  51. By the first sentence of the passage the author means that .

  A.  he is fairly familiar with the cost of advertising

  B.  everybody knows well that advertising is money consuming

  C.  advertising costs money like everything else

  D.  it is worthwhile to spend money on advertising

  52. In the passage, which of the following is NOT included in the advantages of advertising?

  A.  Securing greater fame. B.  Providing more jobs.

  C.  Enhancing living standards. D.  Reducing newspaper cost.

  53. The author deems that the wellknown TV personality is .

  A.  very precise in passing his judgment on advertising

  B.  interested in nothing but the buyers attention

  C.  correct in telling the difference between persuasion and information

  D.  obviously partial in his views on advertising

  54. In the authors opinion,  .

  A.  advertising can seldom bring material benefit to man by providing

  B.  advertising informs people of new ideas rather than wins them over

  C.  there is nothing wrong with advertising in persuading the buyer

  D.  the buyer is not interested in getting information from an advertisement

  Passage 2

  There are two basic ways to see growth: one as a product, the other as a process. People have generally viewed personal growth as an external result or product that can easily be identified and measured. The worker who gets a promotion, the student whose grades improve, the foreigner who learns a new languageall these are examples of people who have measurable results to show for their efforts.

  By contrast, the process of personal growth is much more difficult to determine, since by definition it is a journey and not the specific signposts or landmarks along the way. The process is not the road itself, but rather the attitudes and feelings people have, their caution or courage, as they encounter new experiences and unexpected obstacles. In this process, the journey never really ends; there are always new ways to experience the world, new ideas to try, new challenges to accept .

  In order to grow, to travel new roads, people need to have a willingness to take risks, to confront the unknown, and to accept the possibility that they may "fail"at first. How we see ourselves as we try a new way of being is essential to our ability to grow. Do we perceive ourselves as quick and curious? If so, then we tend to take more chances and to be more open to unfamiliar experiences. Do we think were shy and indecisive? Then our sense of timidity can cause us to hesitate, to move slowly, and not to take a step until we know the ground is safe. Do we think were slow to adapt to change or that we re not smart enough to cope with a new challenge? Then we are likely to take a more passive role or not try at all.

  These feelings of insecurity and selfdoubt are both unavoidable and necessary if we are to change and grow. If we do not confront and overcome these internal fears and doubts, if we protect ourselves too much, then we cease to grow. We become trapped inside a shell of our own making.

  55. A person is generally believed to achieve personal growth when .

  A.  he has given up his smoking habit

  B.  he has made great efforts in his work

  C.  he is keen on learning anything new

  D.  he has tried to determine where he is on his journey

  56. In the author s eyes, one who views personal growth as a process would .

  A.  succeed in climbing up the social ladder

  B.  judge his ability to glow from his own achievements

  C.  face difficulties and take up challenges

  D.  aim high and reach his goal each time

  57. When the author says "a new way of being" (line 3, Para. 3) he is referring to .

  A.  a new approach to experiencing the world

  B.  a new way of taking risks

  C.  a new method of perceiving ourselves

  D.  a new system of adaptation to change

  58. For personal growth, the author advocates all of the following except .

  A.  curiosity about more chances B.  promptness in selfadaptation

  C.  openmindedness to new experiencesD.  avoidance of internal fears and doubts

  Passage 3

  In such a changing, complex society formerly simple solutions to informational needs become complicated. Many of lifes problems which were solved by asking family members, friends or colleagues are beyond the capability of the extended family to resolve. Where to turn for expert information and how to determine which expert advice to accept are questions facing many people today.

  In addition to this, there is the growing mobility of people since World War Ⅱ。 As families move away from their stable community, their friends of many years, their extended family relationships, the informal flow of information is cut off, and with it the confidence that information will be available when needed and will be trustworthy and reliable. The almost unconscious flow of information about the simplest aspects of living can be cut off. Thus, things once learned subconsciously through the casual communications of the extended family must be consciously learned .

  Adding to societal changes today is an enormous stockpile of information. The individual now has more information available than any generation, and the task of finding that one piece of information relevant to his or her specific problem is complicated,  timeconsuming and sometimes even overwhelming .

  Coupled with the growing quantity of information is the development of technologies which enable the storage and delivery of more information with greater speed to more locations than has ever been possible before. Computer technology makes it possible to store vast amounts of data in machinereadable files, and to program computers to locate specific information . Telecommunications developments enable the sending of messages via television, radio, and very shortly, electronic mail to bombard people with multitudes of messages. Satellites have extended the power of communications to report events at the instant of occurrence. Expertise can be shared world wide through teleconferencing,  and problems in dispute can be settled without the participants leaving their homes and/or jobs to travel to a distant conference site.        Technology has facilitated the sharing of information and the storage and delivery of information, thus making more information available to more people.

  In this world of change and complexity, the need for information is of greatest importance. Those people who have accurate, reliable uptodate information to solve the daytoday problems, the critical problems of their business, social and family life, will survive and succeed. "Knowledge is power" may well be the truest saying and access to information may be the most critical requirement of all people.

  59. The word "it" (line 3, Para. 2)most probably refers to .

  A.  the lack of stable communities

  B.  the breakdown of informal information channels

  C.  the increased mobility of families

  D.  the growing number of people moving from place to place

  60. The main problem people may encounter today arises form the fact that .

  A.  they have to learn new things consciously

  B.  they lack the confidence of securing reliable and trustworthy information

  C.  they have difficulty obtaining the needed information readily

  D.  they can hardly carry out casual communications with an extended family.

  61. From the passage we can infer that .

  A.  electronic mail will soon play a dominant role in transmitting messages

  B.  it will become more difficult for people to keep secrets in an information era

  C.  people will spend less time holding meetings or conferences

  D.  events will be reported on the spot mainly through satellites

  62. We can learn from the last paragraph that  .

  A.  it is necessary to obtain as much

  B.  people should make the best use of the information

  C.  we should realize the importance of accumulating information.

  D.  it is of vital importance to acquire needed information efficiently

  Passage 4

  Personality is to a large extent inherent - Atype parents usually bring about Atype offspring. But the environment must also have a profound effect, since if competition is important to the parents, it is likely to become a major factor in the lives of their children.

  One place where children soak up Acharacteristics is school, which is, by its very nature, a highly competitive institution. Too many schools adopt the  'win at all costs' moral standard and measure their success by sporting achievements. The current passion for making children compete against their classmates or against the clock produces a twolayer system, in which competitive A types seem in some way better than their Btype fellows. Being too keen to win can have dangerous consequences: remember that Pheidippides, the first marathon runner,  dropped dead seconds after saying: 'Rejoice, we conquer!'

  By far the worst form of competition in schools is the disproportionate emphasis on examinations. It is a rare school that allows pupils to concentrate on those things they do well. The merits of competition by examination are somewhat questionable,  but competition in the certain knowledge of failure is positively harmful.

  Obviously, it is neither practical nor desirable that all Ayoungsters change into Bs. The world needs A types, and schools have an important duty to try to fit a childs personality to his possible future employment . It is top management.

  If the preoccupation of schools with academic work was lessened, more time might be spent teaching children surer values. Perhaps selection for the caring professions, especially medicine, could be made less by good grades in chemistry and more by such considerations as sensitivity and sympathy. It is surely a mistake to choose our doctors exclusively from Atype stock. Bs are important and should be encouraged.

  63. According to the passage, Atype individuals are usually .

  A.  impatientB.  considerate C.  aggressiveD.  agreeable

  64. The author is strongly opposed to the practice of examinations at schools because .

  A.  the pressure is too great on the students

  B.  some students are bound to fail

  C.  failure rates are too high

  D.  the results of exanimations are doubtful

  65. The selection of medical professionals are currently based on .

  A.  candidates sensitivity  B.  academic achievements

  C.  competitive spiritD.  surer values

  66. From the passage we can draw the conclusion that .

  A.  the personality of a child is well established at birth

  B.  family influence dominates the shaping of one s characteristics.

  C.  the development of one s personality is due to multiple factors

  D.  Btype characteristics can find no place in competitive society

  Passage 5

  That experiences influence subsequent behavior is evidence of an obvious but nevertheless remarkable activity called remembering. Learning could not occur without the function popularly named memory. Constant practice has such as effect on memory as to lead to skillful performance on the piano, to recitation of a poem, and even to reading and understanding these words. Socalled intelligent behavior demands memory, remembering being a primary requirement for reasoning. The ability to solve any problem or even to recognize that a problem exists depends on memory. Typically, the decision to cross a street is based on remembering many earlier experiences.

  Practice (or review) tends to build and maintain memory for a task or for any learned material. Over a period of no practice what has been learned tends to be forgotten; and the adaptive consequences may not seem obvious. Yet, dramatic instances of sudden forgetting can seem to be adaptive. In this sense, the ability to forget can be interpreted to have survived through a process of natural selection in animals. Indeed, when ones memory of an emotionally painful experience leads to serious anxiety, forgetting may produce relief. Nevertheless, an evolutionary interpretation might make it difficult to understand how the commonly gradual process of forgetting survived natural selection.

  In thinking about the evolution of memory together with all its possible aspects, it is helpful to consider what would happen if memories failed to fade. Forgetting clearly aids orientation in time, since old memories weaken and the new tend to stand out, providing clues for inferring duration. Without forgetting, adaptive ability would suffer, for example, learned behavior that might have been correct a decade ago may no longer be. Cases are recorded of people who (by ordinary standards) forgot so little that their everyday activities were full of confusion. This forgetting seems to serve that survival of the individual and the species.

  Another line of thought assumes a memory storage system of limited capacity that provides adaptive flexibility specifically through forgetting. In this view, continual adjustments are made between learning or memory storage ( input) and forgetting (output) . Indeed, there is evidence that the rate at which individuals forget is directly related to how much they have learned. Such data offers gross support of contemporary models of memory that assume an inputoutput balance.

  67. From the evolutionary point of view, .

  A.  forgetting for lack of practice tends to be obviously in adaptive .

  B.  if a person gets very forgetful all of a sudden he must be very adaptive

  C.  the gradual process of forgetting is an indication of an individual s adaptability

  D.  sudden forgetting may bring about adaptive consequences

  68. According to the passage, if a person never forgot,  .

  A.  he would survive best B.  he would have a lot of trouble

  C.  his ability to learn would be enhancedD.  the evolution of memory would stop

  69. From the last paragraph we know that .

  A.  forgetfulness is a response to learning

  B.  the memory storage system is an exactly balanced inputoutput system

  C.  memory is a compensation for forgetting

  D.  the capacity of a memory storage system is limited because forgetting occurs

  70. In this article, the author tries to interpret the function of .

  A.  remembering B.  forgetting

  C.  adapting D.  experiencing

  51. 「D」问题是:本文的第一句话,作者的意思是

  该句的非比较级形式为:Money spent on advertising is money spent well.在该句中,any指任何一种好的花钱方式(any money spent well); know of意为:知道,所了解到的。其实,该句所陈述的内容不仅是第一段的主题思想,也是全文旨在说明的问题。在第一段的其他部分,作者就列举了合理的广告带来的诸多方面的益处。

  52. 「A」问题是:在本文中,以下哪一项没有被列为广告的优点?

  文章第一段作者列出了广告所带来的诸多益处。B,提供更多工作机会(4至5行);C, 提高生活标准(第4行); D, 降低报纸成本(第6至8行)。这些在第一段都有提到。但A项,获得更大知名度文章没有提及。

  53. 「D」问题是:作者认为那位著名的电视节目主持人。

  文章第四段和第五段讨论了一个反对广告的著名电视工作者(television personality)的看法。他反对广告的理由是:广告是劝诱性的(persuade),而不是客观地提供信息(inform)。但是,作者认为:作这种区别有些过于细微了(excessively fine),广告当然要劝诱人们。即使在很小的方面,也很难作到只局限于(confine……to)客观地提供信息。而且,那样的话,广告就失去了吸引力,没人会注意它。由此可见,在作者看来,广告的这两方面很难严格地区别开来,二者是有机地结合在一起的,不能顾此失彼。

  54. 「C」问题是:在作者看来,。

  作者认为,毫无疑问,广告会劝诱消费者。它不仅是这样,而且应该是这样,否则,广告便失去了吸引力而没人看了。参阅第53题题解。

  花钱做广告是非常好的花钱方式。它直接帮助货物以合理的价格快速地配送出去,以此在国内市场站稳脚跟,并可能以有竞争力的价格提供出口。广告能吸引人们关注新的概念,从而提升生活品质;广告能刺激需求,从而保证对劳动力的需求不断提高,这不失为对抗失业的有效方法。同时,它也降低了许多服务的费用:没有广告,报纸的价格会提高三倍,有线电视费会翻番,公共汽车和地铁的费用会上涨20%.

  最重要的一点是,广告对你所购买的产品和服务提供了一种保障。国会有27项法案是针对广告的,此外,正式的广告公司不敢推销那些无法兑现承诺的商品。这些的商品也许在短时间通过歧义在愚弄人们,但不会长久,因为公众的眼光是敏锐的,他们决不会再上劣质商品的当。如果你看到一个商品一直在做广告,这就是它名副其实的最好证明,证明它的质量很好。

  广告对社会物质利益的贡献比我所知道的其他任何东西的贡献都要大。

  还有一点需要指出的是,最近我听说一位著名的电视人宣称他反对广告,因为他认为广告并不是提供信息,而是劝人去购买。他的区分过分精细了,广告当然是劝人买东西的。

  如果广告仅仅是用来提供信息——即使这一点能够做到,那也是很困难的。因为即使是一个细节,比如衬衫的颜色,也有劝人购买的因素在里面——那么这样的广告就太乏味了,没有人会注意,但也许那位著名的电视人要的就是这种乏味。

  55. 「A」问题是:通常认为一个人达到他个人成长,当。

  第一段指出,人们对成长有两种基本看法:有人将之视为结果(product),有人将之视为一个过程(process)。一般来讲,人倾向于将个人的成长(或发展)看做是一个易于识别和测量的外在的结果,如工人晋职,学生成绩(grades)好,学会一门外语。这都是他们做出努力(efforts)之后所取得的可衡量的结果。[A]表达的内容原文虽未提到,但我们可以做一个简单的类推。一旦形成习惯,戒烟是很不易的,是需要决心与毅力的,正像一个学生要取得好成绩必须做出努力一样。

  56. 「C」问题是:在作者看来,将个人成长视为过程的人会。

  在第二段,作者指出,将发展看作是一个过程的人关心的不是结果,他们更多的注重人面对新的体验(experiences)与不期而至的障碍时所表现出的态度与感受:是谨慎还是表示出勇气。发展永无止境,对外部世界的体验不止一种,总是有新的思路需要检验,新的挑战(challenges)去接受。这正是C 项的内容。

  57. 问题是:当作者提到 "a new way of being" (第3段第3行)他指的是。

  在该句中,being在此意为"生存,存在",第三段第二句指出,当我们用新的方式生存(或体验世界)时,我们对自己的看法对我们能否发展至关重要。下文举了几个例子来阐述这一观点:如果我们认为自己行动敏捷,喜欢刨根问底,在实际的行动上,我们就会倾向于冒险(take more chances),更欢迎(be more open to)新的体验。如果我们自认为天生怯懦并优柔寡断,我们就会遇事犹豫不前,行动迟缓,只有感到安全可靠时才会挪动一步。如果我们自认为适应变化很慢或不够精明,无法对付新的挑战,那么,我们很可能做事被动或干脆不做。可见,我们的态度决定了我们的生活方式。

  58. 「D」问题是:为了个人成长,作者不提倡项。

  在最后一段,作者指出,不安全感与自我怀疑不仅是无法避免的(unavoidable),而且是必要的,否则,我们就无法变化、发展。关键是要敢于面对(confront)并克服这种心理。如果我们一味地求安全,就不会有所长进,就等于是作茧自缚(We become trapped inside a shell of our own making)。

  对成长的看法基本上有两种:一种把成长看成是结果,一种把它看成是过程。人们大多把个人成长看成是容易识别和衡量的结果,比如工人得到了提升,学生的学业有了进步,外国人学会了一门新语言:这些例子都是人们取得了能显示出他们努力的结果。

  而在另一方面,个人成长的过程却比较难以确定,因为从定义上可以看出,它是一个旅程,而不是旅程中特定的标志或里程碑。而且,这个过程指的并不是脚下的道路,而是人们在遭遇新的体验和预料不到挫折时的态度和情感、勇气和忧虑。这一旅程永远没有终点,总是有新的体验、新的尝试、新的挑战。

  为了实现个人成长,探索新的道路,人们需要有愿意冒风险的精神,要勇于面对未知的世界,敢于接受开始时可能会碰到的失败。我们在探索新路的时候如何看待自己,这对我们的成长能力是至关重要的。我们是否认为自己头脑灵活、好奇心强?如果是这样,我们会更愿意冒风险,更愿意尝试不熟悉的体验。我们是否认为自己羞怯而缺乏主见?那么胆怯会使我们犹豫,在迈出一步之前总是先要确定路况是否安全。我们是否认为自己不善于应变,或认为自己不够聪明,无法迎接新的挑战?这样的话,我们可能会采取比较被动的态度,或者根本就不去尝试新的事物。

  在我们成长和改变的过程中,对自己不确信或缺乏安全感这样的感觉是不可避免的,也是必经的。如果无法面对和克服这些恐惧和疑虑,如果我们对自己过分保护,那我们就会停止成长,就会作茧自缚。

  59.  「B」问题是: 文中第2段第3行中的 "it" 很有可能指的是。

  第二段指出,第二次世界大战以后,人口的流动性(mobility)变大,一个家庭离开了自己原来的居住区,离开了多年的朋友,不再住在大家庭里(extended family指:三世或四世同堂的家庭),这样,对这个家庭来说,日常的(informal)信息交流没有了(is cut off)。随着日常的信息交流渠道的消失(the breakdown of informal information channels),人们的信心也没有了(他们过去相信需要时总能得到可信可靠的信息)。

  60.  「C」问题是:人们今天面临的主要问题,是由于。

  readily在此不是"有准备地"之意,而是"随时随地"之意。原文第二段指出,随着社会的流动性,人们间的日常的信息交流不存在了。过去一些生活的最基本方面(the simplest aspects)的信息交流几乎是不自觉(或无意识)地(unconscious)进行的,但是现在却不行了,过去下意识地(subconsciously)——随处随时地——可以通过大家庭内部的日常(casual)交流所了解到的(learn)信息现在必须有意识地去了解(或获得)。第二段指出,除了社会的变化以外,现代社会信息的积累量(stockpile)大增,这使得寻找相关信息的过程变得更繁琐,更花时间(timeconsuming),有时也很迫切。第三段的最后一句在总结全段时也指出:技术使更多的人可以利用更多的信息。这里强调的是信息量,并非信息随时随处可得。

  61. 「A」问题是:从本文我们可以推断出。

  第四段第三句指出,随着电信事业的发展,通过电视、无线电并将在不久的将来(very shortly)通过电子邮件的方式所传递的信息数以千计地送到人们手上。该句中,bombard一词原义为"轰炸"、"连珠炮式地落向",这里用于比喻量大。multitudes of也指"大量的".

  62. 「D」问题是:从文章最后一段我们可以推断出。

  在最后一段作者指出,当今世界是一个多变、复杂的世界,信息对人至关重要(of greatest importance)。人们要学会利用准确、可靠、最新的(uptodate)信息来解决的日常(daytoday)问题以及他们工作和社会交往、家庭生活中的重大(critical)问题,只有这样的人才能生存,才能成功。"知识就是力量"这样的说法再正确不过了,学会掌握信息(access to information)是对所有人的一个最重要要求。D意为:有效地掌握所需信息至关重要。

  在当今这个复杂多变的社会里,以前对信息需要的那种简单的解决办法已经变得复杂化了。以前生活中的许多问题都是靠征求家庭成员、朋友或同事的意见来解决的,但现在这些问题已经不是一大家子人能解决的了。去哪里征求专家的意见,如何决定采纳哪个专家的意见,这是当今许多人面临的问题。

  除此之外,第二次世界大战以后,人口的流动性越来越大。随着一个家庭搬离原来的社区,离开多年的朋友和亲戚,那种串门聊天式的信息流动方式被切断了,随之被切断的是人们对这种信息来源的信心,人们无法确信这种信息还是否能够及时得到,或者这样的信息还是否可靠。这种在不知不觉中进行的关于生活琐事的信息的传递可能被中断,而一旦中断后,原来那些在大家庭的闲聊中不知不觉得到的信息,现在就必须要有意识地去寻找了。

  除了社会变化之外,当今的信息量巨大也是一个方面。现代人能获得的信息比以往任何一个时代都要多。要找出一条恰好能解决自己问题的信息也是一件复杂的事,既费时又费力。

  随着信息量的不断增加,科学技术的发展使得更多的信息得以储存,并能更快地传送到更多地方。电脑技术能够将大量的数据储存在机器可以阅读的文件里,程序使电脑能够找到某种特定的信息。电讯技术的发展使信息可以通过电视、收音机来传送,很快电子邮件的出现会让人们受到无数信息的狂轰乱炸。卫星使通讯具有了报道即时发生事件的能力。通过电视会议全球可以共享专家的意见,参与解决问题和争端的各方无需离开家庭和工作岗位长途旅行去开会。科学技术便利了信息的储存、传送和共享,使得更多的人能够得到更多的信息。

  在这个复杂多变的社会里,对信息的需要占有举足轻重的地位。谁拥有了及时、准确、可靠的信息来解决每天遇到的问题,谁的事业、家庭和社交生活就会取得成功。"知识就是力量"是真知灼见,获得信息是人们最重要的需求。

  63. 「C」问题是:根据文章内容,A型性格的人通常。

  文章第一、二、三段都提到:A型性格的人在竞争的环境中成长,形成了他们的性格特征。第二段第三句直接用competitive(争强好胜的,爱竞争的)一词描述A型性格的人。aggresive意为"好斗的,敢作敢为的".

  64. 「B」问题是:作者强烈反对学校举行考试的作法是因为。

  be bound to意为:肯定,注定。问题中be opposed意为"反对".第三段指出,学校中最糟糕的竞争方式(by far用于强调最高级形式)是极力强调考试(disproportionate意为:不相称的,过分的),很少有学校让学生集中精力做自己善于做的事情。通过考试来竞争有无益处(merits)是个值得探讨的问题(questionable),但是,明知道自己会失败还去竞争的做法肯定(对人的心理,如:自信心、自我认识等)是有害的。

  65. 「B」问题是:现今对于医护人员的选择主要根据。

  原文最后一段指出,如果学校不过多地注重于(preoccupation……with)学习结果,就可以花更多的时间教些更有价值的东西。选择护理方面的人——尤其是医疗护理人员——也许应该看他们是否心细、是否有同情心,而不应看他们的化学成绩如何。只从A型性格的人总选择医生的做法是不可取的,B型性格的人也是社会所需要的,应该受到相应的鼓励。在这段里,作者对现在人的培养及选择标准进行了批评。B意为:学习成绩(或学术成就)。问题中 currently意为:目前,当前。

  66. 「C」问题是:从本文,我们可以得出的结论是。

  文章第一段指出,个性在很大程度上是先天形成的(inherent),但是,环境对它也有深刻影响,环境包括社会、学校与家庭。本文主要谈论了学校教育对学生的性格形成的影响。C意为:个性的发展受多种(multiple)因素的影响。

  性格从很大程度上来说是遗传的——A性格的父母通常养育的女儿也是A性格的。但是,环境的影响也很重要,因为如果竞争对父母是重要的,那么它在子女的生活中也是一个重要的因素。

  学校是对孩子性格造成影响的一个场所。从本质上来说,这是一个竞争相当激烈的地方。很多学校把"不惜一切取得胜利"作为道德标准,并用体育活动中的成绩来衡量这种胜利。现在,学校热情地鼓动孩子们和同学竞赛,或者和时间竞赛,这种行为导致学生两极分化,其中有竞争意识的A性格学生似乎在很多方面都优于B性格学生。但是,对胜利太热衷也会导致危险的后果,比如第一个马拉松运动员Pheidippides,在说完"欢庆吧,我们胜利了!"之后,就倒下死掉了。

  到目前为止,学校竞争中最糟糕的形式是对考试的过分强调。很少有学校允许学生专注于自己擅长的事情。用考试来竞争,这样做的价值值得怀疑,但是明知道会失败还要参加竞争,这对学生的影响绝对是有害的。

  显然,让A性格的年轻人全都转变成B性格的,这样做既不切实际,也不值得。这个世界需要各种各样的性格,学校的重要职责是使学生的性格能适合他们将来可能的职业,这才是管理的最高境界。

  如果学校对学业的关注少一些,或会多花些时间来培养孩子的价值观。也许,挑选某些行业的从业人员时,比如说医护人员时,应少考虑些化学课的成绩,而多考虑些诸如细心、同情心这样的因素。只从A性格的人里挑选医生,这显然不对,B性格的人也很重要,也要加以鼓励。

  67. 「D」问题是:从进化的角度来看,。

  D意为:突然失去记忆力会导致生存适应问题。

  文章第一段指出,人生许多问题的解决依赖于我们对过去经历过的事情的记忆。第二段第二、三句指出,如果我们不及时复习或练习已学过的东西的话,过一段时间,我们可能忘记它,这种情况所造成的适应性(adaptive)后果也许不太明显。然而,突然失去记忆力却会对适应带来明显后果。举个例子来说,假如你一觉醒来,发觉自己失去了一切记忆,那样会发生什么呢?

  68. 「B」问题是:根据本文,如果一个人从来不会忘记,。

  第三段第三、四句指出,没有遗忘过程,人就无法适应。例如,十年前正确的做法现在未必合适,所以应忘记它。对遗忘很少的人的调查也表明:他们的日常活动缺乏头绪。这与B项吻合。

  69. 「A」问题是:从最后一段,我们可以得知。

  文章最后一段指出,对记忆力也可以做另一种解释:记忆的储存系统总储量有限,遗忘使这一系统具有了灵活性。这种看法认为:在学习或存储(输入)与遗忘(输出)之间有一个不断调整过程。事实上,有证据表明:遗忘率与学习的东西的量直接相关,这对现代记忆模式——输入-输出保持平衡——提供了证据。

  70. 「B」问题是:在这篇文章里,作者试图解释的作用。

  本文主要谈的是遗忘过程的作用(function),它是人生适应机制的一个很重要的过程,这是文章的第二、三、四段旨在说明的。对照而言,第一段所谈的内容(remembering)只不过是这个讨论的引子。

  过去的经历能够影响随后的行为,这种显而易见但却十分重要的行为就叫做记忆。如果没有记忆这种功能,学习行为就不可能发生。不断的练习对记忆产生影响,使我们能熟练地演奏钢琴,背诵诗歌,阅读和理解文字。所谓的智力行为需要记忆,记忆也是推理的基础。解决问题的能力,甚至识别问题的能力,都要依靠记忆。例如,做出穿越马路的决定就是建立在对以前类似经历的记忆的基础之上的。

  练习(或者复习)能够建立和巩固对事情或对学到的知识的记忆。如果一段时间没有练习,学到的东西就有可能忘掉,这种适应的结果可能并不明显。但是突然性的遗忘就可以看作是适应的结果了。从这个意义上来说,遗忘的能力可以理解成是在动物的自然选择过程中保留下来的。确实如此,一段令人痛苦的记忆会导致严重的焦虑不安,这时遗忘可以缓解痛苦。然而,这种解释很难真正让人了解普通的缓慢遗忘的过程是怎样从自然选择的过程中保留下来的。

  在考虑记忆的进化问题时,可以思考一下,如果记忆永远不会淡忘,那会出现什么情况呢?很显然,遗忘有助于时间上的调整,因为旧的记忆会褪色,而新的记忆变得更加明显,使我们能够推测事情发生的时间先后。如果不遗忘,人的适应能力就会受到破坏,比如:十年前正确的行为十年后可能已经不正确了。在一些病例中,有的人遗忘的太少(和普通人相比),以至于他们的行为充满了混淆。这样看来,遗忘似乎有助于个人和整个人类的生存。

  另一种猜想是存储记忆的系统的容量是有限的,因此通过遗忘灵活地进行调整。在学习或者记忆存储(输入)和遗忘(输出)之间不断进行着调整。实际上,有证据表明一个人遗忘的速度和他学习新知识的速度是直接相关的。这些数据完全证明了当代的输入-输出平衡的记忆模式。

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