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70天攻克考研英语阅读 DAY47

2006-7-28 01:05  

  DAY47

  Reading comprehension:

  Direction: In this part, there are four passages followed by questions or unfinished statements, each with four suggested answers marked A, B, C and D. Choose the one that you think is the correct answer.

  Passage 1Internet radio sounds like a great idea, especially for those of us whose musical heroes dont march in the Top 40 hit parade. I love the idea of being able to log on to the Web and choose from 10000 sites “broadcasting”niche music through my computer speakers in every conceivable genre, from Big Band jazz to island reggae.

  But there are some problems. The one that hit the news last week is the fee structure. Many of these “stations” are geeky momandpop operations that dont charge for their music and dont pay for it either, and arrangement the record labels are trying to rectify by imposing a royalty of fourteenhundredths of a cent per song per listener. That may not sound like much, but its enough to drive the small guys out of business. On the 1st of May a few hundred of them tried to draw attention to their plight by going silent for a day.

  A bigger problem with internet radio is that it often doesnt work. Even if you can find the music you want and the software you need to play it, its a rare song that makes it to the end without pausing a few times to rebuffer the stream, whatever that means.

  But an idea as good as this one is worth fighting for. So for those of you who care enough about music to put up with some fearsome technological hurdles, heres a primer on how to find your favourite tunes on the Internet and how to play them.

  First, get yourself a computer with a decent sound card (builtin on all Macs and most new PCs) and a fast Internet connection. Cable or DSL is best. In a pinch you can use modems as slow as 56K or even 28.8K.

  Then make sure you have a working media player. The two most popular programs, Real Networks Real Player and Microsofts Windows Media Player, are free, but you have to keep checking their websites for updates, Apples I Tunes, also free, comes with a builtin internet radio player (preloaded with more than 250 stations), but its strictly for Macs.

  Finally, you have to find the music. The media players usually come with selected links preset, but theyre not always current or complete. If you are feeling adventurous or starved for the latest Zingy Marley and the Melody Makers — head for one of the big web cast directories. My favourites: radiotower.com. When you find the station you want, the music should launch automatically on the media player you have already loaded.

  Unfortunately, things rarely run that smoothly. Even if the stations are set up properly,many things from site overcrowd and peak hour congestion are general Web flakiness.

  1. The passage is most probably from

  A. newspaper. B. magazine.

  C. students book. D. science book.

  2. What does 'momandpop' operations mean?

  A. a couple are in charge of operation. B. two people cooperate in business.

  C. a group of people cooperate in business. D. pop stars operate their own business.

  3. What is authors attitude towards this new idea?

  A. approval B. disapproval

  C. neutral D. indifferent

  4. Which of the following is NOT true?

  A. On the first of May, a few hundred of them have stopped running for one day in order to protest charging royalty.

  B. Most of the songs will pause a few times during playing.

  C. Mac is a kind of media player.

  D. Both Real networks Realplayer and Microsofts windows media player are free.

  5. What does“a big if”mean?

  A. the most important prerequisite.B. necessary condition.

  C. possible condition.D. unnecessary condition.

  Passage 2 The commercial relations between the United States and the Peoples Republic of China has enormous potential, and support within both nations for continued trade growth is strong. Trade relations have accelerated and strengthened new political bonds; indeed they have reinforced each other.

  Yet SinoAmerican trade ties remain largely in their infancy. Formal diplomat relations were established only late within the last decade, and trade relations began shortly after initial diplomatic contracts. Trade volume is much more limited between the United States and China than between the United States and many other countries which are significantly smaller in size and commercial potential.

  The SinoAmerican political and economic relationship has developed at a time of enormous global economic change, witnessed by the rise of the OPEC states and the recent dramatic oil price fluctuations. Many of these changes have placed great stress on the international trading system, and have an impact on our bilateral economic and political relationships. Key assumptions about trade policy and the commercial role of nations, such as the role of the United States with respect to both its industrialized and developing nation trading partners, are being revalued in light of changes in the world economy. This revaluation and questioning of the future direction of world trade continues at a time when Chinas own internal economic policies are being significantly altered.

  Especially in the face of a volatile world trade environment, the key to continued growth of U.S. — China trade and investment is the institutionalization of a commercial relationship which would continue to develop regardless of pressure and complications created by global economic changes, or competing economic and political priorities within either the United States or the PRC. We are only now at the first stage of this institutionalization process.

  If U.S. — China trade ties are to develop and expand beyond this first stage, the United States Congress will have an enormously important role to play. In the United States, both Congress and the Executive Branch have substantial responsibilities with respect to foreign policy and to foreign trade policy. Trade policy, like foreign policy, frequently results from political dialogue and political maneuvering between Congress and the Executive. But in the making of trade policy, the American Constitution has laid the basic framework upon which the political dialogue must be built. The Constitution granted to Congress substantial control over the regulation of foreign trade, including tariff and nontariff barriers to imports, and Congress is given explicit authority to authorize and approve executive agreements and to make all laws “necessarily and proper” to carry out its mandate in the area of foreign commerce.

  Because of the importance of Congress in foreign policymaking, and in particular in the formulation of trade and commercial policies, domestic legislation, whether it be Chinaspecific, tradespecific, or regarding a matter with a seemingly tangential bearing on China, can have changes can greatly affect Washingtons China policy.

  1. The prospects of the commercial relationship between the U.S. and China are

  A. as good as they were in the past.B. turning from bad to worse.

  C. promising for potential development.D. beyond ones knowledge.

  2. Whats true about the SinoAmerican trade ties?

  A. It serves as a typical example about trade relations between an industrialized country and a developing country.

  B. There has been a significant growth after the normalization of the SinoAmerican diplomatic relation.

  C. The trade volume between the two countries has reached a satisfactory level.

  D. Washington is the biggest trade partner of Beijing.

  3. One could infer from the passage that

  A. SinoAmerican political and economic relationship is bound to be influenced by the world.

  B. International trade remains detached from changes in the world.

  C. The U.S. is not wiling to revaluate its trade policy.

  D. There is no need for adjustment of SinoAmerican trade relations.

  4. The United States Congress

  A. is not able to play an important role in developing foreign trade.

  B. always has controversy with the Executive Branch.

  C. has substantial responsibilities with respect to foreign policy and foreign trade policy.

  D. is not granted the authority by the Constitution for controlling American foreign trade.

  5. What could be a suitable title for the passage?

  A. the American Congress and Foreign Trade.B. a corner of World Trade

  C. SinoAmerican trade relationsD. American foreign policy

  Passage 3 The crisis in rural England has come to a head with several longterm problems erupting simultaneously, but how its to be resolved is far from clear.

  Farming is in enormous upheaval, especially in the more remote areas. Amalgamations will mean that in 50 years there are fewer traditional farmers and even fewer farms than there are now; ranchstyle farming with a much reduced labor input will be evident, and intensive farming will have an even sharper focus. Against this, there will be more “hobby farmers”, wealthy people who farm for aesthetic and environmental reasons, and parttime farmers who combine farming with employment such as IT consultancy. By then GM crops will be accepted, and, contrary to current public perceptions, could well be benefiting wildlife as they will require far fewer chemical sprays.

  Its difficult to predict the impact animal right will have on farming. Since we already have better animal welfare standards than most countries, many British farmers might simply stop rearing animals if the animal rights lobby becomes too powerful; we would then be exposed to cheaper imports from countries with much lower welfare standards. Generally speaking, the farmers who stay in business will be the smart farmers who diversify, and those who find innovative ways of selling their products — like the farmer in the Welsh Marshes who sold his beef herd and is now selling frozen sheeps milk by mail order.

  Crime in the country is still lower than in the towns but it is rising at a faster rate, a result of increased mobility and the perception of relatively easy pickings. It is more straightforward to police cities than the countryside and the village bobby will remain a memory. Instead the solutions will be hightech: electronic alarm system, fenced armed with sensors, automatic gates. The social divide between the rich and the poor in rural areas will become more marked, butas with crimedealing with poverty in the countryside is going to be more problematic than in the towns because it is so dispersed.

  Transport is a big issue: while its desirable to reduce dependency on cars, there is still no real alternative in the countryside — the railways are at capacity and the network is truncated anyway. I see daily communicating diminishing, though, because of the cost in both time and money. The next 50 years could see many urban problems being solved, and that could mean the countryside benefits as people rediscover the convenience of cities. The English ideal of invincible green suburbs and the garden citied of Ebenezer Howard looks set to be replaced by the continental way of life — or rather the British way of life in towns like Buxton, Bath and York in Georgian times, when the countryside was the playground visited by towndwellers at weekends and for holidays. People who live permanently in the country will do so because the countryside is their passion, and because they like the way working with animals dictates a different timetable and priorities.

  1. What does “come to a head” in the first passage mean?

  A. come to the first in a series of sequencesB. be in the first of a space

  C. become the most critical problemD. need careful thought in head

  2. What will be the scene of country in half a century?

  A. Farmers wont raise animals anymore.

  B. Large number of wealthy people will regard farming in the distant country as an entertainment.

  C. People will realize the side effect of GM crops.

  D. Country will be transformed into a place without vehicle.

  3. Crime rates in the country will soar because

  A. Country bears large space which makes thieves hide easily.

  B. Thieves consider it a comparatively easier place to get money and it bears greater mobility.

  C. Country people are kind and mild.

  D. Wealthy people live more in country than in city.

  4. Which of the following is NOT true according to the passage?

  A. If farmers wish to survive in farming, they have to get new ways of selling their agricultural products.

  B. Crime in country will be gotten rid of by village police.

  C. More railways could be added in countryside to reduce transport pressure.

  D. English ideal suburb life is due to be consistent forever.

  5. Whats the best title for this passage?

  A. Farming in England.B. British Agricultural Revolution

  C. Crisis in EnglandD. British Country

  Passage 4 Medieval noblewomen swallowed arsenic and dabbed on bats blood to improve their complexions; 18th century Americans prized the warm urine of young boys to erase their freckles; Victorian ladies removed their ribs to give themselves a wasp waist. The desire to be beautiful is as old as civilization, as is the pain that it can cause.

  The pain has not stopped the passion from creating a $160 billionayear global industry, encompassing makeup, skin and hair care, fragrance, cosmetic surgery, health clubs and diet pills. Americans spend more each year on beauty than they do on education. Such spending is not mere vanity. Being pretty — or just not ugly — confers enormous genetic and social advantages. Attractive people (both men and women) are judged to be more intelligent and sexy; they earn more, and they are more likely to marry.

  Beauty matters most, though, for reproductive success. A study by an American scientist, logged the mating preferences of more than 10,000 people across 37 cultures. It found that a psychologist and author of “Survival of the Prettiest”, argues that “good looks are a womans most fungible asset, exchangeable for social position, money, even love”。

  Beauty is something that we recognize instinctively. A baby of three months will smile longer at a face judged by adults to be “attractive”。 Such beauty signals health and fertility. Long lustrous hair has always been a sign of good health; mascara makes eyes look bigger and younger; blusher and red lipstick mimic signs of sexual arousal. Whatever the culture, relatively light and flawless skin is seen as a testament to both youth and health.

  Then again, a curvy body, with big breasts and a waisttohip ratio of less than 0.8 — Barbies is 0.54shows an ideal stage of readiness for conception. Plastic surgery to pad breasts or lift buttocks serves to make a woman look as though she was in her late teens or early 20s.

  Basic instinct keeps the beauty industry powerful. In medieval times, recipes for homemade cosmetics were kept in the kitchen right beside those used to feed the family. But it was not until the start of the 20th century, when mass production coincided with mass exposure to an idealized standard of beauty (through photography, magazines and movies) that the industry first took off.

  In 1909, Eugene Schuler founded the French Harmless Hair Coloring Co., which later became LOrealtodays industry leader. Two years later, Paul Beiersdorf, a Hamburg pharmacist, developed the first cream to bind oil and water. Today, it sells in 150 countries as Novae, the biggest personalcare brand in the world.

  But it was the great rivalry between two women in America that made the industry what it is today. Elizabeth Arden opened the first modern beauty salon in 1910, followed a few years later by Helena Rubinstein, a Polish immigrant. The two took cosmetics out of household pots and pans and into the modern era. Both thought beauty and health were interlinked. They combined facials with diets and exercise classes in a holistic approach that the industry is now returning to.

  The emerging beauty industry played on the fear of looking ugly as much as on the pleasure of looking beautiful, drawing on the new science of psychology to convince women that an inferiority complex could be cured by a dab of lipstick. On launching her famous eighthour cream, developed for her horses, Arden quipped: “I judge a woman and a horse by the same criteria: legs, head and rear end”。

  1. Which of the following is NOT mentioned in the passage to improve womens beauty?

  A. use mascaraB. remove womens ribs

  C. dab arsenic on faceD. make use of warm urine of young boys

  2. What can be inferred from the instance of babys longer smile at beautiful face?

  A. Every one of us can appreciate beautiful picture without learning about it.

  B. Beauty signals health and fertility.

  C. Beauty can offer more superior care to babies.

  D. Beautiful faces can exchange social position, money, even love by their beauty.

  3. According to the passage, women get plastic surgery to pad breasts or lift buttocks in order to

  A. appear more intelligent and sexy.B. look younger.

  C. earn more money.D. get more likely married.

  4. What resulted in the first beauty industry prosperity?

  A. peoples instinct to beauty

  B. convenience caused by attractive appearance

  C. the splendid match of mass production of cosmetics and mass exposure to standard beauty

  D. great rivalry between two women in American beauty industry

  5. With which tone did Arden remark on women?

  A. witticism B. criticism

  C. idealismD. egotism

  Keys and notes for the passage reading:Passage 1

  这篇文章主要介绍网络广播的优点和缺点, 以及作者对收听广播音乐所给的几点建议。

  The one that hit the news last week is the fee structure. Many of these “stations” are geeky momandpop operations that dont charge for their music and dont pay for it either, and arrangement the record labels are trying to rectify by imposing a royalty of fourteenhundredths of a cent per song per listener. 许多这样的电台是由沉迷于计算机的夫妻共同经营的,这种经营既不对他们播放的音乐收费,也不对他们播放的音乐付费。而唱片公司正试图通过对每个听众每首歌征收0.14美分的版税来改变这种现状。

  1. 「B」这篇文章主要在介绍一种新的创意,故选B.

  2. 「A」“momandpop operation”是美国的一个习惯用法,意思是夫妻合作经营。

  3. 「A」从文中第四段第一句“But an idea as good as this one is worth fighting for”,可知作者的态度是同意的。

  4. 「C」从文中第六段最后一句可知Mac是用来配置调制解调器的,它不是一种调制解调器,故选答案C.

  5. 「A」联系上下文可知电台设置是一个最重要的前提条件,故选 A.

  Passage 2

  本文以中美贸易关系的发展、变化为主题,围绕中美政治时局、世界经济的变化及美国政府政策等多方面影响因素进行阐明。

  1. Key assumptions about trade policy and the commercial role of nations, such as the role of the United States with respect to both its industrialized and developing nation trading partners, are being revalued in light of changes in the world economy. 随着世界经济的变化,对于各国的贸易政策及经济地位的设想正由于世界经济的变化发生着巨变,正如美国在其工业化和寻找贸易伙伴的过程中所扮演的角色一样。

  2. Especially in the face of a volatile world trade environment, the key to continued growth of U.S. — China trade and investment is the institutionalization of a commercial relationship which would continue to develop regardless of pressure and complications created by global economic changes, or competing economic and political priorities within either the United States or the PRC. 尤其当处于国际瞬息万变的贸易环境中,保持中美贸易和投资持续增长的关键在于其稳定,可增长的贸易关系的确立,不去考虑由全球经济变化带来的压力和复杂性,或中美双方的竞争性经济及政治优胜。

  1. 「C」从文章第一段第一句话可知中美贸易发展潜力巨大,故选择C.

  2. 「B」从文章第二段第二句的后半部分可知中美贸易在中美关系正常化不久后开始,故选择B.

  3. 「A」从文中第三段第二句后半部分可知国际经济变化对中美双边经济、政治产生影响,故选择A.

  4. 文章第五段第二句表明美国国会对国外政策及国外贸易政策担负巨大责任,故选择C.

  5. 「C」因文章通篇围绕中美贸易关系展开,故选择C.

  Passage 3

  英国农村正面临种种危机,亟待改革发展,而巨变后的英国农村又将如何?本文从畜牧业、犯罪、交通等诸多方面对英国农村进行描写。

  1. Amalgamations will mean that in 50 years there are fewer traditional farmers and even fewer farms than there are now; ranchstyle farming with a much reduced labor input will be evident, and intensive farming will have an even sharper focus. 50年后传统农场主和农场的数目都会减少,劳动力投入大大降低的大牧场式的农业将凸显出来,集约农业将更加突出重点。

  2. It is more straightforward to police cities than the countryside and the village bobby will remain a memory. 维持城市治安比维持农村治安简单,村警将是记忆中的事物。

  3. The railways are at capacity and the network is truncated anyway. 铁路运力已经饱和,而且铁路网正在压缩。

  4. People who live permanently in the country will do so because the countryside is their passion. And because they like the way working with animals dictates a different timetable and priorities.现在的人在农村定居是因为他们酷爱农村,还因为他们乐于因饲养动物而遵守不同的作息时间并决定不同事情的轻重缓急。

  1. 「C」come to a head原意指使事物达到定点,在此即指最关键。

  2. 「B」从文章第二段可得出明确的答案,特别是从hobby farmers就可以看出。其余三项表述错误。

  3. 「B」文章第四段第一句话有清楚说明。

  4. 「B」B项表述太绝对, 而且解决乡村犯罪问题比城市要麻烦困难。

  5. 「D」整片文章讲述的都是英国乡村, 其他选项都片面。

  Passage 4

  女为悦己者容。只要地球上男人和女人还都存在,美容业就一定会生生不息。本文的主题即为从古至今,人们不断追求的美容。繁衍生息才是至关重要的。

  1. Plastic surgery to pad breasts or lift buttocks serves to make a woman look as though she was in her late teens or early 20s. 丰胸,提臀的整形手术是为了让女人看起来仍像少女一般。

  2. But it was not until the start of the 20th century, when mass production coincided with mass exposure to an idealized standard of beauty (through photography, magazines and movies) that the industry first took off. 直到20世纪初,一方面(美容品)实现了大规模生产,另一方面大众(通过照片,杂志和电影)大量接触到近乎理想化的美,两者的结合才使美容业第一次飞跃发展。

  3. They combined facials with diets and exercise classes in a holistic approach that the industry is now returning to. 她们把美容,节食和健身课程有机结合起来,这也正是目前美容业回归的方向。

  4. The emerging beauty industry played on the fear of looking ugly as much as on the pleasure of looking beautiful, drawing on the new science of psychology to convince women that an inferiority complex could be cured by a dab of lipstick. Arden quipped: “I judge a woman and a horse by the same criteria: legs, head and rear end.” 美容业的兴起不仅有赖于人们对丑的恐惧,同样也得益于人们对美貌的追求,并利用新的心理学知识让女士相信一抹唇膏就可以让自卑情节一扫而光。雅顿俏皮地说:“我评判一个女人和一匹马的标准是一样的:腿,头和臀部。”

  1. 「C」从文章第一句就可看出应是swallowed arsenic and dabbed on bats blood

  2. 「A」第四段第一句说明了美是凭直觉就能感觉到的东西,由此可推断出A.B不是推断。C,D不符和题意。

  3. 「B」第五段最后一句话有说明。

  4. 「C」第六段最后一句指出: 一方面美容品实现了大规模生产, 另一方面大众通过照片、杂志和电影大量接触到近乎理想化的美, 两者结合才使美容业第一次起飞。

  5. 「A」文章最后说道: Arden quipped,即妙语评论。

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