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考研阅读高分十二大策略之例证原则

2006-7-14 22:49  

  九、例证原则

  事实说话往往是最有效的论证方式之一,命题专家在设置题目时往往也会针对文中的事例设问,考查考生对局部结构的理解。例证题1994年第一次出现在考研试卷上,共两道题,占4分。但在1995年至1998年间,没有出现过一道例证题,1999年再次出现,一样是两道题,占4分。之后,几乎每年的考题都有一至两道例证题,这就说明考研命题的一大特点,命题规则总是不断重复的。考生们在应用例证原则解题时还应注意常用的例证方式有两种:一是先提出观点,后举例说明;二是先列举事例再做出结论。考生应当学会举一反三,不要被各种原则的变化形式所迷惑。

  例

  Now the tide appears to be turning. As personal injury claims  continue as before, some courts are beginning to side with defendants, especially in cases where a warning label probably wouldn't have changed anything.In May, Julie Nimmons, president of Schutt Sports in Illinois, successfully fought a lawsuit involving a football player who was paralyzed in a game while wearing a Schutt helmet. “We're really sorry he has become paralyzed, but helmets aren't designed to prevent those kinds of injuries,” says Nimmons. The jury agreed that the nature of the game, not the helmet, was the reason for the athlete's injury. At the same time, the American Law Institute—a group of judges, lawyers, and academics whose recommendations carry substantial weight—issued new guidelines for tort law stating that companies need not warn customers of obvious dangers or bombard them with a lengthy list of possible ones.

  “Important information can get buried in a sea of trivialities,” says a law professor at Cornell Law School who helped draft the new guidelines. If the moderate end of the legal community has its way, the information on products might actually be provided for the benefit of customers and not as protection against legal liability.

  The case of Schutt helmet demonstrated that .

  [A]some injury claims were no longer supported by law

  [B]helmets were not designed to prevent injuries

  [C]product labels would eventually be discarded

  [D]some sports games might lose popularity with athletes[1999年53 题]

  A[正确答案]

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