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考研英语范文阅读(十六)

2006-7-6 21:40  

  Scattered around the globe are more than 100 small regions of isolated volcanic activity known to geologists as hot spots. Unlike most of the world's volcanoes, they are not always found at the boundaries of the great drifting plates that make up the earth's surface; on the contrary, many of them lie deep in the interior of a plate. Most of the hot spots move only slowly, and in some cases the movement of the plates past them has left trails of dead volcanoes. The hot spots and their volcanic trails are milestones that mark the passage of the plates.

  That the plates are moving is now beyond dispute. Africa and South America, for example, are moving away from each other as new material is injected into the sea floor between them. The complementary coastlines and certain geological features that seem to span the ocean are reminders of where the two continents were once joined. The relative motion of the plates carrying these continents has been constructed in detail, but the motion of one plate with respect to another cannot readily be translated into motion with respect to the earth's interior. It is not possible to determine whether both continents are moving in opposite directions or whether one continent is stationary and the other is drifting away from it. Hot spots, anchored in the deeper layers of the earth, provide the measuring instruments needed to resolve the question. From an analysis of the hot-spot population it appears that the African plate is stationary and that it has not moved during the past 30 million years.

  The significance of hot spots is not confined to their role as a frame of reference. It now appears that they also have an important influence on the geophysical processes that propel the plates across the globe. When a continental plate come to rest over a hot spot, the material rising from deeper layer creates a broad dome. As the dome grows, it develops deep fissures(cracks); in at least a few cases the continent may break entirely along some of these fissures, so that the hot spot initiates the formation of a new ocean. Thus just as earlier theories have explained the mobility of the continents, so hot spots may explain their mutability (inconstancy)。

  67. The author believes that ________.

  (A)the motion of the plates corresponds to that of the earth's interior

  (B)the geological theory about drifting plates has been proved to be true

  (C)the hot spots and the plates move slowly in opposite directions

  (D)the movement of hot spots proves the continents are moving apart

  68. That Africa and South America were once joined can be deduced from the fact that ________.

  (A)the two continents are still moving in opposite directions

  (B)they have been found to share certain geological features

  (C)the African plates has been stable for 30 million years

  (D)over 100 hot spots are scattered all around the globe

  69. The hot-spot theory may prove useful in explaining ________.

  (A)the structure of the African plates

  (B)the revival of dead volcanoes

  (C)the mobility of the continents

  (D)the formation of new oceans

  70. The passage is mainly about ________.

  (A)the features of volcanic activities

  (B)the importance of the theory about drifting plates

  (C)the significance of hot spots in geophysical studies

  (D)the process of the formation of volcanoes

  答案及试题解析

  BBDC

  67.(B)意为:地质学上的板块漂移说证明是正确的。

  第二段第一句指出,对于板块漂移说目前已不存异议(beyond dispute)。例如,非洲和南美洲正在漂离,新物质不断注入二者之间的海底裂痕。

  A意为:板块的移动与地球内部的移动是相对应的。第一段指出,地球有100多个地质学家称之为热点的互不相邻的(isolated)火山活跃区。与地球上多数火山不同的是:它们并非都处在构成地球表面的巨大漂游板块的连接处,相反,它们多深埋在板块之下(lie deep in the interior of a plate)。这些热点移动缓慢,有时,当板块从它们上面移动过去时,就会留下死火山痕迹(trails of dead volcanoes)。热点及其火山痕迹标志着板块漂移而过。可见,二者的移动并没有相应处。

  C意为:热点和板块缓慢作反方向移动。根据第一段,二者的移动并没有相应处。参阅上文题解。

  D意为;热点的移动证明:大陆板块正在漂离。根据第一段最后一句,热点及其火山痕迹证明板块是移动的。

  68.(B)意为:它们有某些共同的地质特征。

  第二段指出,对于板块漂移说目前已不存异议。例如,非洲和南美洲正在漂离,新物质不断注入二者之间的海底裂痕;虽然有大洋(大西洋)相隔,二者的海岸线(形状)是互补的(complementary),共有某些地质特征,说明它们曾经是联在一起的。

  A意为:这两个大陆还在向相反方向移动。根据第二段最后一句,通过对热点区域的研究发现,非洲板块似乎是静止的(stationary),至少3000万年未移动了。

  C意为:非洲板块至少3000万年未移动了。这也许是事实,但不是非洲和南美洲曾经是一个板块的证据。

  D意为:地球有100多个热点。这也许是事实,但这也不是非洲和南美洲曾经是一个板块的证据。

  69.(D)意为:新的海洋的形成。

  最后一段指出,热点说的意义不限于提供了一个参照点,它看来对推动板块移动的地质物理学过程也提供了解释。当板块处于热点之上时,底层物质会将板块顶起,形成(develop)巨大的弧线(a broad dome),弧线变高时,板块出现深深的裂痕。当有些地方裂痕迸裂后,就形成新的海洋。

  A意为:非洲板块的结构。

  B意为;死火山的复活。

  C意为:大陆板块的移动性。热点只能说明板块是移动的,但板块为什么是漂移的,本文却并没有解释。

  70.(C)意为:地质物理学中热点说的意义。

  本文提到了这种学说的几方面的意义。见上文题解。

  A意为:火山活动的特点。

  B意为:板块漂移说的重要性。

  D意为:火山的形成过程。

  翻译句子

  1、That the plates are moving is now beyond dispute.

  [参考译文]板块漂移这一理论现在是毋庸置疑的。

  2、As the dome grows, it develops deep fissures(cracks); in at least a few cases the continent may break entirely along some of these fissures, so that the hot spot initiates the formation of a new ocean.

  [参考译文]随着这个圆顶的增长,它开始出现初始的裂缝(裂纹);在至少几个个例中,这块大陆可能会沿着其中的一些裂缝完全裂开,因此这个热点就引发了一个新的海洋的形成。

  补充难句翻译

  ①Unlike most of the world's volcanoes, they are not always found at the boundaries of the great drifting plates that make up the earth's surface; on the contrary, many of them lie deep in the interior of a plate.[参考译文]跟世界上的大多数火山不同的是,它们(热点)并不总是在由构成地球表面的巨大漂流板块之间的边界上出现;相反,它们中有许多位于一个板块较纵深的内部。

  [结构剖析]这是一个由两个分句组成的并列句,中间由分号隔开。前一个分句的第一个部分是一个形容词性的短语,修饰的是这个句子的主语they,在plates的后面有一个that引导的定语从句,that所替代的plates在这个从句里作主语;第二个分句用on the contrary开始,表示与前面的情况形成对比,这个句子较简单,注意这里them指的是前文所说的hot spots.

  [阅读重点]注意两个分句的对比关系,弄清哪个特征是they(hot spots)所具有的。

  ②The complementary coastlines and certain geological features that seem to span the ocean are reminders of where the two continents were once joined.[参考译文]那些好像是横跨海洋的互补的海岸线和某些地质特征提醒人们注意那里曾是两块大陆结合的地方。

  [结构剖析]这个单句的主语是the complementary coastlines and certain geological features,后面带了一个定语从句,从句中that充当的是主语;表语名词reminders跟了一个of加上where引导的名词性表示地点从句的短语。where从句中用的是过去时,表示的是过去存在的结合状态。

  [阅读重点]找出句子的主语、谓语(are)和表语(reminders),再看主语和表语的修饰成分。并注意reminders的意思是“值得注意的地方,具有提醒作用的地方”。

  ③The relative motion of the plates carrying these continents has been constructed in detail, but the motion of the plates with respect to another cannot readily be translated into motion with respect to the earth's interior.[参考译文]携带这些大陆板块的相对运动已经能够被详细地表述出来,但是这些板块相对于另一些板块的运动还不能轻易地解释为它们相对于地球内部的运动。

  [结构剖析]在这个用but连接的两个并列分句中,前一个分句主语的限定成分the plates带了一个现在分词短语,起修饰作用;后一个分句中注意谓语be translated into意为“被解释为”,这里的another指的是another plates.介词whit respect to出现了两次,意思是“相对于……”。

  [阅读重点]对介词的理解是这个句子的关键,注意motion这个词在本句中指的是相对运动。

  ④It is not possible to determine whether both continents are moving in opposite directions or whether one continent is stationary and the other is drifting away from it.[参考译文]不可能确定两块大陆是反向移动的,还是一块大陆静止不动、另一块从它身边漂移开去。

  [结构剖析]这个简单句的主语 it是个形式主语,真正的主语是后面to引导的不定式短语。这个短语中,determine后面跟的是whether…… or whether……引导的选择关系的从句。注意后面whether从句中有两个分句,用and连接,其中the other指的是the other continent.

  [阅读重点]找出该句真正的主语(不定式形式),注意两个whether从句的选择关系,以及后一个从句中两个小句所描述的相对关系。

  ⑤As the dome grows, it develops deep fissures(cracks); in at least a few cases the continent may break entirely along some of these fissures, so that the hot spot initiates the formation of a new ocean.[参考译文]随着这个圆顶的增长,它开始出现初始的裂缝(裂纹);在至少几个个例中,这块大陆可能会沿着其中的一些裂缝完全裂开,因此这个热点就引发了一个新的海洋的形成。

  [结构剖析]这个句子是由四个小分句组成,前两个分句是一个主从复合句,其中it指的是the dome;分号后面的句子有一个状语短语in at least a few cases,逗号后面是so that引导的表示结果的从句。

  [阅读重点]在理解这个句子时,最好是能按时间的先后排列地质变化的过程。

  语言点详解

  1.scatter散布[大纲词汇]scatter v.散开,驱散;散布,散播[经典例句]His things were scattered all over the room.

  2.isolated孤立的[大纲词汇]isolate v.孤立,隔离[衍生词汇]isolated a.孤立的[经典例句]They lived isolated in their own little world.

  3.volcanic activity火山活动[大纲词汇]volcano n.火山[衍生词汇] volcanic a.火山的

  4.drifting plates漂移的板块[大纲词汇]drift v./n.漂移,漂plate n.金属板,片;盘子,盆子;板,钢板

  5.make up构成[大纲词汇] make up构成,组成[经典例句] 10 chapters made up this volume.

  6.interior内部[大纲词汇]interior a.内部的,里面的;n,内部,内地[经典例句]Desert lie in the interior of Asia.

  7.milestone里程碑[扩充词汇]milestone n.里程碑;重大事件,转折点[经典例句]He regards his decision as a milestone of his career.

  8.passage经过[大纲词汇]passage n.通过,经过;通路,走廊;(一)段,(一)节[经典例句]The wind of the train's passage ruffled his hair.

  9.beyond dispute无可质疑的[扩充词汇]beyond dispute不容争辩的,无可质疑的[经典例句]His honest is beyond dispute.

  10.complementary补充的[大纲词汇]complement v./n.补充,补足(物)[衍生词汇]complementary a.补充的,补足的,相配的[经典例句]Her first two books are complementary to her latest one.

  11.span跨越[大纲词汇]span n.跨度,跨距[扩充词义]span v.跨越,横跨[经典例句]A bridge spanned the stream.

  12.reminder提醒[大纲词汇]remind v.(of)提醒,使想起[衍生词汇]reminder n.提示,帮助记忆的符号;提醒者[词汇比较]remainder n.剩余物;余数,余项注意:两词拼写的细微差异。

  [经典例句] She sent his to bed with reminder to hang up his clothes.

  13.in detail详细地[大纲词汇] detail n.细节,详情; v.详述in detail详细地[经典例句]The witness was asked to describe the accident in detail.

  14.with respect to关于〔大纲词汇〕respect v.尊敬,尊重;n.尊敬,尊重; [pl.]敬意,问候with respect to关于[经典例句]He informed me about my right with respect to the house I inherited from my mother.

  15.translate into使转变[大纲词汇] translate v.翻译translation n.翻译;译文,译本[扩充词义]translate v.使转变,使变化[经典例句]He was rapidly translating himself into a gardener.

  16. anchor固定[大纲词汇]anchor n.锚; v.抛锚,停泊[扩充词义]anchor v.使固定[经典例句]They anchored a mesh over the bed.

  17.stationary静止的[大纲词汇]stationary a.静止的,固定的[经典例句]No form of living language can remain stationary.

  18.population总数[大纲词汇]population n.人口[扩充词义]population n.(某地或某类)物品的总数[经典例句]The tractor population of Chinese farmers is increasing.

  19.confine to局限于[大纲词汇]confine v.(to,within)限制,局限于;管制,禁闭[经典例句]The scientist didn't confine his research to geology.

  20.propel推动[大纲词汇]propeller n.螺旋桨,推进器[扩充词汇]propel v.推进,推动;激励,驱策[经典例句] The fuel is served to propel a missile.

  21.dome圆顶[大纲词汇]dome n.圆顶屋

  22.fissure裂缝[大纲词汇] fissure n.(狭而深长的)裂缝,裂隙[经典例旬]His finger was stuck in a fissure in a rock.

  23.formation形成[大纲词汇]form v.组成,构成;形成formation n.形成,构成[经典例句]Scientists tried to determine the physical process of rock formation.

  24.mutability无规则变动[扩充词汇]mutability n.变动,变化,反复无常

  25.inconstancy多变[扩充词汇]inconstancy n.反复无常;多变[经典例句]Her inconstancy annoyed all her friends.

  26.correspond to对应[大纲词汇] correspond v.通信,(with)符合,一致;(to)相当于,对应correspondence n.通信,信件;(with)符合,一致;(to)相对于,对应correspondent n.记者,通讯员;通信者[经典例句]The movement of the satellite corresponds to that of the Earth.

  27.deduce from推断[大纲词汇]deduce v.(from)演绎,推断[经典例句]I deduced from her conversation that she had a large family.

  全文翻译

  地球上散落分布着100多个互不相连的小火山活动区,被地质学家称为热点。和世界上大多数火山不同的是,它们并不总是在构成地球表面的巨大漂流板块之间的边界上出现;相反,许多热点处于板块较深的内部。大多数热点移动非常缓慢,有时,板块滑过这些热点便留下了死火山的痕迹。热点及其火山痕迹是板块移动的标志。

  板块漂移这一理论现在是毋庸置疑的。例如,以非洲和南美洲为例,由于有新的物质注入二者之间的海底,两大洲距离越来越远。但互相吻合的海岸线和某些似乎跨越海洋的地质特征会使人想到这两个大陆曾经是连在一起的。携带这些大陆的板块的相对运动已经能够被详细地阐述出来,但一个板块相对另一板块的运动还不能轻易地解释为它们相对于地球内部的运动。人们不能确定两个大陆是在朝相反的方向运动,还是一个大陆停止不动而另一个从它身边漂移开去。位于地球更深层的热点提供了解决该问题的测量仪器。从热点地区的人口情况分析来看,非洲板块似乎是固定的,在过去3000万年里也没有移动过。

  热点的重要性不仅限于它们作为参照体系的作用。现在看来,它们还对推动板块在地球表面漂移这一地球物理过程有重要影响。当大陆板块漂移到热点上方,来自地球深层的物质便形成了巨大的圆顶状隆起物。随着这个圆顶的增长,板块出现深深的裂缝。至少有几次,大陆可能会沿着其中的一些裂缝完全裂开了,因此这个热点就引发了一个新的海洋的形成。这样,正像早期的理论解释了大陆的移动性一样,热点理论或许能解释大陆板块的不稳定性。

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