Science means the exploration of truth. In the process of exploring truth， people will have to experience tremendous hardships and difficulties before they can come to understand the objective laws. It is often the case that the differences in the research perspectives， the materials mastered， and the ways of understanding would lead to totally different results—as we might say， “a mountain becomes a hill when viewed horizontally and a peak when viewed vertically， and it assumes totally different shapes when viewed from a short or a long distance， or from a high or a low position.” – and even lead to academic disputes. Therefore， an accomplished scientist would regard opposing arguments as his most tremendous benefit and take others' criticism of him as the most precious friendship that he can ever obtain. In Gothe’s words， “We take for granted what we are in favor of. However， only what we are opposed to can enrich our thoughts.” This is all because the approving opinions are not necessarily justified while the opposing arguments are not necessarily unfounded. To put it in the least way， even the opposing arguments that are mistaken will be immensely beneficial to one's own scientific research.
原文： It should have been easy. They were battle-tested veterans with long ties to Reagan and even longer ties to the Republican party， men who understood presidential politics as well as any in the country. The backdrop of the campaign was hospitable， with lots of good news to work with： America was at peace， and the nation's economy， a key factor in any election， was rebounding vigorously after recession. Furthermore， the campaign itself was lavishly financed， with plenty of money for a top -flight staff， travel， and television commercials. And， most important， their candidate was Ronald Reagan， a president of tremendous personal popularity and dazzling communication skills. Reagan has succeed more than any president since John F. Kennedy in projecting a broad vision of America – a nation of renewed military strength， individual initiative， and smaller federal government.
原 文：Although the American economy has transformed itself over the years， certain issues have persisted since the early days of the republic. One is the continuing debate over the proper role for government in what is basically a marketplace economy. An economy based on free enterprise is generally characterized by private ownership and initiative， with a relative absence of government involvement. However， government intervention has been found necessary from time to time to ensure that economic opportunities are fair and accessible to the people， to prevent flagrant abuses， to dampen inflation and to stimulate growth.
Ever since colonial times， the government has been involved， to some extent， in economic decision-making. The federal government， for example， has made huge investments in infrastructure， and it has provided social welfare programs that the private sector was unable or unwilling to provide. In a myriad of ways and over many decades， the government has supported and promoted the development of agriculture.