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70天攻克考研英语阅读 DAY35

2006-7-28 01:04  

  Increasing reading speed

  Directions:Do the phrase recognition drill below.Quickly underline or mark the key phrase every time it appears in the columns.Try to finish in 10 seconds or less by reading down the column,not left to right.

  Starting Time:

  Key Phrase:a marine biologista marine biologista marine barometer

  a famous biologista marine biologist

  a skilled marinera marine biologist

  a marine biologista marine corrosion

  a marine surveyora marine biologist

  a marine biologista marine railway

  a marine specialista marine biologist

  a marine laboratorya marine scientist

  a Chinese biologista marine engineer

  a foreign biologista marine biologist

  a skilled biologista marine biologist

  a skilled biologista famous socialist

  a Chinese biologistan honest biologist

  a marine's compassa marine biologist

  Finishing Time: Total Reading Time:

  Check each line very carefully.Key phrase appears 10 times.

  Sylvia Earle - Deep Diving ScientistThe bent,bectle-like figure looked like a monster from another planet. Three huge eyes stared into the murky,blue darkness as the ponderous body lumbered across the soft ocean floor.

  But looks can be deceiving. The monster was actually a new kind of deep diving suit with a human inside. Although the diving suit was named "Jim" (for Jim Jarratt, a pioneer diver),a woman was inside the suit. The woman was Dr. Sylvia Earle,a marine biologist. Her recent dive in the new suit was truly historic. Dr. Earle worked and walked on the ocean bottom 403 meters  (1,250 feet) below the surface. It was the deepest solo dive yet.

  The diving suit had no life lines or air lines to the surface. Instead,Dr. Earle breathed a mixture of air from a tank within the suit. To reach the ocean bottom,Dr. Earle hitched a ride by holding onto a manned minisub. Once on the bottom Dr. Earle let go of the sub and explored the ocean floor for four hours.

  While 600 pounds of water pressure per square inch pressed on Jim's metal shell,Dr. Earle breathed air at normal atmospheric pressure. The carbon dioxide gas breathed out by Dr. Earle was continually removed from the air.

  As she walked about the ocean floor,Dr. Earle was surprised at the abundance of life caught in the sub's floodlight. She saw a small shark with glowing green eyes and a lantern fish whose sides were dotted with miniature,living "light bulbs. "

  There were beautiful sea fans waving to and fro in the undersea currents. Especially beautiful were the flowing spirals of bamboo coral.

  When Dr. Earle was finished exploring,she was quickly whisked to the surface by the minisub:unlike other divers, Dr. Earle did not have to go through the long process of decompression. Normally,when divers stay underwater a long time,the high underwater pressure forces nitrogen from the air to dissolve in the bloodstream. If a diver rises to the surface too fast,the nitrogen gas in the blood bubbles out,damages living tissues and causes a very painful condition called the bends.

  To avoid this,a diver is usually placed in a decompression chamber. There,the high pressure encountered underwater is gradually changed,or decompressed,to the atmospheric pressure found at the surface. The nitrogen dissolved in the diver's blood can then slowly escape from it without causing the bends. Dr. Earle was able to avoid going through decompression because she was breathing air whose pressure always remained the same as air on the surface.

  Spends Much Time UnderwaterThe testing of the new diving suit was only one of many undersea projects that Dr. Earle has been a part of. She was group leader for a team of five female researchers who spent two weeks living and working in an undersea habitat off the Virgin Islands in the Caribbean. The habitat,called Tektite 2,was 16 meters (50 feet)below the surface.

  In addition to leading the project,Dr. Earle gathered information on how the grazing habits of plant eating fish affect the growth and distribution of the plants.

  Dr. Earle has also worked with Dr. Roger Payne,the biologist who is famous for his studies of whale communication. While Dr. Payne studied and recorded the songs of the humpback whales from the surface,Dr. Earle studied the behavior of the animals below the surface.  One time Dr. Earle was in the water with four humpback whales. Suddenly one 40ton giant came within touching distance of her. The huge animal's head tilted slightly,and a great eye inspected the scientist as its huge body slipped past her. The gentle creature then moved toward other divers and checked them out. Then it went on its way.

  Long Interest in NatureDr. Earle said her love of nature began during her childhood in New Jersey. "I spent most of my time outside," she said. "I played in the swamps and woods near my home."

  At present,Dr. Earle works at the California Academy of Science. She is also a special consultant for the United Nations on the conservation of cetaceans (whales and their relatives)。

  ——from Current Science,Oct. 22, 1980

  Time: 709 Words=wpm

  Minutes

  EXERCISESⅠ。READING COMPREHENSION

  Select the answer which is most accurate according to the information given in the passage.

  1. The beetle-like figure was a .

  A. three eyed monsterB. robot diver

  C. minisub D. new kind of deep diving suit

  2. "Jim," the deep diving suit was named after .

  A. a pioneer marine biologistB. a pioneer marine geologist

  C. a diver who was the first person to go under deep water

  D. its designer

  3. The sentence,"it was the deepest solo dive yet"(paragraph 2) implies that .

  A. this record (403 meters below the surface of the sea)has already been broken by at least one diver

  B. Dr. Earle still holds the record now

  C. Dr. Earle reached the deepest ocean floor in the world

  D. this has been the only dive accomplished on the deepest ocean floor

  4. According to paragraph 3,Dr. Earle  the ocean bottom.

  A. rode in the minisub to reach B. steered the minisub down to

  C. attached herself to the minisub to reachD. piloted (引航)the minisub to

  5. Working on the ocean floor 403 meters below the surface,Dr. Earle could still breathe air at normal atmospheric pressure,in that .

  A. Jim's metal shell shielded her from the immense pressure

  B. she inhaled air from a tank inside the diving suit.

  C. she breathed enough air from a number of air lines

  D. both A and B

  6. According to the author,the small shark's eyes were glowing .

  A. with pleasure when it saw its preyB. in the darkness

  C. in the sub's floodlightD. with fear when it saw the beetle-like Jim

  7. The process of decompression .

  A. makes the nitrogen gas in the bloodstream bubble out

  B. brings a diver working in the high pressure back to normal air pressure and allows the nitrogen gas to slowly escape from the diver's blood

  C. enables a diver to regain his strength

  D. none of the above

  8. All of the following tasks were carried out by Dr. Earle EXCEPT .

  A. studying the behavior of killer sharks

  B. observing the behavior of humpback whales

  C. spending two weeks working and living in an undersea habitat

  D. studying the relationship between the grazing habits of plant eating fish and the growth and distribution of the plant

  9. The passage implies that humpback whales .

  A. weigh at least 40 tons B. are dangerous animals

  C. do no harm to diversD. are the biggest mammals in the world

  Ⅱ。 CONTEXTUAL REFERENCE

  Read the following article and figure out the meaning of each word in italics using the context given and word building skills.

  Humans Could Break the Depth Barrier

  Scientists at the French National Marine Research Institute in Marseilles have devised a way for divers to work at new depths. The secret is in the air they breathe.

  Humans cannot breathe ordinary air at depths below 50 metres or so. The extra pressure forces nitrogen into the blood, causing a sort of drunkenness called nitrogen narcosis.

  To go deeper,divers working on offshore oil fields breathe a mixture of helium (氦) and oxygen. This works to depths of around 300 metres,about the limit for today's divers. Any deeper,and the pressure of the water itself excites the central nervous system,causing tremors,clumsiness and cramps (肌肉痉挛)。 British researchers,however,have reached depths of 660 metres in simulated dives (模拟潜水),breathing a mixture of helium,nitrogen and oxygen.

  The French team has been testing mixtures of hydrogen and oxygen for deeper dives:Hydrogen depresses the nerves in a similar way to nitrogen,although it has a less narcotic effect. Scientists do not know why. Tests in a hyperbaric chamber (高压舱)in Marseilles suggest that hydrogen at simulated depths of more than 300 metres counterbalances the effect that water pressure has on the nervous system. Bernard Gardette,a doctor at the institute,says divers breathing the mixture feel normal to simulated depths of 450 metres.

  Mixtures of hydrogen and oxygen are highly explosive,of course,and can be used only when the concentration of oxygen is less than 2 percent. At depths of 450 metres,Gardette says,a mixture of less than l per cent of oxygen will support normal respiration.

  At depths between 300 and 450 metres,hydrogen's depressive effect on the brain increases faster than the opposite effect of pressure,and causes narcosis. The way around is to replace some hydrogen with helium. Gardette says the team is trying to develop standard mixtures for various depths. The difficulty:drivers vary enormously in their response to gases.

  Because mixtures of hydrogen and oxygen are so dangerous at the surface,the researchers envisage the gases for long stays underwater,Xavier Fructus of the marine research institute told a meeting last week on extreme environments.

  ——from New Scientist,March 6,1986

  Ⅲ。 CLOZE

  Complete the following passage by filling in the blanks with appropriate words.

  Dr. Sylvia Earle - Marine Biologist

  Dr. Sylvia Earle says of her work:"It's the age of exploration all over again;and if we are to live well in the future,we have to become more aware of the sea as a life support system."

  This statement   1  the sense of urgency and excitement this scientist feels     2     her work.

  Dr. Earle started her professional career     3     a botanist - a person who specializes     4 plants. In time she became     5     in plants that grow in the     6     - especially the algae.

  Trained     7     an aquanaut (海底观察员),Dr. Earle swims     8     undersea environments to study plants firsthand. This is not     9     of all marine biologists. Most spend their   10   in laboratories weighing,measuring,and experimenting   11   various kinds of ocean life.

  Dr. Earle's interest   12   marine plants led to a   13   of marine animals,since both forms of life   14   intimately related.

  A unique study   15   this interrelationship was undertaken by Dr. Earle   16   the Truk Islands in the South Pacific. During World War II in 1944, 60 Japanese ships were   17   there by U.S. planes. Thirty one years later Dr. Earle,  18   with photographer Al Giddings,swam into the eerie (可怕的;怪异的)environment to  19  the colonization of plants and animals on the wrecked hulls. One     20     of Dr. Earle was to analyze the largest coral (珊瑚) she     21     find. This would give some     22     of how fast the coral grew over a 31year period.

  Dr. Earle's field of marine biology is highly specialized. This area of biology is expected to grow as governments become more aware of the field for ocean research. In the broader area of oceanography (海洋学), job opportunities will also increase.

  ——from Teacher's Editor of Current Science, Oct.22,1980

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