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70天攻克考研英语阅读 DAY54

2006-7-28 01:05  

  DAY54

  Reading comprehension

  Direction: In this part, there are four passages followed by questions or unfinished statements, each with four suggested answers marked A, B, C and D. Choose the one that you think is the correct answer.

  Passage 1

  Medicine does not always ease suffering. Sometimes its interventions are too heavyhanded, too insensitive to the individual case. The natural birth movement was, in part, a protest against medicine as it was practised in hospitals. It sprang from the belief that the experience of childbirth was being distorted, that doctors were transforming labor from a natural process into a medical condition. Advocates of natural childbirth lobbied for birth to be made simple again, for modern medicine to be a safety net that monitored, rather than controlled, a womans labor.

  Side by side with this movement has been a recognition that our treatment of the dying, and,therefore, our experience of death, could also benefit from more simplicity and maybe less medicine. In the age, Peter Ellingsen wrote about three people in Melbournes inner northern suburbs who were dying of cancer. All were visited at home by a palliativecare nurse whose job was to help them, and their families, face death. This type of care is not, primarily, medical, nor is it religious.

  Palliativecare nurses provide pain relief, but mostly their role is simply to listen to what dying people and those near to them have to say. The care acknowledges the feelings of confusion, loss and fear that are a part of death. It is an important job, and a tough one. Australians hate talking about dying, says Allan Kellehear, professor of palliative care at La Trobe University. Sociologist Lesley Fitzpatrick has surveyed images of death in Australian art and finds that, although death and loss are often pictured, dying is hardly ever seen. This almost invisible territory is the domain of the palliativecare nurse. Death sometimes comes slowly, and the terminally ill can be isolated because their dying can frighten those around them who are still well, Palliative care can be an important support for these people, although only about half of those eligible receive it. Professor Kellehear says medical specialists can resist referring people to palliative care, seeing it as a form of “giving up”。

  As the advocates of natural childbirth argued, medicine is not only an impartial science; it is also a cultural construct. In a society that sees the role of medicine as prolonging life, death is often reduced to an incurable condition, an enemy? According to this view, acceptance of death can be seen as gloomy fatalism rather than cleareyed realism.

  These days, many people do not, and it may be that, as our religious faith has receded, so has our ability, as a society, to acknowledge death. As individuals, however, we have no choice. With or without faith, we must muddle along, finding meaning, or solace, how and when we can. Carole Arbuckle says: “A lot of dying people want to talk about what has kept them going. It can be religion, family, fast cars or fishing. Theres no dogma to it. Some see no meaning. Thats OK. I support that, too.”

  These days, death is often abstracted. We see hundreds of cartoon and movie deaths, and we remember the war dead, but, somehow, these ubiquitous images bring us no closer to understanding what it means to die. We have few words for that understanding, and perhaps that is as it should be.

  1. According to the first paragraph, the nature birth movement

  A. should be cured as a kind of disease.B. should let it as original as it used to be.

  C. should be practiced in hospital.D. should be eased by using medicine.

  2. Palliativecare

  A. isolates dying people.

  B. means that nurses should listen to and talk with dying people.

  C. helps dying people to face death.

  D. is a kind of gloom fatalism.

  3. Sociologist Lesley Fitzpatricks survey shows that

  A. people should pay more attention to dying for this process is very terrible.

  B. dying is always ignored intentionally.

  C. Australian artists seldom concern dying.

  D. art is far away from reality.

  4. The primary purpose of the passage is to

  A. explain the theoretic principle and the practice of Palliativecare.

  B. introduce some new trend of thought about medicine.

  C. appeal to people for facing the facts of life and death.

  D. criticize the advocacy of using medicine to prolong life and simplify death.

  5. What is the best title for this passage?

  A. PalliativecareB. Facing life and death

  C. Medicine useD. Pay more attention to dying people

  Passage 2

  They are Big Bertha and Tiny Tina a couple of piglets.

  They may look and act differently (hence, their name), but these oinkers are identical. They are the newest cloned animals from Texas A&M University, which with their births leads the academic pack in the number of species cloned. And the fact that animals with the exact same genes can be different sizes and have different character traits may be just the first of many things that scientists hope can be learned from these little pigs.

  This latest cloning project — and the wealth of information scientists hope it will provide — is just one of the many such animalcloning experiments under way. Even as the humancloning debate has dominated headlines and congressional hearings, scientists, have cloned everything from mice to lambs to bulls.

  And it is in the pens of these cloned animals — rather than the theoretical realm — where both the advances and problems of cloning are being played out.

  After the 1996 birth of Dolly, the sheep, the first cloned animal, the technology has been galloping along, There are now cows and goats that produce more milk and tastier meat, bulls able to resist disease, and pigs that can act as organ donors.

  And this is only the beginning, say cloning supporters. For instance, breeding diseaseresistant cows could save peoples lives in thirdworld countries. And by cloning endangered species, animals such as the Atwater prairie chicken and desert bighorn sheep could be saved from extinction.

  “You could repopulate the world (with an endangered species) in a matter of a couple of years,” says scientist H.Richard Adams. “Cloning is not arrival pursuit……were trying to improve life for people here on earth.”

  The school has come under criticism for its “Missyplicity” project, in which the owners of a dog are spending $3.7million to have the pet cloned.

  In addition to such moral controversies, opponents say there are still too many physical problems associated with animal cloning, such as deformities and high death rates during gestation. A recent article published in the journal Science, for instance, noted that researchers have found that apparently normal cloned animals develop abnormalities later in life.

  Studying questions such as the cognitive ability and behavior of clones is of major importance, but its hard to draw conclusions just yet, scientists say. There are simply not enough clones in the world to make valid comparisons.

  That is why A&M scientists are so excited about their new piglets. Unlike cloned cattle and sheep, which produce only one offspring at a time, the litter or pigs provide scientists a chance to study several clones at once.

  Consider for a moment that Bertha is roughly 40 percent larger and more aggressive than Tina, the nervous runt. Exact same genes, totally different animals.

  “Were seeing some pretty drastic differences in the body weight and behavior,” says Jorge Piedrahita, who heads the pigcloning project at A&M. What that tells us is that small differences in environment can cause large differences in personality.

  But with all that scientists are learning from cloning animals, many of those same scientists draw the line at cloning humans.

  “We still dont know enough about cloning,” says James Womack, director of the center for Animal Biotechnology and Genomics at Texas A&M. It would be foolish to attempt it with our current state of knowledge.

  For instance, there is still a very low success rate for cattle. And of the few cloned calves that even make it to birth, many dont live long.

  “There is a lot of trial and error right now,” says Dr. Womack, “And as a society, we are not prepared for that error in human beings.”

  1. “pen” in paragraph 4 means

  A. instrument for writing with ink.B. writing.

  C. poet or thinker.D. small piece of land surrounded by fence.

  2. The passage suggests which of the following statements is NOT hold by cloning supporters?

  A. Cloning can create new species.

  B. Cloning can save lives for it is able to produce resist disease.

  C. Cloning can increase the output of food.

  D. Cloning can save people in poor countries for now cows and goats produce more milk and meat.

  3. The aim of the new piglets experiment is

  A. to find some new clones to make comparisons.

  B. to improve clones that can be different even they have the same genes.

  C. to study the cognitive ability and behaviors of clones.

  D. to make the clone technology better so that more and more animals can be cloned.

  4. According to the passage, why some scientists draw the line at cloning human?

  A. Because it costs too much.

  B. Because it will cause serious moral controversies.

  C. Because the success rate is very low.

  D. Because the skill of clone is not perfect now.

  5. What is the authors view towards clone?

  A. Optimistic B. Pessimistic C. NeutralD. Appreciate

  Passage 3

  Landing men on the moon captured the public imagination like few other events this century. It had less to do with science than with demonstrating superiority during the cold war, but the appeal of the adventure meant that the Russians, who retrieved lunar rock samples far more economically using robots, came off very much second best. No one has been back to the moon since the Apollo astronauts left in 1972 so the mission has retained its glamour.

  Futurologists foresee a day when there are bases on the moon and were mining asteroids for their minerals. But whos to say what will happen? We are now approaching 2001 and its no more like Arthur Clarkes vision than 1984 proved to be like Orwells people predicted space travel long ago but they didnt anticipate the internet.

  Although putting people into orbit is now routine, traveling further is not. Most spacecraft are unmanned these days but missions are still unpredictable; a spacecraft was destroyed on the approach to Mars only last month.

  Our sights are set on Mars because people still hope to find life there — not the movie directors idea of a Martian, but rather microscopic forms of life hidden beneath the surface to protect them from the cold. Another possible home to life is Jupiters moon, Europa, which seems to have slush beneath its ice crust that is kept warm by tides. But exploration is a long way off.

  Using our nearspace environment is the aim for the foreseeable future. People are even setting up businesses to offer suborbital trips in space to rich members of the general public. The real excitement surrounds the international space station, which will be built over the next five or six years by countries working collaboratively on a spacecraft for the first time. It builds on the success of the space shuttle, which proved very flexible and allowed masses of scientific experiments in microgravity, and also in Mir, which told us a lot about the physical effects of longduration space flight. The Russians kept it going much longer than anyone expected — you were almost blasé about the latest crisis.

  Beyond our own solar system, we will keep up the search for planets that might sustain life. We now know that stars other than our Sun have planets, but theres still a big difference between finding life and intelligent life. You can say “There are so many stars, some of them with planets, that some of those planets must be conducive to life?” But even if that were true, that life might have happened millions of years ago or be going to happen millions of years in the future. The prospects arent great.

  What technology can do is to hang a receiver on a radio telescope to search for signals from space that might have been created artificially. Nothing much has been found so far, but its a search that has captured peoples imagination. In particular, theres SETI [Search for Extra Terrestrial Intelligence] at Home Based in California, this project parcels out data into manageable chunks and sends them over the internet to people with home computers happy to do some number crunching when their computer is idle. A million people are involved!

  Can you imagine anything else but space able to generate participation like that? Remember it could be you.

  1. What is the authors attitude of landing man on the moon?

  A. It is the result of the advance of science.

  B. America masters higher technological skill than Russia.

  C. Russian space skill is at least as good as American.

  D. For landing man costs too much, it is actually a response to the national competition.

  2. Which of the following statements is true?

  A. Traveling in space is beyond human beings control.

  B. Futurologists words are reasonable and convincing.

  C. Anticipating space travel is much easier than to predict internet.

  D. The author believes that people can base on the moon and were mining asteroids for their minerals.

  3. Which of the following statements is ture?

  A. People hope to find humanlike life on Mars.

  B. There is some slush beneath the ice crust on Europa.

  C. Scientists now have found life on Mars.

  D. It is a long time before we can explore the slush on the Europa.

  4. It can be inferred from the passage that .

  A. there is a big difference between finding life and intelligent life.

  B. life can only be found on plants.

  C. a million people are involved in the SETI.

  D. there is a kind of receiver which can search for signals that might be created artificially.

  5. What is the main idea of this essay?

  A. International competition.

  B. Searching for new life on other plants.

  C. Space exploration.

  D. Using space environment.

  Passage 4

  It's hard to miss them: the epitome of casual geek chic and organized within the warranty of their Palm Pilots, they sip labourintensive coffee, chat on sleek cellphones and ponder the road to enlightenment. In the US they worry about the environment as they drive their gas guzzling sports utility vehicles to emporiums of haute design to buy a $50 titanium spatula; they think about their tech stocks as they explore speciality shops for Tibetan artifacts in Everest worthy hiking boots. They think nothing of laying out $5 for a wheatgrass muff, much less $500 for some alternative rejuvenation at the dayspabut dont talk about raising their taxes.

  They are Bourgeois Bohemians — or Books — and theyre the new enlightened elite of the information age, their lucratively busy lives, a seeming synthesis of comfort and conscience, corporate success and creative rebellion. Welleducated thirtytoforty some things, they have forged a new social ethos from a logicdefying fusion of 1960s counterculture and 1980s entrepreneurial materialism.

  Combining the freespirited, artistic rebelliousness of the Bohemian beatnik or hippie with the worldly ambitions of their bourgeois corporate forefathers, the Bobo is a comfortable contortion of caring capitalism. Its not about making money, its about doing something you love. Life should be an extended hobby. Its all about working for a company as cool as you are.

  It is a world inhabited by dotcom millionaires, management consultants, “culture industry” entrepreneurs and all manner of media folk, most earning upwards of $100,000 a year — their money an incidental byproduct of their maverick mores, the kind of money, they happen to earn while they are pursuing their creative vision. Often sporting such unconventional job titles as “creative paradox”, “corporate jester” or “learning person”。 Bobos work with a monklike selfdiscipline because they view their jobs as intellectual, even spiritual. It is a reverse the Midas touch: everything a Bobo touches turns to spirituality; everything has to be about enlightenment. Even their jobs are a mission to improve the world.

  It is now impossible to tell an espressosipping artist from a cappuccinogulping banker, but it isnt just a matter of style. If you investigate peoples attitudes towards sex, morality, leisure time and work, it is getting harder and harder to separate the antiestablishment renegade from the proestablishment company man. Most people seemed to have rebel attitudes and social climbing attitudes all scrambled together.

  These Bobos are just normal middleclass people who are living out a protracted adolescence. Their political interests are either “intensely close and personal”(abortion or gun control), or very remote (the rainforests, Tibet or Third World poverty.) But they will most likely express their conscience in their consumerism, relieved to be helping someone somewhere by collecting the hand carved artifacts of distant cultures.

  Motivated by spiritual participation, by cautious of moral crusades and religious enthusiasms, they tolerate a little lifestyle experimentation so long as it is done safely and moderately. They are offended by concrete wrongs, such as cruelty and racial injustice, but are relatively unmoved by lies or transgressions that dont seem to do anyone any obvious harm.

  It is an elite that has been raised to oppose elites. They are by instinct antiestablishmentarian, yet in some sense they have become a new establishment. They are prosperous without seeming greedy; they have pleased their elders, without seeming conformists; they have risen toward the top without too obviously looking down on those below.

  While bemoaning the Bobos boring politics, the Bobos are an elite superior to their intolerant and warring predecessors — theyre certainly made shopping more fun, and they have a good morality for building a decent society.

  1. According to paragraph 1, which of the following statements is NOT true?

  A. Bobos are not rich enough for they are afraid of raising taxes.

  B. Bobos like to buy the things they like, but never care about how much it cost.

  C. Bobos are leading extravagance lives.

  D. Bobos like fusion and adventures.

  2. “welleducated thirtytoforty some things, they have forged a new social ethos from a logicdefying fusion of 1960s counterculture and 1980s entrepreneurial materialism.” Which of the comprehensions is correct?

  A. They advocate a kind of culture that is opposite to mainstream culture.

  B. They hanker after the practicalism.

  C. They are the combination of both A & B.

  D. They are the combination of the contradiction of A & B.

  3. Which of the following statements is NOT true?

  A. Bobos maintain a maverick mores of money.

  B. Bobos are living for work.

  C. There are more and more differences between Bobos and traditional company man.

  D. Bobos live as if they were teenagers.

  4. What is not the authors attitude towards Bobos?

  A. They do not pay attention to current political events.

  B. They are moral crusade and religious enthusiasms.

  C. They are becoming a new standard of the society.

  D. They hold a moderate way of treating people.

  5. Which of the following words can best describe the authors attitude towards the Bobos.

  A. Neutral B. Against C. Appreciate D. Vague

  Keys and notes for the passage reading:

  Passage 1

  通过介绍医疗进步、姑息疗法以及人们现在对生死的态度,来说明现代社会人们更应该保持正确的生死观。

  It sprang from the belief that the experience of childbirth was being distorted, that doctors were transforming labor from a natural process into a medical condition.(自然分娩在医院进行,在某种程度上是对药物的一种抗议)持这种想法的人认为分娩过程正在被扭曲,医生们正在把自然分娩当成病来治。

  1. 「B」从第一段可看出作者是反对过多地使用药物的。他提倡的是一种自然的分娩方式。

  2. 「C」Palliativecare (姑息疗法)是承认混乱、失落和恐惧是死亡的一部分。它以找人倾听、说话的方式来让将死的病人面对死亡,认识死亡,减轻恐惧。B项是姑息疗法的方式,其目的是C项的内容。

  3. 「C」以Lesley Fitzpatrick的调查来支持澳大利亚人不喜欢谈论死亡的观点。因为死亡过程缓慢,让人害怕,而作者在此文中的观点是要引起人们对死亡过程的重视,直面生死。

  4. 「C」此题是主旨题,全文提及了药物的过多使用,人们对死亡过程的忽视,以及现代社会对死亡的简化、对宗教信仰的淡化,由此指出现代社会需要直面生死。

  5. 「C」Passage 2

  作者从两只克隆猪的实验说起,引出对现代克隆技术优劣的争论和发展状况的探讨,同时也表达了对克隆人的看法。

  Studying questions such as the cognitive ability and behavior of clones is of major importance, but its hard to draw conclusions just yet, scientists say. There are simply not enough clones in the world to make valid comparisons.研究克隆动物的认知能力和行为等这样的问题很重要,但是科学家们说目前还很难得出结论。世界上还根本没有足够的克隆动物用来进行有效的比较。

  1. 「D」此处的pen是“围栏”的意思。

  2. 「D」D项中对原因的解释有误,克隆后的动物肉奶产量增加对解决第三世界人民的食物短缺问题没有直接帮助。克隆技术多在发达国家时兴。

  3. 「C」因为研究克隆动物的认知能力和行为是非常重要的。克隆猪给科学家们提供了一个同时研究数个克隆动物的机会。A、B项中的比较、证明是为C服务的,C是真正的目的。

  4. 「D」从文章最后三段可以看出文章中科学家反对克隆人的原因在于克隆技术目前还不精确。“作为一个社会,我们还无法接受这样的错误发生在人类身上”。

  5. 「C」对于克隆问题,作者始终站在一个叙述者的角度来向读者介绍它的现状、发展以及前景,并没有明确地表达自己的观点。

  Passage 3

  文章以阿波罗登月为引子,叙述了此后人类探索太空的进程。寻找生命、建立空间站都是当前太空探索的主要课题。

  1. but the appeal of the adventure meant that the Russians, who retrieved lunar rock samples far more economically using robots, came off very much second best. No one has been back to the moon since the Apollo astronauts left in 1972,so the mission has retained its glamour.然而登月探险对世人产生的强大吸引力导致了俄罗斯人在太空角逐中屈居第二,尽管他们使用机器人采集月球岩石标本要经济得多。自从1972 年阿波罗号宇航员登月之后,就再没有人登上月球,因此那次月球之旅一直魅力不减。

  2. Another possible home to life is Jupiters moon, Europa, which seems to have slush beneath its ice crust that is kept warm by tides. But exploration is a long way off. 另一处可能有生命的地方是木星的卫星,名叫欧罗巴,其冰壳下似乎有靠潮汐保暖的软冰,但是探索它还是遥远的事情。

  1. 「D」文章第一段中说道:“(人类登月)与其说与科学有关,不如说与冷战时期超级大国展示各自的优势有关”。

  2. 「A」作者对所谓未来学家的预见持怀疑态度,并以因特网为例加以说明,他们的预言可信度不高。第三段中的太空船爆炸说明现在“航行任务的成败依然无法预料”。

  3. 「D」“我们关注火星是仍希望在上面找到生命——并非电影中的火星人,而是用显微镜才能看到的生命形态”,“欧罗巴的冰壳下似乎有靠潮汐保暖的软冰”。

  4. 「B」其余三项都是文中直接提到的内容,与题干中推测的要求不符。

  5. 「C」其余各项都是C项的分支。

  Passage 4

  文章叙述了现代波波族(中产阶级追求物质享受,反世俗文化的人)的生活方式、思想形态,以及他们的价值观念。

  1. theyre the new enlightened elite of the information age, their lucratively busy lives, a seeming synthesis of comfort and conscience, corporate success and creative rebellion. 他们是信息时代新兴的“知识型精英”,他们富足而又繁忙的生活是舒适享受与道德良知、事业成功和创新叛逆的接合体。

  2. Welleducated thirtytoforty some things, they have forged a new social ethos from a logicdefying fusion of 1960s counterculture and 1980s entrepreneurial materialism.这些三四十岁,受过良好教育的人将20世纪60年代的反文化和80年代的实利主义这两种逻辑上互相抵触的东西融合成一种新的社会精神特质。

  1. 「A」波波族是高收入的人群,他们之所以害怕增税是因为高收入让他们在增税上的损失大于他们的消费开支。

  2. 「D」文中提到“这些三四十岁,受过良好教育的人将20世纪60年代的反文化和80年代的实利主义这两种逻辑上互相抵触的东西融合成一种新的社会精神特质。”

  3. 「C」文中提到波波族对于金钱持有一种不合常规的态度,而且他们认为“(工作)不是为了赚钱,而是做自己喜欢的事情”,文章同时也提到现在越来越难区分叛逆者和传统企业人士。

  4. 「B」文中明确地说道:波波族“惟恐自己变成道德的圣斗士和狂热的宗教信徒”,“他们会尝试一些安全而适度的生活方式”。

  5. 「C」从文章的最后一段可以看出,作者对于波波族是抱欣赏态度的——“他们对于建设美好社会有一套很好的道德标准”。

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