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考研英语范文阅读(二十六)

2006-7-6 21:40  

  If ambition is to be well regarded, the rewards of ambition—wealth, distinction, control over one's destiny—must be deemed worthy of the sacrifices made on ambition's behalf. If the tradition of ambition is to have vitality, it must be widely shared; and it especially must be highly regarded by people who are themselves admired, the educated not least among them. In an odd way, however, it is the educated who have claimed to have give up on ambition as an ideal. What is odd is that they have perhaps most benefited from ambition—if not always their own then that of their parents and grandparents. There is a heavy note of hypocrisy in this, a case of closing the barn door after the horses have escaped—with the educated themselves riding on them.

  Certainly people do not seem less interested in success and its signs now than formerly. Summer homes, European travel, BMWs—The locations, place names and name brands may change, but such items do not seem less in demand today than a decade or two years ago. What has happened is that people cannot confess fully to their dreams, as easily and openly as once they could, lest they be thought pushing, acquisitive and vulgar. Instead, we are treated to fine hypocritical spectacles, which now more than ever seem in ample supply: the critic of American materialism with a Southampton summer home; the publisher of radical books who takes his meals in three-star restaurants; the journalist advocating participatory democracy in all phases of life, whose own children are enrolled in private schools. For such people and many more perhaps not so exceptional, the proper formulation is, “Succeed at all costs but avoid appearing ambitious.”The attacks on ambition are many and come from various angles; its public defenders are few and unimpressive, where they are not extremely unattractive. As a result, the support for ambition as a healthy impulse, a quality to be admired and fixed in the mind of the young, is probably lower than it has ever been in the United States. This does not mean that ambition is at an end, that people no longer feel its stirrings and promptings, but only that, no longer openly honored, it is less openly professed. Consequences follow from this, of course, some of which are that ambition is driven underground, or made sly. Such, then, is the way things stand: on the left angry critics, on the right stupid supporters, and in the middle, as usual, the majority of earnest people trying to get on in life.

  67. It is generally believed that ambition may be well regarded if ________.

  (A)its returns well compensate for the sacrifices

  (B)it is rewarded with money, fame and power

  (C)its goals are spiritual rather than material

  (D)it is shared by the rich and the famous

  68. The last sentence of the first paragraph most probably implies that it is________.

  (A)customary of the educated to discard ambition in words

  (B)too late to check ambition once it has been let out

  (C)dishonest to deny ambition after the fulfillment of the goal

  (D)impractical for the educated to enjoy benefits from ambition

  69. Some people do not openly admit they have ambition because________.

  (A)they think of it as immoral

  (B)their pursuits are not fame or wealth

  (C)ambition is not closely related to material benefits

  (D)they do not want to appear greedy and contemptible

  70. From the last paragraph the conclusion can be drawn that ambition should be maintained________.

  (A)secretly and vigorously

  (B)openly and enthusiastically

  (C)easily and momentarily

  (D)verbally and spiritually

  答案及试题解析

  ACDB

  67.(A)意为:其收益足以抵得上做出的牺牲。

  文章第一句指出,如果正确看待野心(雄心),由野心所带来的收益——如财富、名声以及对自己命运的控制力等——必须被看做是抵得上为(实现)野心所做出的牺牲的。言外之意,只有树立雄心壮志,并为实现雄心壮志做出努力和牺牲,收到的回报就会大于做出的牺牲,使你感到没有白白做出牺牲。作者在本文中谈到了如何正确看待树立“野心”,不要对“野心”避而不谈。

  B意为:野心使人取得金钱、名誉和权力(或力量)。在第一句中,财富、名誉以及对自己命运的控制力只是作为取得回报的三个例子,并非仅包括这三方面而已。因此,选择项(A)更加确切地表达了第一句的意思。

  C意为:其目标是精神上的而不是物质方面的。

  D意为:野心是富人和名人共有的。第一段第二句的意思是:如果野心的传统要保持其生命力(指这一传统要持续下去),人们必须普遍拥有野心——特别是那些受过教育的人更是如此。然而,奇怪的是,恰恰是这些人回避这一话题,虽然他们从中受益匪浅。

  68.(C)意为:在目标实现后又不诚实地否认(拥有)野心(的重要性)。

  第一段最后一句的前半句指责这些人是虚伪的(hypocrisy),后半句是一个比喻。含意为:他们是野心的受益者,但又虚伪地否认拥有野心的重要性。

  A意为:受过教育者习惯于口头上摈弃野心。含意为:口头上否认自己有野心,但行动上实践之。原句中的“虚伪”并非指这些人口是心非,而是指他们是野心的受益者(也许他们自己都没有认识到这一点),但又虚伪地否认拥有野心的重要性。

  B意为:野心一旦被释放出来就无法控制。

  D意为:对受过教育者来说,享受野心所带来的益处是不现实的。

  69.(D)意为:他们不想看起来贪婪、卑鄙。

  根据第二段第三句,事实是:人们不坦陈自己的梦想(即指野心)——不像从前一样容易公开承认梦想,以防被人看做是爱出风头的、贪婪的(acquisitive)和庸俗的人。

  A意为:他们将此看做是不道德的。

  B意为:他们追求的不是名誉或财富。

  C意为:野心与物质利益没有密切关系。

  70.(B)意为:公开并热情地。

  根据最后一段第四、五句,由于人们不公开表达自己的野心,就产生一些不良后果,有些野心就成为暗中拥有的东西,使人变得狡黠。由此推论,作者认为,人们不应该隐瞒自己的“野心”,以免产生人对人的猜疑和阴谋。

  A意为;秘密并严格地。

  C意为:容易并暂时地。

  D意为:在语言上和精神上。

  翻译句子

  1、If ambition is to be well regarded, the rewards of ambition—wealth, distinction, control over one's destiny—must be deemed worthy of the sacrifices made on ambition's behalf.

  [参考译文]如果个人的野心被人看得很重,那么野心带来的好处——荣华富贵、出人头地、命运自主——都应被认为是值得为了这雄心壮志而做出的各种牺牲。

  [结构剖析]此句包含一个if引导的条件状语从句If ambition is to be well regarded,主句的主语是the rewards of ambition,谓语是must be deemed,而wealth, distinction, control over one's destiny既是插入语,又是the rewards的同位语。made on ambition's behalf是the sacrifices的补语。

  [阅读重点]本句中需弄清一些词汇的含义,如:distinction声望显赫或出人头地;worthy of对得起或不辜负;on behalf of为了。

  2、There is a heavy note of hypocrisy in this, a case of closing the barn door after the horses have escaped—with the educated themselves riding on them.

  [参考译文]这种事情带有很浓重的虚伪性,就好比等马儿全逃光了,才把马厩的门关死——而骑在那些马上的正是那群受过良好教育的人。

  [结构剖析]a case of closing the barn door after the horses have escaped是前面主句的补语,with the educated themselves riding on them是补语中的伴随状语。

  [阅读重点]hypocrisy虚伪或伪善,理解了这个词,后面的比喻就简单了。要理解这个比喻,最好把句中的马理解为ambition的象征。注意这个比喻和“亡羊补牢”没有任何关系,它的意思更接近于“掩耳盗铃”;在这里是指受过良好教育的人在自己的野心实现以后,从追求野心的过程中受了益,但他们得了便宜还卖乖,反过来谴责野心,并说自己并没有追求野心。

  补充难句翻译

  1、If the tradition of ambition is to have vitality, it must be widely shared; and it especially must be highly regarded by people who are themselves admired, the educated not least among them.[参考译文]如果野心的传统具有生命力,那么这传统必会为许多人分享;尤其会受到自己也受人仰慕的人士的青睐,在这些人中受过良好教育的可不占少数。

  [结构剖析]这是一个并列关系的并列句。前一个分句又包含由if引导的条件状语,主句中的主语it指代the tradition of ambition.后一分句中who are themselves admired修饰people,the educated not least among them是people的补语。

  [阅读重点]注意people who are themselves admired指“自己也受人仰慕的人士”;not least意为“相当重要”。

  2、Certainly people do not seem less interested in success and its signs now than formerly. Summer homes, European travel, BMWs—the locations, place names and name brands may change, but such items do not seem less in demand today than a decade or two years ago.[参考译文]当然,人们现在对成功及其各种标志的兴趣似乎并不亚于先前。消夏别墅、欧陆旅行、宝马车——地点、地名以及品牌或许会有变化,但这类事物在今天被人渴求的程度也似乎不会亚于一二十年前。

  [结构剖析]此处出现了两个比较级,less interested in success and its signs now than formerly和less in demand today than a decade or two years ago.

  [阅读重点]千万注意两句中的双重否定:“do not seem less interested in success and its signs now than formerly”means“seem at least as interested in success and its signs now as formerly, if not more”,后面的do not seem less in demand today than a decade or two years ago也是如此。

  3、What has happened is that people cannot confess fully to their dreams, as easily and openly as once they could, lest they be thought pushing, acquisitive and vulgar.[参考译文]现在发生的事情是人们总不能像从前一样轻松坦白地承认他们有这样的梦想,惟恐自己被人理解为急功近利、贪婪或庸俗。

  [结构剖析]what一词指代的是that引导的从句,从句中as easily and openly as once they could又是下一层的状语,此外lest引导带虚拟语气的假设状语从句。

  [阅读重点]注意lest一词的含义(“唯恐”)和用法(引导虚拟语气)。而且在阅读过程中应该能够推测出pushing,acquisitive,vulgar三词都是贬义。

  4、Instead, we are treated to fine hypocritical spectacles, which now more than ever seem in ample supply: the critic of American materialism with a Southampton summer home; the publisher of radical books who takes his meals in three-star restaurants; the journalist advocating participatory democracy in all phases of life, whose own children are enrolled in private schools.[参考译文]相反,我们被款待看到这样一些虚伪的壮观景象,他们似乎比以前的任何时候都更供应充足:美国式物质主义的批判者却拥有位于南安普顿的避暑山庄;激进书籍的出版商却在三星级餐厅享用一日三餐;倡导在人生各个阶段的参与民主制的记者,他的子女却就读于私立学校。

  [结构剖析]本句的主句是we are treated to fine hypocritical spectacles.后面有一个非限定性的定语从句修饰spectacles.在冒号的后面是三个并列的名词性短语,其核心词分别是critic, publisher和journalist.

  [阅读重点]要理解本句,首先要正确理解be treated to的意思是“被款待,被招待”;因此后面的spectacles就不是“眼镜”,而是“壮观景象”,此处有一定的反讽意味。后面即使不理解其具体含义,大致也应该抓住的是虚伪,说一套做一套的具体事例,从这个角度理解就比较清楚了。

  5、The attacks on ambition are many and come from various angles; its public defenders are few and unimpressive, where they are not extremely unattractive.[参考译文]对野心的抨击层出不穷,且来自各个角度;公开为野心辩护者寥寥无几、毫无力度,但不能说他们是完全不吸引人的。

  [结构剖析]此句是用分号隔开的两个并列句,后面的一个分句中有一个where引导的定语从句,从整体上来修饰its public defenders,只不过先行词用了where.

  [阅读重点]要理解分号前后是从正反两个方面来说明人们对于ambition的态度,同时注意最后的定语从句中的那个双重否定,表达了作者的一种态度,说明作者对于野心的维护者是抱肯定的态度的,从而也能推出作者对于野心也是持积极态度的,而作者所不齿的是对于野心问题虚伪的、说一套做一套的做法。

  语言点详解

  1.well regarded十分看重[大纲词汇]regard v.(as)把…看作为,把…认为;考虑,注视[扩充词义] regard v.敬爱,尊敬,看重[经典例句]She is highly regarded in her profession.

  2.reward回报[大纲词汇] reward v.(for)报酬,赏金,奖赏; v.(for)酬劳,奖赏;酬谢,报答,奖酬[经典例句]The rewards of art are not to be measured in money.

  3.destiny命运[大纲词汇] destiny n.命运;天数,天命[经典例句]We must put our destiny in our own hands.

  4.deem认为[大纲词汇]deem v.认为,深信[经典例句]He deemed it his duty to take care of the children of his dead brother.

  5.on sb's behalf为了…

  [大纲词汇]on sb's behalf(=on behalf of sb)代表,为了[经典例句]His wife attended the meeting on his behalf.

  6.vitality生命力[大纲词汇]vital a.生死枚关的,重大的;生命的,生机的[衍生词汇]vitality n.生命力;生机;活力;生存力,持久力。[经典例句]He is a young man of great vitality.

  7.in an odd way以一种奇怪的方式[大纲词汇] odd a.奇数的,单的;奇怪的,古怪的;单只的,不成对的;临时的,不固定的;带零头的,余的[经典例句]He handle the situation in an odd way.

  5.hypocrisy虚伪[扩充词汇] hypocrisy n.伪善,虚伪hypocrite n.伪君子hypocritical a.虚伪的[经典例句]His hypocrisy angered all the people present.

  9.formerly以前地[大纲词汇]former a.以前的,在前的[经典例句] He was formerly a elementary school teacher.

  10.in demand所需要的[扩充词汇]in demand所需要的[经典例句]Oil is in great demand these days.

  11.confess to承认[大纲词汇]confess v.供认,承认,坦白,忏悔[经典例句]He confessed to the crime he had committed.

  12.lest免得[大纲词汇] lest conj.惟恐,免得[经典例句]She didn't tell them the truth,lest they would get involve.

  13.pushing急功近利的[大纲词汇] push v.推;催逼,逼迫; n.推,推力;促进,推进[衍生词汇]pushing a.推的;有进取心的;一意孤行的[经典例句]She is a very nice person except that she is a bit pushing.

  14.acquisitive贪婪的[大纲词汇] acquire v.取得,获得;学到[衍生词汇] acquisitive a.渴望获得的,迫切求取的,贪婪的[经典例句] Finally his acquisitive instinct got the upper hand.

  15.vulgar粗俗的[扩充词汇]vulgar a.庸俗的,粗俗的;粗鲁的,粗野的[经典例句]He is a person of vulgar taste.

  16.treat to款待[大纲词汇]treat v.对待;处理;治疗;论述,探讨;款待,请客;n.款待,请客[经典例句]I will treat you all to the a little piano specialty of my own.

  17.spectacle景象[大纲词汇]spectacle n.[pl.]眼镜;场面,景象;奇观,壮观spectacular a.壮观的,引人注目的[经典例句]The burning house is a terrible spectacle.

  18.ample充分的[大纲词汇] ample a.充分的,富裕的;宽敞的,宽大的[经典例句]The city's many cultural and sports facilities offer ample recreation.

  19.materialism唯物主义[大纲词汇]materialism n.唯物主义material n.材料,原料,资料;a.物质的,实体的

  20.participatory参与的[大纲词汇] participate v. ( in)参与,参加;分享,分担participant n.参加者,参与者[衍生词汇]participatory a.参与的,参加的,积极参与的[经典例句]Participatory art is quite popular with some artists nowadays.

  21.phase阶段[大纲词汇]phase n.阶段,状态,时期;相,相位[经典例句]The book covers all phases of Picasso's work.

  22.enroll入学[大纲词汇]enroll/enrol v.招收;登记;人学[经典例句]The union enrolls over 100,000 worker in New York.

  23.exceptional例外的[大纲词汇]exceptional a.外的,异常的[经典例句] He treated his employees with exceptional cruelty.

  24.formulation构想[大纲词汇]formulate v.构想,规划;系统地阐述[衍生词汇] formulation n.系统的阐述;规划,构想[经典例句]He stated his opinion on the formulation of policies.

  25.at all costs不惜任何代价[大纲词汇]at all costs不惜任何代价,无论如何[经典例句]He vowed to succeed at all costs.

  26.angle角度[大纲词汇]angle n.角;角度;方面,观点[词汇比较]angel n.天使注意:两词拼写相近,易混淆,注意区分。

  [经典例句] It will give you a more objective picture if you consider the issue from various angles.

  27.probably很可能地[大纲词汇]probable a.很可能的,大概的;有希望的,可能的[经典例句]She is probably the best singer in this country.

  28.at an end完结[扩充词汇]at an end完结,耗尽[经典例句]Everything between the lovers were at an end.

  29.stirring冲动,激励[大纲词汇]stir v.搅拌,搅动;动,摇动;激动;轰动;煽动,鼓动[衍生词汇]stirring a.激动人心的;忙碌的,活跃的;牲,激励,鼓舞[经典例句]He tried to suppress the stirrings of visiting her.

  30.prompting鼓舞[大纲词汇]prompt v.激起,促进,推动[衍生词汇]prompting n.推动,促进,鼓舞,激励[经典例句]The book would never have been written without the promptings of my wife.

  31 .profess承认[扩充词汇] profess v.承认,表示;声称professed a.公开表示的;公开声称的[经典例句]He professed himself a lover of music.

  32.earnest热切的[大纲词汇]earnest a.热心的,诚挚的[经典例句]He is an earnest student.

  33 .get on in life出人头地[大纲词汇]get on发迹,出人头地[经典例句]The young man is sure to get on in the world.

  34.customary习惯的[大纲词汇]customary a.习惯的,惯例的[经典例句]He made his customary visit to his parents every week.

  35.discard抛弃[大纲词汇]discard v.抛弃,丢弃[经典例句] His friends urge him to discard his bad habits.

  36.check控制[大纲词汇] check v.检查,核对;制止,控制;(凭票)托运或寄存[经典例句]He tried his best to check his anger.

  37.momentarily瞬间地[大纲词汇]momentary a.瞬间的,片刻的[经典例句]He paused momentarily to have some water and proceeded.

  全文翻译

  个人的雄心如果能被正确看待的话,那么它的回报——财富、声誉、对命运的掌握——则应该被认为值得为之付出牺牲。如果雄心的传统具有生命力,那么它就应该受到广泛的推崇,尤其应该受到那些自身得到他人羡慕的人们的高度重视,当然那些接受过良好教育的人也应包括在内。然而,恰恰是那些受过良好教育的人却不可思议地声称他们已经放弃了雄心壮志这一理想。奇怪的是他们已经从雄心壮志中获益颇多了——如果不是他们自己的雄心,那么就是他们父母的和祖父母的。这其中有着浓厚的虚伪色彩,恰如马跑后再关上马厩的门那样,而受过良好教育的人自己正骑在那些马背上。

  当然,现在人们对成功及其标志的兴趣似乎并未比从前减弱,避暑别墅,欧洲旅行、宝马车——它们的位置、地名和商标可能会改变,但现在对这些东西的需求似乎并未比一二十年前减少。现在的情况是人们不能像以前那样轻易地、公开地坦陈自己的梦想,惟恐别人认为自己爱出风头、贪婪、庸俗不堪。相反我们目睹了比以前任何时候都多的虚伪景观:美国物欲主义批评家在南安普顿拥有一幢避暑别墅;激进的出版商到三星级宾馆就餐;倡导终生参与民主制的新闻记者却把自己的子女送进私立学校。对于这样的人,还有那些也许不太出色的人而言,“不惜一切代价获得成功,但避免让他人看出雄心勃勃”是对他们最好的诠释。

  对雄心的攻击非常之多,出自各种不同的角度;公开为之辩解的则少之又少,虽不能说他们是完全没有吸引力的,但却未能给人们留下深刻印象。因此,在美国,作为一种健康的冲动,一种应该令人称羡并扎根于青年人心灵的品质的雄心,它所得到的支持也许比以往任何时期都低。但这并不意味着雄心已经穷途末路,人们不再感觉到它对人们的激励了,只是人们不再公开地以它为荣,更不愿公开地坦白了。当然这样就带来了很多不良后果,其中的一些后果就是雄心被赶入地下,或暗藏于胸。于是情况就成了这样:左边是愤怒的批评家,右边是愚蠢的支持者,而居中的通常是大多数认真而努力追求成功的人。

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