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未来空中交通工具A future vehicle

2006-07-28 18:02

  While many technological advances occur in an evolutionary manner, occasionally a revolutionary technological appears on the horizon that creates startling new conditions and profound changes. Such is the case with the privately developed Moller Skycar, which is named after its inventor. With his permission, I would like to discuss the military potential of this vehicle. The ruggedized Moller Skycar variant the military is evaluating is called the light aerial multipurpose vehicle, or LAMV (pronounced "lam-vee")。

  技术的进步大多以渐进的方式进行,但有时可能出现突破性进展,带来令人吃惊的新情况和深远的变革。私人研制的"莫勒空中汽车"的情况就是如此,这是以其发明家的名字命名的。征得他的同意,笔者愿意探讨-下这种运载工具的军事潜力。美军目前正在进行评估的加固型"莫勒空中客车",叫做轻型空中多用途运载工具,或缩称LAMV(读作"lam-vee")。

  The LAMV is a vertical take-off and landing aircraft that can fly in a quick, quiet, and agile manner. It is a new type of vehicle that combines the speed of an airplane and the vertical take-off capability of a helicopter with some characteristics of a ground vehicle, but without the limitations of any of those existing modes of transportation.

  LAMV是一种垂直起降航空器,能以快速、低噪音、敏捷的方式飞行。这是一种新型的运载工具,它将飞机的速度、直升机的垂直起飞能力与地面运输工具的某些性能结合到一起,但却没有这些现行运输方式的局限性。

  The LAMV is not operated like traditional fixed —— or rotary-wing aircraft. It has only two hand-operator uses to direct the redundant computer control twists to select the desired operating altitude and moves fore and aft to select the rate of climb. The right-hand control twists to select the vehicle's direction and moves side-to-side to provide transverse (crosswise) movement during the hover and early-transition-to-flight phases of operation; it also moves fore and aft to control speed and braking. Simply put, the LAMV is user friendly.

  LAMV的操作不同于传统的固定翼飞机或旋翼式飞机。它只设有两个手操控制器,操作员通过它们来操纵冗余计算机控制系统去执行所需的飞行动作。转动左手控制器可选择所需要的飞行高度,前后移动左手控制器可选择上升速度。转动右手控制器可选择飞行方向,左右移动右手控制器可控制盘旋时和从开始过渡到飞行阶段的横向动作;还可前后移动右手控制器控制速度和制动。简而言之,LAMV对用户来说是易于操作的。

  The LAMV of the future will be 18 feet long, 10 feet wide, and 6 feet high and weight 2,200 pounds. It will hold four passengers and a payload of 875 pounds (including fuel)。 The vehicle will have a maximum rate of climb of 6,400 feet per minute and an operational ceiling of 30,000 feet. It will attain a top speed of 390 miles per hour at an altitude of 6,000feet and a cruising speed of 350 miles per hour at 25,000 feet, and it will have a maximum range of 900 miles at 80 passenger miles per gallon. The LAMV also will be quiet enough to function as an acoustic "stealth" plane at 500 feet. It will have a vertical take-off and landing capability and emergency airframe parachutes, and it will be capable of using various fuels.

  未来的LAMV长18英尺,宽10英尺,高6英尺,重2200磅。它可运载4名乘客,有效负荷为875磅(包括燃料)。它的最大爬升速度为6400英尺/分,实用上升限度为30000英尺。在6000英尺高度的最高飞行速度为390英里/小时,在25000英尺高度的巡航速度为350英里/小时,在每加仑燃油的客英里数为80时的最大航程为枷英里。在500英尺高度时,LAMV的噪声会很小,可作为"隐"声飞机使用。它将具有垂直起落能力,并配备有应急机体降落伞,而且它将能够使用多种燃料。

  Safety, of course, is most important. The LAMV design incorporates a number of safety features. For starters, the LAMV has multiple engines. Unlike any light helicopter or airplane, the LAMV has multiple engine nacelles, each with two computer-controlled Rotapower engines. These engines operate independently and allow for a vertical controlled landing should either fail.

  当然,安全性是最主要的。LAMV的设计具有若干安全特性。就动力装置而言,LAMV有多台发动机。LAMV不同于任何轻型直升机或飞机,它有多个发动机舱,每个发动机舱内装有2台计算机控制的Rotapower型发动机。所有这些发动机都能独立运转;因此即使有的发动机出了故障,也能实现垂直的可控制降落。

  The LAMV features redundant, independent computer systems for flight management, stability, and control. Two airframe parachutes can be deployed in the event of the vehicle's catastrophic failure. These parachutes ensure that the LAMV and the operator and soldiers it carries can land safely. The Wankel-type rotary engines are very reliable because of their simplicity. The three moving parts in a two-rotor Rotapower engines are approximately seven percent of the number of parts in a four-cylinder piston engine. Each nacelle fully encloses the engines and fans, greatly reducing the possibility of injury to soldiers who might be near the vehicle in the event of an engine fire or explosion. Multiple systems check fuel for quality and quantity and provide appropriate warnings. The LAMV can land on virtually any solid surface.

  LAMV的特色是用独立的咒余计算机系统分别进行飞行管理、稳定性调整和控制。如果发生灾难性故障,可以使用2顶机体降落伞。这两顶降落伞可确保LAMV 及其驾驶员和所载土兵安全着陆。汪克尔式转子发动机结构简单,非常可靠。每台双转子Rotapower型发动机只有3个活动部件,仅为4缸活塞式发动机部件数的大约7%。每个发动机舱都将发动机和风扇完全密封,这样,在发动机着火或爆炸事件中就可大大降低对航空器附近的士兵造成伤害的可能性。它的多重系统可以检查燃料的数量和质量并给出适当的报警。LAMV实际上可以在任何固体表面上着陆。

  The LAMV is aerodynamically stable. In the unlikely event that sufficient power is not available to land vertically, the LAMV's stability and good glide slope allow the operator to maneuver to a safe area before using the airframe parachutes. Since computers control the LAMV's flight during hover and transition, the only operator input is to control speed and direction. Undesirable movements caused by wind gusts are prevented automatically.

  LAMV在空气动力方面是稳定的。在无足够动力垂直着陆时——这是不大可能发生的-LAMV的稳定性和良好的下滑坡度能使驾驶员在使用机体降落伞之前操纵飞机飞到一个安全地区。LAMV在盘旋以及过渡阶段的飞行都由计算机控制,驾驶员要做的只是控制飞行速度和方向。它可以自动阻止由阵风所引起的非期望运动。

  The potential economic advantages of the LAMV are worth mentioning. Its fuel-efficient engines and ability to operate on various fuels will low fuel costs. The LAMV uses one-fourth of the fuel per passenger mile used by the tilt-rotor V-22 Osprey or high performance helicopters. The LAMV's acquisition cost also will be a significant factor in its favor. The LAMV's purchase price per passenger seat is projected to be approximately eight percent of that for the 30-passenger Osprey.

  LAMV在经济上的潜在优势也值得一提。其低燃耗发动机及可使用多种燃料的性能会降低燃料费用。LAMV的每乘客英里耗油量只相当于V-22"鱼鹰"式倾转旋翼机或高性能直升机的1/4.LAMV的购置成本也是它的一个重要的有利因素。LAMV的每乘客席采购价格大约只有30人定员的"鱼鹰"机每乘客席的 8%。

  The LAMV's potential military uses will be numerous. They include aerial medical evacuation, aerial reconnaissance, command and control, search and rescue, insertion of special operations forces, air assault operations, airborne operations, forcible-entry operations, military police mobility and maneuver support, communications retransmission, battlefield distribution for unit resupply, transport of individual and crew replacements, weapons platform, noncombatant evacuation operations, battlefield contractor transport, and battle damage assessment.

  LAMV的潜在军事用途将是非常广泛的。它们包括空中医疗疏散、空中侦察、指挥与控制、搜索与营救、特种部队渗透、空袭作战、空降作战、强行进入作战、宪兵机动与调动保障、通信转播、分队补给的战场分发、单兵或班级替换人员的运输、武器平台、非战斗人员的疏散行动、战场承包商运输以及战损评估等。

  Consider the LAMV's use in contingency operations. An adversary observing a LAMV would have great difficult determining the type of force approaching and that force's destination and intention. If the adversary did realize our intentions, the senior enemy commander would not have time to react. Imagine a forcible entry and early entry force package based in the continental United States that self-deployed overseas in LAMV's. With short halts along the way at seaborne resupply vessels or land-based refueling sites, the force package would reach its objective within hours. This concept would reduce dramatically the Army's dependence on the US Transportation Command for strategic airlift and on the geographical commander in chief for intratheater airlift support. The overall speed of force closure would improve greatly. This would enhance the senior commander's ability to conduct multiple, simultaneous operations in his battle space with an accelerated operational tempo that precludes the adversary from achieving his goals. Dependence on air and sea ports of debarkation would be reduced.

  可以设想LAMV在突发行动中的应用。侦察到LAMV的敌方很难确定来犯部队的种类及其目标和意图。即使敌方确实意识到了我方的意图,敌高级指挥官也来不及作出反应。可以想象一个基地在美国本土的强行进入和早期进入的部队单位在利用LAMV中自行部署到海外的情况。由于沿途只在海上补给船或岸基加油站作短暂停留,这个部队单位几小时内就能到达目的地。这一概念将大大降低美国陆军对美国运输司令部的战略空运以及对地区总司令的战区内空运保障的依赖性。部队集结的整体速度将大大提高。这将增强高级指挥官在其作战空间内指挥多个同时作战行动的能力,而加快了阻止敌方达到其目标的作战行动节奏。对卸载机场和登陆港口的依赖性将会降低。

  LAMV will benefit the Army's battlefield distribution concepts tremendously because it will be able to move commodities rapidly when and where they are needed across a widely dispersed battle space. Both air and ground main supply routes (MSR's) would exist throughout the battle space. The MSR's in the air would change as missions and situations dictate. Eventually, small, multi-commodity shipping containers could be designed for transport by either a LAMV or an even more futuristic medium or heavy aerial distribution; many types of land mines used to block convoy movements today would become less of a concern for logisticians and engineers since they could use MSR's in the sky. Or consider moving contractors around the battle space in LAMV's to perform their tasks. Basically, the LAMV concept promotes a smaller, more agile, and more effective sustainment presence within a supported battle space.

  LAMV对陆军的战场配给概念极为有利,因为它能在一个分布范围很广的作战空间内迅速地将物资在需要的时间运送到需要的地方。空中和地面的主要补给线会遍及整个作战空间。空中主要补给线将随作战任务和战场形势的变化而变化。最后可以设计出小型的多类装备运输集装箱,用LAMV或者更远期的中型或重型空中机动运载器来运输。可以设想用一支装备有LAMV的新型运输部队来执行空中配给任务,后勤劳人员和工程人员将不再那么担心今天阻挡护送运输的多种多样的地雷了,因为他们可以使用空中的主要补给线。或者设想由运送承包商在战场空间内用LAMV来完成他们的任务。从根本上说;LAMV概念车促成了在有保障的战斗空间内持续存在一种更小型化、更灵敏和更有效的车辆。

  Consider the LAMV working in unison with the Army's Future Combat System (FCS)。 The LAMV could become an integral component of the overall concept for employing the FCS. The operator of thee LAMV actually could be a member of the FCS crew or unit. In this role, the LAMV would provide multiple benefits - reconnaissance, resupply, medical evacuation, and maintenance supply. Perhaps the AMV itself could become a future combat weapon system platform. Perhaps this innovative technology could force major changes in joint and Army doctrine, training, leader development, organizations, material, and soldier programs.

  可以设想LAMV与美国陆军未来作战系统(FCS)的配合使用。LAMV可能成为采用FCS的整体概念中的一个主要成分。LAMV的驾驶员实际上可能是未来作战系统部队单位的一员。LAMV起这种作用时可以提供多种方便——侦察、补给、医疗疏散和维修保障。也许,LAMV本身就会成为一种未来的作战武器系统平台。也许,这种创新的技术会推动联合条令和陆军条令、训练、指挥官培养;编制、器材以及土兵计划等方面的重大变革。

  Of course, the LAMV brings with it some obvious challenges. Its limited payload will be a negative factor. Its use will complicate Army airspace command and control. How the LAMV will be used in conjunction with forces under the joint force air component commander will have to be determined. LAMV support issues also require resolution. For example, operator selection and training, leader training, employment doctrine, LAMV basis-of-issue plans, and LAMV life-cycle management all require the Army's attention.

  当然,LAMV也面临一些明显的挑战。它有限的有效负荷是一个不利因素;它的使用将会使陆军的空域指挥与控制复杂化。LAMV如何在联合部队的空军部队指挥官指挥下与各部队协同,是必须解决的问题。LAMV的保障问题也需要解决。例如,驾驶员的挑选和训练、指挥员的训练、任用条令、IAMV拨发基数计划以及LAMV寿命管理,所有这些都需要引起美国陆军的注意。

  However, once the LAMV technology matures, its military possibilities are startling. We in the Army combat service support "futures" arena are encouraged by the developments so far and hope that the LAMV will be ready for Army fielding around 2010. The LAMV can become a reality in our Army and possibility in the other armed services as well. Without any doubt, this technological innovation will succeed internationally inn the private, commercial, and military sectors. I hope that the US Army will be the first army in the world to embrace and exploit this technology. But sooner rather than later, this aerial vehicle technology will affect all of our lives. It is just over the horizon.

  不管怎样,LAMV技术一经成熟,其军用潜力是惊人的。我们这些在陆军战斗勤务支援"未来"领域工作的人,受到了迄今为止研制动态的鼓舞,期望LAMV在 2010年左右就能用于陆军兵力的战场部署。LAMV能够在我们陆军并且也可能在其他的军种成为现实。无疑,这-技术革新将会在世界范围的私营部门、商贸部门和军事部门取得成功。我希望美国陆军将是世界上掌握和利用这一技术的第一支军队。但是不久以后,这种空中运载器技术就将影响到我们生活的方方面面。它已经冒出地平线了。

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