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70天攻克考研英语阅读 DAY49

2006-7-28 01:05  

  DAY49

  Reading comprehension

  Direction: In this part, there are four passages followed by questions or unfinished statements, each with four suggested answers marked A, B, C and D. Choose the one that you think is the correct answer.

  Passage 1Imagine a virus that could travel like the fluand kill humans like HIV. One is so small that it could be almost impossible to identify, let alone halt. Film like Outbreak plays on our fears of a “killer virus” scenario, but those films are works of fiction, right?

  Well, thats what Janice Acquah set out to investigate. But the facts she had unearthed didnt completely put her at ease.

  For example, viruses are emerging more frequently than ever before. Forty years ago, around two new viruses were discovered every decade. Now the figure is more like two more viruses per year.

  Ebola, Lassa, Marburg and HIV are frightening examples of these deadly organisms. The death toll where they strike are sobering. Even the flu virus can be a killer. Weve known about it for many decades now, but flu experts are still involved in a full time race to keep up with the virus as it mutates.

  Our modern life style increases the possibilities of virus attacked by exotic organisms. For example, a virus presently located in a remote rain forest could by means of air travel be in a major city by this time tomorrow. We now live in such crowded cities that the scope for transmission of a virus that travels through the air is greater than ever before.

  However, although all the ingredients for a killervirus scenario do undoubtedly exist, its hard to find a medical expert who believes its likely that the entire human race will be wiped out by one lethal strain. They tend to put it on a par with the likelihood of us being exterminated by a killer asteroid impact. Because although viruses can be superefficient at attacking larger organisms, our bodies are phenomenally good at protecting us.

  Our skin presents the first barrier to infection. Then there are defenses inside the body which act as early warning system between the cells and the white blood cells helping to close the activity of the viruses.

  These are very sophisticated processes which often take place without the bodys owner knowing anything about it — although sometimes the sideeffects of the activities are feelings of aching, shivering, sweating, temperature hike and loss of appetite that characterize a fever. Finally the body gets the measure of virus, and can begin to manufacture antibodies specifically to act against it.

  There is another reason to take heart. Although a particular virus could be virulent against humans, its not likely to kill all of us. Genetic variations between members of human species mean that there will always be some people who dont succumb to a particular infection. This has already been demonstrated recently with HIV — and needless to say is a subject of much research, since it may yield clues for the fighting of the virus for every one else.

  1. What does “that” in the second paragraph refers to?

  A. How fast a virus can travel.

  B. It is hard to identify a virus which is too small to be perceived.

  C. The kind of virus which can travel like flu and have deadly consequence on the infected body.

  D. How the fear of “killer virus” works on the nerves of human beings.

  2. Which of the following statements is NOT true?

  A. Forty years ago, a new virus was discovered every five years.

  B. The flu virus can take changes by itself at a high speed and the experts have to work very hard to keep up with it.

  C. Medical experts think that the possibility of the extermination of the entire human race is extremely small.

  D. There are always some people who are not infectious to HIV because of genetic variations between members of human species.

  3. We can learn from the passage that

  A. Ebola, Lassa, Marburg and HIV are all deadly infectious viruses which have caused surprising deaths and alarmed people.

  B. Viruses are not likely to travel with aeroplanes to populous areas.

  C. Our bodies can protect us efficiently from infectious virus wholly by the functioning of inner defense systems.

  D. We can find out special antivirus treatment through the example of HIV.

  4. The most proper title of this passage is

  A. Viruses are hard to fight against.B. Human body is protective.

  C. flying virus.D. human beings VS viruses.

  5. In the passage, we can infer that the phrase “put it on a par with”(Para.6,Line3) means

  A. consider it as same as or be similar withB. consider it totally impossible

  C. put it aside and not think about it at allD. consider it inseparable with

  Passage 2Here amid the steel and concrete canyons, green grass grows. A naked cockspur hawthorn tree stands in new soil, and freshly dug plants bend in the wind.

  But Chicago City Hall here seems an unlikely spot for a garden of any variety. Especially 20,000 square feet of gardens. On its roof.

  As one of a handful of similar projects around the country, the garden is part of a $1.5 million demonstration projected by the city to reduce its “urban heat islands”, said William Abolt, the commissioner of the Department of Environment.

  Heat islands — dark surfaces in the city, like rooftops — soak up heat. The retention can bake a building, making it stubborn to cooling.

  The roof of City Hall, a 90yearold gray stone landmark on LaSalle Street in the heart of downtown, has been known to reach temperature substantially hotter than the actual temperature on the street below.

  The garden will provide greenery and shade. “And that,” said the city officials, “will save the city dollars on those blistering summer days.” The project savings from cooling is about $4,000 a year on a new roof whose life span is about 50 percent longer than that of a traditional roof.

  The sprawling openair rooftop garden is being carefully built on a multitiered(多层的)bed of special soil, polystyrene, eggcartonshaped cones and “waterproof membrane” — all to keep the roof from leaking, or caving under the normal combined weight of soil, rain and plant life.

  The design calls for soil depths of 4 inches in 18 inches. When the last plants and seedlings are buried and the last bit of compost laid, the garden will have circular brick steppingstones winding up two hills.

  “The primary focus of what we want to do was to establish this laboratory on the top of City Hall and get people involved and understanding their impact on the environment and how the little things that we can make an impact on the quality of life”, Mr. Abolt said, adding that the plants also help to clear the air.

  Rooftop gardens, in places where concrete jungles have erased plants and trees, are not new, not even in Chicago. Arms of greenery dangling over terraces or sprouting from rooftops, common in Europe, are becoming more so in the United States as people become increasingly conscious about the environment.

  Richard M. Daley, who urged the environment department to look into the project after noticing rooftop gardens in Hamburg, Germany a few years ago, has praised the garden as the first of its kind on a public building in the country.

  It will hold thousands of plants in more than 150 specieswild onion and butterfly weed, sky blue aster and buffalo grassto provide data on what species adapt best. Small plants requiring shallow soil depths were chiefly selected.

  1. The rooftop garden project

  A. is common and popular in the country.

  B. is a demonstration project and costs the city government 1.5 million dollars.

  C. will make the ordinary cooling down of the city in summer unnecessary.

  D. aims at get people involved and understanding their impact on the environment.

  2. What can we learn about the City Hall?

  A. It was built ninety years ago and is the most outstanding feature in the center of the city.

  B. It is originally proper to build a garden on the top of the City Hall.

  C. The temperature on its top is a little bit higher than that on the street below.

  D. It is the first building in America to have a garden on it.

  3. Which of the following statements is true?

  A. Every year, Chicago spends about $4,000 on cooling the city.

  B. The design of the garden on the City Hall specially takes weight the roof can stand into consideration.

  C. The Mayor urged the environmental department to look into rooftop gardens in Hamburg and build similar ones in America.

  D. Heat islands mainly refer to those dark colored rooftops which receive and retain heat and will not easily release the heat.

  4. Why should the rooftop garden be build on the top of City Hall other than on any other buildings?

  A. Because the City Hall is large.

  B. Because the mayor had urged the environmental department to do so.

  C. Because it can make people understand their impact on environment better through a public building.

  D. Because the experts just want to make the City Hall a convenient laboratory.

  5. The word “substantially”(Para5, Line2) most likely means .

  A. a little bitB. in fact

  C. considerablyD. materially

  Passage 3 Violent computer games have been strongly linked with aggression in teenage boys in a study that shows the machines are increasingly becoming substitutes for friendship.

  The research gives powerful support to the suspicion that virtue violence could be one of the factors behind the surge in crimes of aggression of young people.

  John Colwell, a lecture at Middlesex University, who carried out the research, said aggression in boys seemed to increase with the amount of exposure to such games.

  “There is a growing body of evidence to suggest that there is a link between playing computer games and aggression,” he said.

  Previous studies have shown a correlation between such games and aggression. This conclusion was ambiguous because it could mean that children who played the games did so because they had a predisposition to violence.

  Colwells work showed, however, that there was a strong causal link, meaning that playing such games made children more aggressive. He reached his conclusion after studying the behavior of 204 pupils aged 12—14 from a comprehensive school in north London.

  Children became markedly more aggressive the longer they had been playing violent games. They shouted, pushed and hit other children. Those who played in occasional bursts showed little discernible effect.

  All the children spent many hours playing such games. Nearly 97% of boys and 88% of girls were regular users. Among the boys the heaviest computer users tend to have the fewest friends and are reported seeing their machine as a substitute friend.

  Mark Griffiths, a psychologist at Nottingham Trent University specializing in computer abuse and addition, said Colwells work confirmed studies in much younger children. His recent work found that children aged between four and eight who were allowed to play mildly violent games showed a dramatically higher lever of aggression. “The games we used were not violent by adult standards because we could experiment on children in that way. But even mild levels of aggression on screen would alter the way the children behaved afterwards,” he said.

  The studies tally with another carried out recently in America, which showed that playing games with interactive violence raises aggression levels further and faster than watching violent television or films.

  The researchers, at Lowa State University, asked 210 students to play violent games such as Wolfenstein 3D, in which a human hero is shown in graphic detail killing Nazi guards; Doom, also very violent; or Myst, a nonviolent, role playing adventure game.

  All these games are sold in Britain. After 15 minutes, the students were switched to another game where they were told they could punish their opponent with a blast of noise. Those who played the violent game delivered longer blasts.

  In America, such findings are taken seriously, largely because of a spate of killings by young people. Research has showed that people with aggressive tendencies can be detected by scans that show their brains have slightly different configurations.

  Some experts believe such people could be particularly influenced by computer gamesand this may have been a cause of last years massacre at Columbine High School in Colorado.

  Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold murdered 12 students and a teacher before shooting themselves. Subsequent inquiries found they were fans of Doom, a video game licensed by the American military to train soldiers to kill.1. The research carried out by John Colwell

  A. shows that friendship between teenage boys disappeared as a result of playing computer games.

  B. convinces us that juvenile delinquents must have played a lot of violent computer games.

  C. shows that the more violent computer games teenagers play, the more aggressive they tend to be.

  D. agrees that because children have a predisposition to violence they are fond of playing violent computer games.

  2. The word “ambiguous” in paragraph 5 means .

  A. incorrect B. insupportable

  C. uncertain in meaning or intentionD. having two meanings opposite to each other

  3. We can infer from John Colwells study that

  A. there is a strong causal link between playing computer games and aggression.

  B. the correlation between such games and aggression is strong and evident.

  C. children who have no disposition to violence will not play violent computer games.

  D. those who seldom play violent computer games may have much more friends than the heaviest computer users.

  4. According to Mark Griffiths, which of the following statements is true?

  A. The conclusion of Colwells work can be applied to younger children.

  B. The tendency of aggression in younger children is much higher than those in Colwells study.

  C. The violent games by younger childrens standards are actually not violent at all in adults eyes.

  D. Mild levels of aggression on screen would not affect childrens later behavior too much.

  5. What do you know about “a spate of killings” by young people in America?

  A. It has always been taken seriously.

  B. It can be controlled by correcting configurations of peoples brains.

  C. It is the cause of the massacre at Columbine High School in Colorado.

  D. It refers to a sharp increase of shooting by young people.

  Passage 4May 18th marks the 20th anniversary of the catastrophic eruption of Mount St. Helens that laid waste over 540 square km (200 sq mi) of forest, killing 57 people and countless wildlife. Hundreds of kilometers away in eastern Washington, as much as 5 cm (2 in) of ash fell, closing the interstate high way from Seattle to Spokane for a week and paralyzing air traffic. Local rivers crested at 6 m (20 ft) above their normal height as mudflows were triggered by melted glacial ice ripped up bridges, roads, and houses.

  Many of us at the Volcano Observatory have vivid memories of this eruption. When Mount St. Helens first began to show signs of life in 1980, the U.S. Geological Survey sent scientists to assess the activity. Most had already gained experience by monitoring eruptions as HVO. For others who had never dreamed of working on an active volcano, the eruption of Mount St. Helens was a dramatic turning point in our careers.

  The first sign that magma was rising toward Mount St. Helens was an earthquake swarming beneath the volcano in midMarch 1980. A week later, a small steam explosion at the volcanos summit coated the downwind side of the snowcovered peak with ash. This was the first eruption in the conterminous U.S. since the 19141917 eruption of Mount Lassen, and it drew flocks of scientists, news media, and sightseers.

  Using techniques that were developed to measure ground deformation on Kilaurea, scientists discovered that the north flank of the cone was rapidly bulging outward as magma forced its way into the volcano. The infamous bulge grew about 25m (85 ft) in 20 days, and the USGS warned that a major eruption was likely. Area residents, however, had grown complacent about the harmless ash plumes and clamored to be allowed back into the restricted zone. Public officials finally relented and, on Saturday, May 17, allowed people to visit their cabins on Spirit Lake. Those people will be forever grateful that they were ordered to leave the area by nightfall.

  At 8:32 the next morning, an earthquake triggered a landslide of the unstable bulge, and within seconds the entire north flank of the mountain was in motion. As the mountainside collapsed, it uncapped the shallow magma, caused it to explode violently, unleashing a lateral blast of hot gas and ash. The blast swept northward at nearly the speed of sound, flattening forests like flattening jackstraws(稻草人) as far as 30 km (19 mi) from the volcano.

  Meanwhile, the collapse of the north flank had coalesced into the largest avalanche in recorded history, surging 23 km (13 mi) down the North Fork of the Toutle River at speeds 300km per hour (180 mph) and burying the valley under 45m (150 ft) of a hummocky mixture of rock, mud, and glacial ice. Later in the day, pyroclastic floes of hot gas, ash, and pumice boiled from the newly formed crater and fanned out over the debris avalanche at the base of the volcano.

  In the first six months after the cataclysmic eruption of May 18, a series of much smaller explosive eruptions produce small pyroclastic flows. A lava dome formed in the crater as short sticky lava flows piled up over the vent. Sixteen domebuilding eruptions over the next 6 years were added to the dome until it was 40 times the size of the King Dome in Seattle. The volcano has been quiet since 1986, except for a few small explosions that deposited thin layers of ash in the crater.

  1. The most appropriate title for this passage is

  A. the 20th Anniversary of the Catastrophic Eruption.

  B. the Eruption of the Mount St. Helens is Terrible.

  C. how the Eruption of Mount St. Helens Begins.

  D. the Eruption of Mount St. Helens is the Strongest One in American History.

  2. Which of the following choices gave the first sign that Mount St. Helens would erupt?

  A. An earthquake beneath the volcano in midMarch 1980.

  B. Several earthquakes beneath Mount St. Helens volcano.

  C. A small steam explosion at the volcanos summit.

  D. The bulging of the north flank of the volcano.

  3. From paragraph 2 we can infer that

  A. the author was an experienced scientist at the HVO.

  B. the author had never worked on an active volcano.

  C. the author was one of the scientists sent by the U.S. Geological Survey to work on the activity.

  D. the eruption of Mount St. Helens changed the authors career.

  4. Which of the following descriptions is true about the violent explosive eruption in May 18?

  A. At the beginning, the mountain was shaken all around.

  B. Hot gas and ash bursted out toward more than two directions.

  C. It totally destroyed all forests within 30km from the volcano.

  D. Later that day, hot gas, ash, and pumice from the explosion formed a shape of fan at the base of the volcano.

  5. Which of the following statements is true?

  A. This passage is written in the year 2001.

  B. Before the eruption, Mount St. Helens was a dead volcano.

  C. This is the first not only in the U.S., but in neighboring areas as well since 1917.

  D. Over the next 6 years, smaller eruptions produced 16 lava domes which together was 40 times the size of the King Dome in Seattle.

  Keys and notes for the passage reading:Passage 1

  此文讲述的是病毒如何袭击人类以及人类如何利用自身防御系统进行自我保护。

  1. However, although all the ingredient for a killervirus scenario do undoubtedly exist, its hard to find a medical expert who believes it is likely that the entire human race will be wiped out by one lethal strain. 然而,虽然杀手病毒袭击的各种可能性确实存在,却很少有医学专家相信整个人类将被一种致命病毒所毁灭。

  2. One so small that it would be almost impossible to identify, let alone halt.这是一种小到无法识别的病毒,更不用说遏制其活动了。let alone是固定词组,表示递进关系,译为“更不用说”。

  1. 「C」文章的第一段第一句已经指出, 其余的选项都与that无关。

  2. 「A」文章只说40年前每10年就会发现两种新病毒, 并不代表每5年就发现一种。

  3. 「A」第四段一二句已经指出。B,C,D表述都错误。

  4. 「D」整篇文章讲的都是关于人类与病毒的抗争。

  5. 「A」联系上下文不难推断出:on a par with是指与……相同或相似。

  Passage 2

  这篇文章讲的是通过在芝加哥市政厅建造屋顶花园给城市降温。

  1. The sprawling openair rooftop garden is being carefully built on a multitiered bed of special soil, polystyrene, eggcartonshaped cones and “waterproof membrane”all to keep the roof from leaking, or caving under the normal combined weight of soil, rain and plant life. 这个扩展型的露天屋顶花园,被精心地建在一种多层的特制土壤上,并用聚苯乙烯材料,蛋盒型锥体和防水薄膜等防止屋顶因不能承受土壤、雨水和植物的正常总重量而发生渗漏或坍塌。

  2. But Chicago City Hall here seems an unlikely spot for a garden of any variety. Especially 20,000 square feet of garden. On its roof. 但芝加哥市政厅似乎并不是适合建造任何种类花园的场所,尤其是建一个两万平方英尺的花园,而且是在屋顶上。

  1. 「D」第三段中指出这个工程是全国为数不多的此类工程之一。所以排除A.它是政府投资150万美元的示范工程的一部分,而不是全部。B错误。C项不准确。

  2. 「A」根据第五段可得答案。B项错误,C项不准确,D错误。

  3. 「B」根据第六段排除A,第七段说明了B.C、D表述都与原文不符。

  4. 「C」从文章倒数第四段中可以找到明确的答案。

  5. 「C」substantially指可观地,大量地

  Passage 3

  本文讲的是电脑暴力游戏与青少年暴力和犯罪行为的联系以及为此展开的调查。

  In America such findings are taken seriously, largely because of a spate of killings by young people. 在美国这样的调查结果很受重视,主要是由于青少年枪击事件的激增。

  1. 「C」文章说电脑正日益成为友谊的替代品,而不是说已经不存在友谊,不选A.少年犯与电脑暴力游戏没有必然联系,不选B.从第三段可得出正确答案C.一种可能性是:玩电脑游戏的孩子之所以沉溺于此,是因为他们本身就有实施暴力行为的癖性,D错误。

  2. 「C」ambiguous译为“模棱两可”。

  3. 「D」A项是直接陈述,不是推断。B项文章并未说明,C项是无根据的推断。文章说玩电脑游戏最多的孩子几乎没有朋友,由此可推断出D.

  4. 「A」从文章第九段Colwells work confirmed studies in much younger children可知A正确。其他选项均与文章不符。

  5. 「D」a spate of killing在这里指枪击事件的激增。

  Passage 4

  本文是讲1980年美国圣海伦火山的大爆发。

  1. Meanwhile, the collapse of the north flank had coalesced into the largest avalanche in recorded history, surging 23 km (13 mi) down the North Fork of the Toutle River at speeds 300km per hour (180 mph) and burying the valley under 45m (150 ft) of a hummocky mixture of rock, mud, and glacial ice. 同时,山体北侧的崩溃加入了有史以来最大的火山灰雪崩,波涛汹涌般地顺着图特河的北支流流过23公里(13英里),速度达到每小时300公里(180英里),整个山谷被高45米(150英尺)的岩石、泥浆和冰块混合物形成的小山丘所淹埋。

  2. Later in the day, pyroclastic floes of hot gas, ash, and pumice boiled from the newly formed crater and fanned out over the debris avalanche at the base of the volcano.当天晚些时候,夹带碎屑的炽热气体、尘埃和石流从新形成的火山口沸腾而出,并且在火山脚下雪崩的火山灰上形成一块扇行区域。

  1. 「A」A最适合,其余选项都只是一方面或不全。

  2. 「B」文章第三段指出第一个迹象是an earthquake swarm, 即多次地震,而不是一次。

  3. 「C」从文章第二段可以得出答案。其余选项表述都有误。

  4. 「D」A项应该只有山体北侧震动,B项应该是bilateral blast, 即一侧崩溃。C项也应该只有北侧的森林被毁,只有D项是正确的。fan out即指形成扇形区域。

  5. 「C」A项应该是写于2000年,B项文章没说,D项错误。in the conterminous U.S., 即指在美国毗连地区。

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