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70天攻克考研英语阅读 DAY4

2006-7-28 01:03  


  Part IIIReading Comprehension

  Directions: Each of the passages below is followed by some questions. For each question there are four answers marked A, B, C and D. Read the passages carefully and choose the best answer to each of the questions. Then mark your answer on ANSWER SHEET 1 by blackening the corresponding letter in the brackets with a pencil.(40 points)

  Passage 1

  Specialization can be seen as a response to the problem of an increasing accumulation of scientific knowledge. By splitting up the subject matter into smaller units, one man could continue to handle the information and use it as the basis for further research. But specialization was only one of a series of related developments in science affecting the process of communication. Another was the growing professionalisation of scientific activity.

  No clearcut distinction can be drawn between professionals and amateurs in science: exceptions can be found to any rule. Nevertheless, the word 'amateur does carry a connotation that the person concerned is not fully integrated into the scientific community and, in particular, may not fully share its values. The growth of specialization in the nineteenth century, with its consequent requirement of a longer, more complex training, implied greater problems for amateur participation in science. The trend was naturally most obvious in those areas of science based especially on a mathematical or laboratory training, and can be illustrated in terms of the development of geology in the United Kingdom.

  A comparison of British geological publications over the last century and a half reveals not simply an increasing emphasis on the primacy of research, but also a changing definition of what constitutes an acceptable research paper. Thus, in the nineteenth century, local geological studies represented worthwhile research in their own right; but, in the twentieth century, local studies have increasingly become acceptable to professionals only if they incorporate, and reflect on, the wider geological picture. Amateurs, on the other hand, have continued to pursue local studies in the old way. The overall result has been to make entrance to professional geological journals harder for amateurs, a result that has been reinforced by the widespread introduction of refereeing, first by national journals in the nineteenth century and then by several local geological journals in the twentieth century. As a logical consequence of this development, separate journals have now appeared aimed mainly towards either professiona

  l or amateur readership. A rather similar process of differentiation has led to professional geologists coming together nationally within one or two specific societies, whereas the amateurs have tended either to remain in local societies or to come together nationally in a different way.

  Although the process of professionalisation and specialization was already well under way in British geology during the nineteenth century, its full consequences were thus delayed until the twentieth century. In science generally, however, the nineteenth century must be reckoned as the crucial period for this change in the structure of science.

  51. The growth of specialization in the 19th century might be more clearly seen in sciences such as .

  A. sociology and chemistry      B. physics and psychology

  C. sociology and psychology     D. physics and chemistry

  52. We can infer from the passage that .

  A.  there is little distinction between specialization and professionalisation

  B. amateurs can compete with professionals in some areas of science

  C. professionals tend to welcome amateurs into the scientific community

  D. amateurs have national academic societies but no local ones

  53. The author writes of the development of geology to demonstrate .

  A. the process of specialization and professionalisation

  B. the hardship of amateurs in scientific study

  C. the change of policies in scientific publications

  D. the discrimination of professionals against amateurs

  54. The direct reason for specialization is .

  A. the development in communicationB. the growth of professionalisation

  C. the expansion of scientific knowledgeD. the splitting up of academic societies

  Passage 2

  A great deal of attention is being paid today to the so called digital divide - the division of the world into the info(information) rich and the info poor. And that divide does exist today. My wife and I lectured about this looming danger twenty years ago. What was less visible then, however, were the new, positive forces that work against the digital divide. There are reasons to be optimistic.

  There are technological reasons to hope the digital divide will narrow. As the Internet becomes more and more commercialized, it is in the interest of business to universalize access - after all, the more people online, the more potential customers there are. More and more governments, afraid their countries will be left behind, want to spread Internet access. Within the next decade or two, one to two billion people on the planet will be netted together. As a result, I now believe the digital divide will narrow rather than widen in the years ahead. And that is very good news because the Internet may well be the most powerful tool for combating world poverty that weve ever had.

  Of course, the use of the Internet isnt the only way to defeat poverty. And the Internet is not the only tool we have. But it has enormous potential.

  To take advantage of this tool, some impoverished countries will have to get over their outdated anticolonial prejudices with respect to foreign investment. Countries that still think foreign investment is an invasion of their sovereignty might well study the history of infrastructure (the basic structural foundations of a society) in the United States. When the United States built its industrial infrastructure, it didnt have the capital to do so. And that is why Americas Second Wave infrastructure - including roads, harbors, highways, ports and so on - were built with foreign investment. The English, the Germans, the Dutch and the French were investing in Britains former colony. They financed them. Immigrant Americans built them. Guess who owns them now? The Americans. I believe the same thing would be true in places like Brazil or anywhere else for that matter. The more foreign capital you have helping you build your Third Wave infrastructure, which today is an electronic infrastructure, the better off

  youre going to be. That doesnt mean lying down and becoming fooled, or letting foreign corporations run uncontrolled. But it does mean recognizing how important they can be in building the energy and telecom infrastructures needed to take full advantage of the Internet.

  55. Digital divide is something  .

  A. getting worse because of the Internet  B. the rich countries are responsible for

  C. the world must guard against     D. considered positive today

  56. Governments attach importance to the Internet because it  .

  A. offers economic potentials       B. can bring foreign funds

  C. can soon wipe out world poverty  D. connects people all over the world

  57. The writer mentioned the case of the United States to justify the policy of  .

  A. providing financial support overseas   B. preventing foreign capitals control

  C. building industrial infrastructureD. accepting foreign investment

  58. It seems that now a countrys economy depends much on  .

  A. how well developed it is electronically

  B. whether it is prejudiced against immigrants

  C. whether it adopts Americas industrial pattern

  D. how much control it has over foreign corporations

  Passage 3

  Why do so many Americans distrust what they read in their newspapers? The American Society of Newspaper Editors is trying to answer this painful question. The organization is deep into a long selfanalysis known as the journalism credibility project.

  Sad to say, this project has turned out to be mostly lowlevel findings about factual errors and spelling and grammar mistakes, combined with lots of headscratching puzzlement about what in the world those readers really want.

  But the sources of distrust go way deeper. Most journalists learn to see the world through a set of standard templates (patterns) into which they plug each days events. In other words, there is a conventional story line in the newsroom culture that provides a backbone and a readymade narrative structure for otherwise confusing news.

  There exists a social and cultural disconnect between journalists and their readers, which helps explain why the "standard templates" of the newsroom seem alien to many readers. In a recent survey, questionnaires were sent to reporters in five middlesize cities around the country, plus one large metropolitan area. Then residents in these communities were phoned at random and asked the same questions.

  Replies show that compared with other Americans, journalists are more likely to live in upscale neighborhoods, have maids, own Mercedeses, and trade stocks, and theyre less likely to go to church, do volunteer work, or put down roots in a community.

  Reporters tend to be part of a broadly defined social and cultural elite, so their work tends to reflect the conventional values of this elite. The astonishing distrust of the news media isnt rooted in inaccuracy or poor reportorial skills but in the daily clash of world views between reporters and their readers.

  This is an explosive situation for any industry, particularly a declining one. Here is a troubled business that keeps hiring employees whose attitudes vastly annoy the customers. Then it sponsors lots of symposiums and a credibility project dedicated to wondering why customers are annoyed and fleeing in large numbers. But it never seems to get around to noticing the cultural and class biases that so many former buyers are complaining about. If it did, it would open up its diversity program, now focused narrowly on race and gender, and look for reporters who differ broadly by outlook, values, education, and class.

  59. What is the passage mainly about?

  A. needs of the readers all over the world

  B. causes of the public disappointment about newspapers

  C. origins of the declining newspaper industry

  D. aims of a journalism credibility project

  60. The results of the journalism credibility project turned out to be .

  A. quite trustworthy   B. somewhat contradictory

  C. very illuminating    D. rather superficial

  61. The basic problem of journalists as pointed out by the writer lies in their  .

  A. working attitude     B. conventional lifestyle

  C. world outlook       D. educational background

  62. Despite its efforts, the newspaper industry still cannot satisfy the readers owing to its  .

  A. failure to realize its real problem    B. tendency to hire annoying reporters

  C. likeliness to do inaccurate reporting  D. prejudice in matters of race and gender

  Passage 4

  The world is going through the biggest wave of mergers and acquisitions ever witnessed. The process sweeps from hyperactive America to Europe and reaches the emerging countries with unsurpassed might. Many in these countries are looking at this process and worrying: "Wont the wave of business concentration turn into an uncontrollable anticompetitive force?"

  Theres no question that the big are getting bigger and more powerful. Multinational corporations accounted for less than 20% of international trade in 1982.Today the figure is more than 25% and growing rapidly. International affiliates account for a fastgrowing segment of production in economies that open up and welcome foreign investment. In Argentina, for instance, after the reforms of the early 1990s,multinationals went from 43% to almost 70% of the industrial production of the 200 largest firms. This phenomenon has created serious concerns over the role of smaller economic firms, of national businessmen and over the ultimate stability of the world economy.

  I believe that the most important forces behind the massive M&A wave are the same that underlie the globalization process: falling transportation and communication costs, lower trade and investment barriers and enlarged markets that require enlarged operations capable of meeting customers demands. All these are beneficial, not detrimental, to consumers. As productivity grows, the worlds wealth increases.

  Examples of benefits or costs of the current concentration wave are scanty. Yet it is hard to imagine that the merger of a few oil firms today could recreate the same threats to competition that were feared nearly a century ago in the U.S., when the Standard Oil trust was broken up. The mergers of telecom companies, such as WorldCom, hardly seem to bring higher prices for consumers or a reduction in the pace of technical progress. On the contrary, the price of communications is coming down fast. In cars, too, concentration is increasing - witness Daimler and Chrysler, Renault and Nissan - but it does not appear that consumers are being hurt.

  Yet the fact remains that the merger movement must be watched. A few weeks ago, Alan Greenspan warned against the megamergers in the banking industry. Who is going to supervise, regulate and operate as lender of last resort with the gigantic banks that are being created? Wont multinationals shift production from one place to another when a nation gets too strict about infringements to fair competition? And should one country take upon itself the role of "defending competition" on issues that affect many other nations, as in the U.S. vs. Microsoft case?

  63. What is the typical trend of businesses today?

  A. to take in more foreign funds    B. to invest more abroad

  C. to combine and become bigger    D. to trade with more countries

  64. According to the author, one of the driving forces behind M&A wave is  .

  A. the greater customer demands     B. a surplus supply for the market

  C. a growing productivity     D. the increase of the worlds wealth

  65. From paragraph 4 we can infer that  .

  A. the increasing concentration is certain to hurt consumers

  B. WorldCom serves as a good example of both benefits and costs

  C. the costs of the globalization process are enormous

  D. the Stanard Oil trust might have threatened competition

  66. Toward the new business wave, the writers attitude can be said to be  .

  A. optimisticB. objective   C. pessimistic  D. biased

  Passage 5

  When I decided to quit my full time employment it never occurred to me that I might become a part of a new international trend. A lateral move that hurt my pride and blocked my professional progress prompted me to abandon my relatively high profile career although, in the manner of a disgraced government minister, I covered my exit by claiming "I wanted to spend more time with my family".

  Curiously, some twoandahalf years and two novels later, my experiment in what the Americans term "downshifting" has turned my tired excuse into an absolute reality. I have been transformed from a passionate advocate of the philosophy of "having it all", preached by Linda Kelsey for the past seven years in the page of She magazine, into a woman who is happy to settle for a bit of everything.

  I have discovered, as perhaps Kelsey will after her muchpublicized resignation from the editorship of She after a build up of stress, that abandoning the doctrine of "juggling your life", and making the alternative move into "downshifting" brings with it far greater rewards than financial success and social status. Nothing could persuade me to return to the kind of life Kelsey used to advocate and I once enjoyed:12 hour working days, pressured deadlines, the fearful strain of office politics and the limitations of being a parent on "quality time".

  In America, the move away from juggling to a simpler, less materialistic lifestyle is a wellestablished trend. Downshifting - also known in America as "voluntary simplicity" - has, ironically, even bred a new area of what might be termed anticonsumerism. There are a number of bestselling downshifting selfhelp books for people who want to simplify their lives; there are newsletters, such as The Tightwad Gazette, that give hundreds of thousands of Americans useful tips on anything from recycling their clingfilm to making their own soap; there are even support groups for those who want to achieve the mid90s equivalent of dropping out.

  While in America the trend started as a reaction to the economic decline - after the mass redundancies caused by downsizing in the late80s - and is still linked to the politics of thrift, in Britain, at least among the middleclass downshifters of my acquaintance, we have different reasons for seeking to simplify our lives.

  For the women of my generation who were urged to keep juggling through the80s,downshifting in the mid90s is not so much a search for the mythical good life - growing your own organic vegetables, and risking turning into one - as a personal recognition of your limitations.

  67. Which of the following is true according to paragraph 1?

  A. Fulltime employment is a new international trend.

  B. The writer was compelled by circumstances to leave her job.

  C. "A lateral move" means stepping out of fulltime employment.

  D. The writer was only too eager to spend more time with her family.

  68. The writers experiment shows that downshifting  .

  A. enables her to realize her dream

  B. helps her mold a new philosophy of life

  C. prompts her to abandon her high social status

  D. leads her to accept the doctrine of  She magazine

  69. "Juggling ones life" probably means living a life characterized by  .

  A. nonmaterialistic lifestyle    B. a bit of everything

  C. extreme stress             D. anticonsumerism

  70. According to the passage, downshifting emerged in the U.S. as a result of  .

  A. the quick pace of modern life    B. mans adventurous spirit

  C. mans search for mythical experiences  D. the economic situation

  51. 「D」问题是:在19世纪中专业化的增长尤其在的学科中更明显。

  文章第二段6至7行作者指出在特别是以数学和实验为基础的学科领域中,这一倾向表现更为明显(The trend was naturally most obvious in those areas of science based especially on a mathematical or laboratory training,……)。这一倾向(the trend)与前一句的主语是同义,即the growth of specialization in the nineteenth century.四项中只有D项内容,即physics and chemistry都是以数学和实验为基础的学科。A,B,C中 的 "sociology"和 "psychology"均属社会科学与人文学范畴。

  52. 「B」问题是:从本文可以推断出

  文章第二段第一行作者便指出:"在科学领域中专业者和业余者的区别并不是十分鲜明(no clearcut distinction can be drawn between professionals and amateurs in science)。"紧接着作者又指出任何规则都有例外(exceptions can be found to any rule)。换句话说,"amateur"中也有真正的 "professional",即B项内容。A,D与文中内容不相符;C项内容文章没有提到。

  53. 「A」问题是:作者提起地质学的主要目的是

  文章第二段最后一句,作者指出英国地质学的发展是来阐明 (illustrate)这一倾向(the trend)。"这一倾向" 也就是前一句的主语,即 "the growth of specialization in the nineteenth century".只有A项内容与作者提起地质学发展目的相符。

  54. 「C」问题是:专门化的直接原因是

  文章第一段第一句便给出了答案:专门化可以看作是对日益增加的科学知识的应对之策(specialization can be seen as a response to the problem of an increasing accumulation of scientific knowledge),即C项内容。





  55. 「C」问题是:数字分化是

  文章第一段第一句便对 "digital divide"下的定义。同段第三行作者随后提到早在二十年前,他和他妻子就对这种随时将至的危险作了有关演讲。 "This looming danger"很明显在上下文中指的就是"digital divide",并且在第一句中作者已经指出这种危险所及的范围是全球性的。C项内容符合作者本意。

  56. 「A」问题是:政府十分重视互联网是因为


  57. 「D」问题是:作者用美国的例子来说明


  58. 「A」问题是:一个国家的经济取决于

  文章第四段作者引用美国的例子说明了一个国家的经济与它的基础设施建设(infrastructure)有着密切的关系。而将来会是一个 electronic infrastructure(第四段十一行)。可见,其电子工业的发展直接影响到一个国家的经济,即A项内容。





  59. 「B」问题是:本文主要讲述的是什么?

  文章第一句便道出文章旨在说明的问题:为什么那么多的美国人都不相信自己在报上所读到的内容 (why do so many Americans distrust what they read in their newspapers?)? 第二段作者否认了一些肤浅的解释。从第三段开始,作者展开了具体分析,关于不相信的源头或原因"the sources of distrust".这也是写这篇文章的主要目的, 故选B.

  60. 「D」问题是:报业信任度测试项目的结果是


  61. 「C」问题是:正如作者所指出的,新闻工作者的主要问题是他们的


  62. 「A」问题是:尽管努力,报业仍不能使读者满意,这是因为









  63. 「C」问题是:当前贸易的典型倾向是什么?

  文章第1段第1行便指出,当今世界正在经历有史以来最大的并购热潮,即C项内容。 "combining",  "merging",  "acquisitions",  "business concentration"在文中都表达同一概念。

  64. 「A」问题是:根据作者看法,M&A浪潮的动力之一是

  文章第3段道出了M and A浪潮的原因。在作者看来,这些因素和造成日趋全球化的原因是一样的。作者举出几个全球化的例子如"falling transportation and communication costs", "lower trade and investment barriers".作者接着总结说"所有这些都对顾客有益而无害。"从而暗示了顾客的需求是全球化的根本动力。这也正是M&A浪潮的动力之一,即A项内容。

  65. 「D」问题是:根据第4段内容,我们可以推断出

  本文第4段第1、2句,作者指出现行合并热潮带来的利益或降低成本的例子还很少,但如果现在有几个石油公司合并,很难想象会再次出现近乎100年前的威胁。文中没有直接讲"Standard Oil" 的破产是因为他的竞争对手,但我们可以从句2得出,几个公司合并将会对竞争构成威胁 (更强大的竞争对手)。而100年前"Standard Oil" 的破产正是因为 "the same threats", 指更强大的竞争对手,即D项内容。

  66. 「B」问题是:对于这种新浪潮,作者的态度是





  现在能证明目前的并购浪潮是有利还是有害的例子还很少。但是我们很难想象,今天几个石油公司的合并就会给竞争再次带来一个世纪前,当美国的 Standard Oil 企业联合会解散时,美国人所担心的那种威胁。像WorldCom这样的电信公司的合并,并没有给消费者造成更高的价格,或是减缓科技进步的步伐。相反,通讯费用很快下降了。在汽车行业中,合并也在增加——看看戴姆勒和克莱斯勒,再看看雷诺和尼桑——但是,消费者并没有受到损害。

  但是实际上,我们必须留心注视这场并购运动。几周以前,Alan Greenspan 提醒人们注意银行业的大型合并。面对新生的巨型银行,谁将作为最终的监督、规范和管理者?当某个国家对侵害自由竞争的行为过于严厉时,那些跨国公司是否会从这个国家撤走,转到别的国家去?当面对一个影响很多国家的问题时,是否应该由一个国家把"维护竞争"的担子挑上,就像美国对抗微软一样?

  67. 「B」问题是:根据文章第1段以下哪一项正确的?

  文章第1段2至3行,作者讲述了她放弃工作的原因。"一次始料未及的变动伤害了我的自尊,阻碍了我在工作上的发展,促使我放弃了相对来说地位较高的工作。"这与B项内容相吻合。 A项内容与第1段第1句刚好相反,"A lateral move"是作者 "stepping out of fulltime employment"原因,而并非等同于"stepping out of fulltime employment",故不选C.第1段最后部分,作者提到"I wanted to spend more time with my family" 但要注意的是,此句出现在双引号中,表明了"wanted to spend more time with my family"不是作者辞掉工作的真正原因,而是她以此作借口,自己安慰自己。从这句话无法得出作者是要否工作太忙而无法和家人更多的在一起。

  68. 「B」问题是:作者的实验表明,downshifting.

  文章第2段第1句作者讲到,奇怪的是,经过了约两年半的时间并发表了两部小说后,作者在美国人称之为 "downshifting" 的生活方式上的实验,却不期将她那乏味的借口(指第一段最后一句掩饰性的话)转为现实。紧接着下一句,作者具体指明是怎样的转变,她从一个 "havingitall" 的哲学,转变为一个乐于随遇而安的女人。很明显,"随遇而安"(settle for a bit of everything)是作者新的生活哲学,与2年前的"havingitall" 哲学形成对比。只有B项内容符合作者本意。

  69. 「C」问题是:"Juggling ones life"的意思是过一种的生活。

  不难看出,第3段第2行中的 "the doctrine juggling your life" 和 "the philosophy of having it all"是一个意思,同出于作者Linda Kelsey.另外,在文章第4段第1句作者将"juggling"与"simpler" 和 "less materialistic" 作比较。很明显,在词义上它们的关系是相反的,故选C项。

  70. 「D」问题是:根据本文,downshifting最初出现在美国是因为。

  文章第5段第1行已明确指出,最初这种趋势(downshifting)的出现是对经济衰退的一种反应。A,B,C都可能是一个人选择 "downshifting"这种生活方式的原因,但这里所提出的问题是针对 "downshifting"在美国出现的历史性(注意,问题中emerge是过去式)。选D.


  奇怪的是,当我在两年半的时间里完成了两部小说之后,我的这种美国人叫做"放慢生活节奏"的体验,已经把我当初干巴巴的借口变成了现实。Linda Kelsey和她主编的《她》杂志在过去的7年里一直在宣扬"做个面面俱到的女人",我也曾是这种哲学观的狂热支持者。但是,两年半的"放慢生活节奏"之后,我已经变成了一个"容易满足"的女人。

  放弃"平衡好生活中的方方面面",而转为"放慢生活节奏",我发现这样做带来的好处要比经济上的成功和社会地位的提高重要得多。既然Kelsey已经因为压力过大而辞去了《她》杂志主编的职务——这件事受到了公众的广泛关注——我想,离职后的她也会产生和我一样的想法。再也没有任何事情能使我重新回到 Kelsey过去倡导的,也是我曾经非常享受的那种生活方式了:一天工作12小时,让人倍感压力的最后期限,办公室里可怕的政治斗争,和孩子在一起的时间有限。

  在美国,抛开"面面俱到",转向一种更简单、更少注意物质利益的生活方式,已逐渐形成风尚。放慢生活节奏——在美国也叫做"返朴归真"——甚至为所谓的 "反消费主义"开辟了新阵地。对那些想使自己的生活简单化的人,有一些非常畅销的自助书籍;还有一些报刊,例如《小气鬼报》,教成千上万的美国人有用的生活小窍门,像怎样重复利用食品保鲜膜,怎样自己做肥皂等;甚至有专门的互助组织帮助那些希望回到90年代中期的简单生活的人。