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基因词汇Gene

2006-07-13 00:40   我要纠错 | 打印 | 收藏 | | |

  A

  activation domain          活化结构域

  adapters          连接物

  adenine          腺嘌呤

  adenosine          腺

  ADP (adenosine diphosphate)          腺二磷酸

  affinity column          亲和柱

  AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphisms)          增值性断片长度多态现象

  agrobacterium          农杆菌属

  alanine          丙氨酸

  allele          等位基因

  amber mutation          琥珀型突变

  AMP (adenosine monophosphate)          腺一磷酸

  ampicillin          氨/青霉素

  anchor primer          锚状引物

  annealing          退火

  annealing temperature          退火温度

  anticodon          反密码子

  AP-PCR (arbitrarily primed PCR)          任意引物聚合/链反应

  arbitrary primer          任意引物

  ATP (adenosine triphosphate)          腺三磷酸

  autosome          常染色体

  B

  baculovirus          杆状病毒

  base pair          基对

  base sequence          基顺序

  beta-galactosidase          β-半乳糖/

  beta-glucuronidase          β-葡糖醛酸糖/

  bioluminescence          生物发光

  bioremediation          生物降解

  biotechnology          生物技术

  blotting          印迹法

  blue-white selection          蓝白斑筛选

  blunt end          平(整末)端

  C

  catalyst          催化剂

  cDNA library          反向转录DNA库

  centromere          着丝体

  centrosome          中心体

  chemiluminescence          化学发光

  chiasma          交叉

  chromomere          染色粒

  chromoplast          有色体

  chromosomal aberration          染色体畸变

  chromosomal duplication          染色体复制

  chromosomal fibre          染色体牵丝

  chromosome          染色体

  chromosome complement          染色体组

  chromosome map          染色体图

  chromosome mutation          染色体突变

  clone          克隆

  cloning          无性繁殖系化

  codon          密码子

  codon degeneracy          密码简并

  codon usage          密码子选择

  cohesive end          黏性末端

  complementary DNA (cDNA)          反向转录DNA

  complementary gene          互补基因

  consensus sequence          共有序列

  construct          组成

  cosmids          黏性质粒

  crossing over          互换

  cyclic AMP (cAMP)          环腺酸

  cytosine          胞嘧啶

  D

  dark band          暗带

  deamination          脱氨基作用

  decarboxylation          脱羧基作用

  degenerate code          简并密码

  degenerate PCR          退化性聚合/链反应

  dehydrogenase          脱氢/

  denaturation          变性

  deoxyribonucleoside diphospahte          脱氧核糖核一磷酸

  deoxyribonucleoside monophospahte          脱氧核糖核二磷酸

  deoxyribonucleoside triphospahte          脱氧核糖核三磷酸

  deoxyribose          去(脱)氧核糖

  dicarboxylic acid          二羧酸

  digoxigenin          洋地黄毒

  diploid          二倍体

  DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)          去(脱)氧核糖核酸

  DNA binding domain          DNA结合性结构域

  DNA fingerprinting          DNA指纹图谱

  DNA helicase          DNA解螺旋/

  DNA kinase          DNA激/

  DNA ligase          DNA连接/

  DNA polymer          DNA聚合物

  DNA polymerase          DNA聚合/

  double helix          双螺旋

  double-strand          双链

  E

  electroporation          电穿孔

  endonuclease          内切核酸/

  enhancer          增强子

  enterokinase          肠激/

  episome          游离基因

  ethidium bromide          溴乙锭

  eukaryotic          真核生物的

  euploid          整倍体

  exonuclease          外切核酸/

  expressed-sequence tags          表达的序列标记片段

  extron          外含子

  F

  F factor          F因子

  FAD (flavine adenine dinucleotide)          黄素腺嘌呤二(双)核酸

  feedback control          反馈控制

  feedback inhibition          反馈抑制

  feedback mechanism          反馈机制

  first filial (F1) generation          第一子代

  FISH (fluoresence in situ hybridization)          荧光原位杂交

  forward mutation          正向突变

  F-pilus          F纤毛

  functional complementation          功能性互补作用

  fusion protein          融合蛋白

  G

  gel electrophoresis          凝胶电泳

  gene          基因

  gene cloning          基因克隆

  gene conversion          基因转变

  gene duplication          基因复制

  gene flow          基因流动

  gene gun          基因枪

  gene interaction          基因相互作用

  gene locus          基因位点

  gene mutation          基因突变

  gene regulation          基因调节

  gene segregation          基因分离

  gene therapy          基因治疗

  geneome          基因组 / 染色体组

  genetic map          基因图

  genetic modified foods (GM foods)          基因食物

  genetics          遗传学

  genetypic ratio          基因型比 / 基因型比值

  genome          基因组 / 染色体组

  genomic library          基因组文库

  genotype          基因型

  giant chromosome          巨染色体

  globulin          球蛋白

  glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase          6-磷酸葡萄糖脱氢/

  GP (glycerate phosphate)          磷酸甘油酸脂

  GTP (guanine triphosphate)          鸟三磷酸

  guanine          鸟嘌呤     文章来源:http://medtrans.tougao.com(专业的医学翻译)

  H

  haploid          单倍体

  haploid generation          单倍世代

  heredity          遗传

  heterochromatin          异染色质

  Hfr strain          高频重组菌株

  holoenzyme          全/

  homologous          同源的

  housekeeping gene          家务基因

  hybridization          杂交

  I

  immunoglobulin          免疫球蛋白

  in vitro          在体外 / 在试管内

  in vivio          在体内

  independent assortment          独立分配

  induced mutation          诱发性突变

  induction          诱导

  initiation codon          起始密码子

  inosine          次黄

  insert          插入片段

  insertional inactivation          插入失活

  interference          干扰

  intergenic          基因间的

  interphase          间期

  intragenic          基因内的

  intron          内含子

  inversion          倒位

  isocaudarner          同尾酸

  isoschizomer          同切点/

  J

  K

  kanamycin          卡那毒素

  klenow fragment          克列诺夫片段

  L

  lac operon          乳糖操纵子

  ligase          连接/

  ligation          连接作用

  light band          明带

  linker          连接体

  liposome          脂质体

  locus          位点

  M

  map distance          图距离

  map unit          图距单位

  mature transcript          成熟转录物

  metaphase          中期

  methylase          甲基化/

  methylation          甲基化作用

  microarray          微列

  microinjection          微注射

  missense mutation          错差突变

  molecular genetics          分子遗传学

  monoploid          单倍体

  monosome          单染色体

  messenger RNA (mRNA)          信使RNA

  multiple alleles          复(多)等位基因

  mutagen          诱变剂

  mutagenesis          诱变

  mutant          突变体

  mutant gene          突变基因

  mutant strain          突变株

  mutation          突变

  mutation rate          突变率

  muton          突变子

  N

  NAD (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide)          烟醯胺腺嘌呤二核酸

  NADP (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate)          烟醯胺腺嘌呤二核酸磷酸

  nicking activity          切割活性

  nonsense codon          无意义密码子

  nonsense mutation          无意义突变

  Northern blot          Northern印迹法

  nuclear DNA          核DNA

  nuclear gene          核基因

  nuclease          核酸/

  nucleic acid          核酸

  nucleoside          核

  nucleoside triphosphate          核三磷酸

  nucleotidase          核酸/

  nucleotide          核酸

  nucleotide sequence          核酸序列

  O

  oligonucleotide          寡核酸

  one gene one polypeptide hypothesis          一个基因一种/学说

  operon          操纵子

  oxidative decarboxylation          氧化脱羧作用

  oxidative phosphorylation          氧化磷酸化作用

  P

  PCR (polymerase chain reaction)          聚合/链反应

  peptide          /

  peptide bond          /键

  phagemids          噬菌粒

  phosphorylation          磷酸化作用

  physical map          物理图谱

  plasmid          质粒

  point mutation          点突变

  poly(A) tail          poly(A)尾

  polymerase          聚合/

  polyploid          多倍体

  positional cloning          位置性无性繁殖系化

  primary transcript          初级转录物

  primer          引物

  probe          探针

  prokaryotic          原核的

  promoter          启动子

  protease          蛋白/

  purine          嘌呤

  pyrimidine          嘧啶

  Q

  R

  random segregation          随机分离

  RAPD (rapid amplified polymorphic DNA)          快速扩增多态DNA

  reading frame          阅读码框

  recessive gene          隐性基因

  recombinant          重组体

  recombinant DNA technology          重组DNA技术

  recombination          重组

  regulator (gene)          调控基因

  replica          复制物 / 印模

  replica plating          复制平皿(板)培养法

  replication          复制

  replication origin          复制起点

  reporter gene          报道基因

  repression          阻遏

  repressor          阻遏物

  repressor gene          阻遏基因

  resistance strain          抗药性菌株

  restriction          限制作用

  restriction enzyme          限制性内切/

  restriction mapping          限制性内切/图谱

  retrovirus          反转录病毒

  reverse transcription          反转录作用

  RFLP (restricted fragment length polymorphisms)          限制性断片长度多态现象

  ribonucleotide          核糖核酸

  ribose          核糖

  ribosomal RNA (rRNA)          核糖体RNA

  ribosome          核糖体

  RNA (ribonucleic acid)          核糖核酸

  RNA polymerase I          RNA聚合/I

  RNA polymerase II          RNA聚合/II

  RNA polymerase III          RNA聚合/III

  R-plasmid          R质粒 / 抗药性质粒

  S

  second filial (F2) generation          第二子代

  self-ligation          自我连接作用

  shuttle vectors          穿梭载体

  sigma factor          σ因子

  single nucleotide polymorphism          单核酸多态性

  single-stranded DNA          单链DNA

  sister chromatid          姊妹染色单体

  sister chromosome          姊妹染色体

  site-directed mutagenesis          定点诱变

  somatic cell          体细胞

  Southern blot          Southern印迹法

  splice          拼接

  star activity          星号活性

  stationary phase          静止生长期

  sticky end          黏性末端

  stop codon          终止密码子

  structural gene          结构基因

  supernatant          上层清液

  supressor          抑制基因

  T

  telophase          末期

  template          模板

  terminator          终止子

  tetracycline          四环素

  thymine          胸腺嘧啶

  tissue culture          组织培养

  transcription          转录作用

  transfer RNA (tRNA)          转移RNA

  transformation          转化作用

  transgene          转基因

  translation          翻译 / 平移

  transmembrane          跨膜

  triplet          三联体

  triplet code          三联体密码

  triploid          三倍体

  U

  V

  vector          载体

  W

  Western blot          Western印迹法

  A

  alternative splicing —— Eukaryotic genes are composed of exons and introns, the latter being removed by RNA splicing before transcribed mRNA leaves the nucleus. Commonly, a single gene can encode several different mRNA transcripts, caused by cell- or tissue-specific combination of different exons. This is known as alternative splicing.

  Annealing —— The time- and temperature-dependent process by which two complementary single-stranded polynucleotides associate to form a double helix (see also hybridization)

  Antisense strand —— the DNA strand of a gene which, during transcription, is used as a template by RNA polymerase to synthesize a complementary RNA strand.

  反股 —— 意指一股DN**段为基因之所在,因此可用来当做模版使得RNA反转录脢在转录RNA时,可以合成和此DN**段完全结合的RN**段。

  B

  Bifurcation —— The graphical representation in a phylogenetic tree of an evolutionary speciation event whereby an ancestral taxon splits into two.

  分歧点 —— 在演化的种形成事件中,物种由相同来源一分为二,其在种系发生树中的图示点。

  blotting —— General term for the transfer of protein, RNA or DNA molecules from a relatively thick acrylamide or agarose gel to a paper-like membrane (usually nylon or nitrocellulose) by capillarity or an electric field, preserving the spatial arrangment. Once on the membrane, the molecules are immobilized, typically by baking or by ultraviolet irradiation, and can then be detected at high sensitivity by hybridization (in the case of DNA and RNA), or antibody labelling (in the case of protein)。 RNA blots are called Northern blots; DNA blots, Southern; protein blots, Western.

  Blunt ends —— Descriptive of the structure of double-stranded DNA in which neither strand of the duplex extends further from the end than the other; often the product of cleavage by a restriction endonuclease. (see also sticky ended)

  Branch —— The graphical representation of an evolutionary relationship in a phylogenetic tree.

  分枝 —— 在种系发生树中,物种演化相互关系的图示。

  C

  Cancer Genome Anatomy Project —— The Cancer Genome Anatomy Project (CGAP) is an interdisciplinary program established and administered by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) to generate the information and technological tools needed to decipher the molecular anatomy of the cancer cell.

  癌症基因体解剖计划 —— 癌症基因体解剖计划(CGAP)已经由国际癌症学会(NCI)建立并经营于于各个学科间,主要是产生信息及技术工具以便解决癌症细胞的分子解剖的各项秘密

  Cap —— a specialized chemical group that is naturally added to the 5‘ end of mRNA.

  帽子 —— 一个特殊群,在自然下会加到5端的mRNA上

  CASP —— Critical Assessment of techniques for protein Structure Prediction

  CASP —— 于蛋白质结构的预测上作一关键性的技术评估

  cDNA —— Complementary DNA; DNA that is synthesized, by reverse transcriptase, from an mRNA template, and therefore has no introns. (see also genomic DNA)

  cDNA library —— A collection of cells, usually E. coli, transformed by DNA vectors each of which contains a different cDNA insert synthesized from a collection of mRNA species. (see also genomic library)

  Cis-element —— a regulatory DNA sequence that serves as a protein binding site and controls the transcription of adjacent genes.

  Clade —— A complete group of organisms derived from a common ancestor.

  进化枝,分化枝 —— 生物体的全部族群源自于共同始祖

  Cloning vector —— A technique for obtaining the desired gene that involves "chopping up" the entire genetic complement of a cell using restriction enzymes, then attaching each (resultant) DNA fragment to a vector and transferring it into a bacterium, and finally screening those (engineered) bacteria to locate the bacteria that are producing the desired product (e.g., a protein)。

  Codon —— a nucleotide triplet which specifies an amino acid or a signal for terminating the synthesis of a polypeptide.

  密码子 —— 对应到特定胺基酸的核甘酸三联体或使多月太链合成中止的讯号

  Consensus tree —— A branching diagram produced using a method for combining the grouping information contained in a set of cladograms for the same taxa into a single topology.

  共同树 —— 利用分枝图分群方式合并分群讯息, 使相同之taxa包含在进化枝的集合中

  Convergence —— The independent evolution of similar genetic or phenotypic traits.

  收敛 —— 具相似基因或表现型特征的独立演化

  CpG islands  —— short stretch of DNA, often 〈1 kb,  containing CpG dinucleotides which are unmethylated and present at the expected frequency. CpG islands often occur at transcriptionally active DNA.

  CpG island —— 长度小于 1000 个碱基的脱氧核糖核酸 , 其中包含未甲基化的CpG 双核甘酸序列 , 并以特定的频率出现 . CpG island 通常出现在随时准备好转录或转译的脱氧核糖核酸中可以观察到

  D

  dbEST —— dbEST is a division of GenBank that contains sequence data and other information on "single-pass" cDNA sequences, or Expressed Sequence Tags, from a number of organisms.

  表现序列标帜数据库 —— 表现序列标帜数据库是基因库内的一部份,内含序列数据库和“只有单股定序”的互补DNA(cDNA)序列信息或一些生物体的表现序列标帜

  Denaturation —— The destruction of the ordered folding of a protein or nucleic acid that is required for its normal function. Protein denaturation often involves a change from a specific globular or fibrous conformation to a random coil; nucleic acid denaturation often involves the dissociation of a duplex into single strands. (see also native structure)

  Digital Differential Display —— Survey sequencing of mRNA gene products provides an indirect means of generating gene expression fingerprints for cancer cells and their normal counterparts. Digital Differential Display (DDD) is a computer method for comparing these fingerprints. Using a statistical test, genes whose expression levels differ significantly from one tissue to the next are identified and shown to the user.

  数字差异陈列 —— 观察mRNA基因的序列产生提供一间接方法为了癌症细胞及与癌症细胞极为相似但是正常的细胞能够产生基因表现指纹。数字差异陈列(DDD)是利用计算机统计的方法来比较各个组织不同层级的基因表现。

  Distance (evolutionary distance) —— A measure of the number of nucleotide substitutions per nucleotide site between two homologous DNA sequences that have accumulated since the divergence between the sequences.

  距离(演化远近)—— 从两条相似DNA序列间发生相异处收集每个核甘酸位置发生替换个数的量度

  Divergence —— The splitting of a taxonomic unit into two.

  DNA cloning —— The production of a lineage of cells all of which contain one kind of DNA fragment of interest derived from a population of many kinds of DNA fragments. Operationally by:

  inserting (recombining) a population of DNA molecules, known to contain the DNA of interest, into a population of vector DNA molecules in such a way that each vector molecule contains only a single DNA molecule from the original population;

  transforming a population of host cells with the vector DNA recombinants such that each host cell takes up only one vector;

  growing single host cells separately (cloning) by plating at low density to form a collection of separate colonies;

  screening the colonies (clones) formed for the presence of the DNA of interest.

  DNA library —— A library composed of complementary copies of cellular messenger RNAs.

  DNA microarray —— Initially developed by Patrick Brown during the 1980s, these microarrays enable analysis of the levels of expression of genes in an organism, or comparison of gene expression levels (e.g., between diseased and non-diseased tissues) via hybridization of messenger RNA (mRNA) to its counterpart DNA sequence…… when biological samples containing DNA (e.g., in liquid) are passed-over the array surface.

  DNA polymerase —— An enzyme that can synthesize new DNA strands using a DNA template; several such enzymes exist. One of several classes of enzymes that polymerize DNA nucleotides using single or double-stranded DNA as a template.

  dot blot —— Method for detecting a specific protein or message. A spot of solution is dotted onto nitrocellulose paper, a specific antibody or probe is allowed to bind and the presence of bound antibody/probe then shown by using a peroxidase-coupled second antibody, as in Western blot or by other visualization methods.

  点印 —— 侦测特殊蛋白质或遗传讯息的方法。 在硝化纤维纸上点上特殊的点状溶液, 其中含有特殊的抗体或探针,在这些抗体或探针上再使用过氧化反应连结上二次抗体,用以提供呈色反应, 就类似西方转渍反应或者其它类似的方法。

  E

  Ectopic (illegitimate) transcription —— low-level transcription in many cell types of genes which are predominantly expressed in certain types of cell

  易位(不合规则)转录 —— 在许多形式细胞低量转录某些特定细胞显著表现的基因

  exon —— The sequences of the RNA primary transcript (or the DNA that encodes them) that exit the nucleus as part of a messenger RNA molecule. In the primary transcript neighbouring exons are separated by introns.

  表现子 —— 离开原子核成为讯息核糖核酸分子的核糖核酸主要转录序列。 在主要转录过程附近,表现子会被介入子所分开。

  F

  G

  gene —— Originally defined as the physical unit of heredity but the meaning has changed with increasing knowledge. It is probably best defined as the unit of inheritance that occupies a specific locus on a chromosome, the existence of which can be confirmed by the occurrence of different allelic forms. Given the occurrence of split genes, it might be re-defined as the set of DNA sequences (exons) that are required to produce a single polypeptide.

  基因 —— 原本是定义遗传上的物质单位,但随着知识的增加意义也随之改变。也许现在最好定义它是遗传上的单位,占有染色体上一个特别的区域,可被证实有不同的对偶型式。对分离的基因来说,它可被定义成一组需要用来产生蛋白质的脱氧核糖核酸序列,即外子。

  genomic DNA —— DNA that has been isolated from a cell and therefore contains introns, as opposed to cDNA

  Genomic library —— A collection of transformed cells, each of which contains DNA fragments; the entire population represents the total genome of an organism, e.g. a rat library containing DNA fragments which together comprise the entire rat genome. Appropriate screening methods can select a single transformed cell that contains a specific gene. (see also cDNA library)

  Glycosylation —— the addition of carbohydrates to proteins.

  醣化作用 —— 在蛋白质上连接碳水化合物。

  H

  Helicase —— A protein that unwinds DNA at replication forks.]

  HGI —— HGI, the Human Gene Index, replaced the Human cDNA Database(HCD) in April of 1997. HGI contains human EST sequences sequenced at TIGR as well as human ESTs from GenBanks dbEST database. There are a set of 29 non-human gene indices at TIGR. All the information contained in these databases is free, no password or contract is required as it was with HCD. In addition to the Indices, TIGR offers the TIGR Microbial Database, the TIGR Parasites Database, the Expressed Gene Anatomy Database, and the BAC End Sequence Database.

  HGI —— 全名为Human Gene Index.是人类基因的参考索引,在1997年4月时候取代了HCD (Human cDNA Database)的功能。HGI包含NCBI(GeneBank)中db EST数据库及TIGER机构所定序出来的人类表现序列标志(EST)序列信息。此外,在TIGER机构中也有29个非人类的基因参考索引(non-human gene indices),而且所有信息都是免费的;像HCD一般,不需签合约与通关密码就可取得信息。除了基因的参考索引,TIGER机构也提供微生物数据库 (TIGER Microbial Database)、寄生虫数据库(TIGER Parasites Databases)、表现基因之解剖学数据库 (Expressed Gene Anatomy Database)以及BAC载体端序列数据库 (BAC End Sequence Database)。

  Housekeeping genes —— Tissue-specific gene expression

  持家基因 —— 属于特定组织才有的基因表现

  Hybridization —— (of nucleic acids) Technique in which single-stranded nucleic acids are allowed to interact so that complexes, or hybrids, are formed by molecules with sufficiently similar, complementary sequences. By this means the degree of sequence identity can be assessed and specific sequences detected. The hybridization can be carried out in solution or with one component immobilized on a gel or, most commonly, nitrocellulose paper. Hybrids are detected by various means: visualization in the electron microscope; by radioactively labelling one component and removing non-complexed DNA; or by washing or digestion with an enzyme that attacks single-stranded nucleic acids and finally estimating the radioactivity bound. Hybridizations are done in all combinations: DNA-DNA (DNA can be rendered single-stranded by heat denaturation), DNA-RNA or RNA-RNA. In situ hybridizations involve hybridizing a labelled nucleic acid (often labelled with a fluorescent dye) to suitably prepared cells or histological sections. This is used particularly to look for specific transcription or localization of genes to specific chromosomes (FISH analysis)。The time- and temperature-dependent process by which two complementary single-stranded polynucleotides associate to form a double helix = annealing (hybridization)

  Homology —— Similarity by common ancestry or genetic relatedness.

  I

  I.M.A.G.E. Consortium Goals —— The I.M.A.G.E. Consortium was initiated in 1993 by four academic groups on a collaborative basis after informal discussions led to a common vision of how to achieve an important goal in the study of the human genome: the Integrated Molecular Analysis of Genomes and their Expression. Specifically, we share high-quality, arrayed cDNA libraries and place sequence, map, and expression data on the clones in these arrays into the public domain. Using this information, unique clones can be rearrayed to form a "master array" which we hope will ultimately contain a representative cDNA from each and every gene in the genome under study. The human and mouse genomes are the first to be studied. Recently, rat, zebrafish, and Xenopus have been added, and we anticipate arraying (and sharing) cDNA libraries from additional species over time. All of our clones are available free of any royalties, and may be used by anyone agreeing with our guidelines.

  I.M.A.G.E. 联盟目标 —— 公元1993 年四个学术团队在非正式讨论后,对于如何达成人类基因体研究重要目标有了共识,因此开始合作I.M.A.G.E. 联盟:基因体及其表现的整合性分子层次分析。尤其我们将高品质排列好的互补脱氧核糖核酸( cDNA ) 数据库以及这些微盘数组中植株的序列图谱和表现资料置于公众领域。利用这个信息,我们希望将来可以产生包含研究中基因体每一个基因的各个代表性互补脱氧核糖核酸的最终「原版微盘数组」, 并从其中重新排列出独一无二的植株组。最先研究的是人类和小鼠的基因体。近来大鼠,斑马鱼和非洲有爪水生蛙( Xenopus )的研究陆续加入,我们预期排列(和共享)新加入研究物种的互补脱氧核糖核酸数据库也会陆续产生。我们所有的植株免任何授权费提供任何人在同意我们规范指导下的使用。

  Informative site —— A site that is used to choose the most-parsimonious tree from among all the possible phylogenetic trees. In molecular evolution, a site where there are at least two different kinds of nucleotides or amino acids, and each of them is represented in at least two sequences.

  intron —— A non-coding sequence of DNA within a gene (cf. exon), that is transcribed into hnRNA but is then removed by RNA splicing in the nucleus, leaving a mature mRNA that is then translated in the cytoplasm. Introns are poorly conserved and of variable length, but the regions at the ends are self-complementary, allowing a hairpin structure to form naturally in the hnRNA; this is the cue for removal by RNA splicing. Introns are thought to play an important role in allowing rapid evolution of proteins by exon shuffling. Genes may contain as many as 80 introns.

  介入子 —— 基因内未编码的DNA序列(参见编码顺序), 虽然它转录成hnRNA, 但在细胞核内RNA剪接后移除, 保留成熟的mRNA,  亦即在细胞质内进行转译。 Intron 不易保存且长度多变, 但在末端区域它能自我互补, 并且在hnRNA内行成自然型式的发簪结构, 这暗示着 RNA剪接后移除。 Intron 在蛋白质编码顺序曳步的快速发展扮演重要角色, 基因中可能含有80个以上的 intron.

  J

  K

  L

  Lagging strand (Okazaki fragment) —— Fragments of a single-stranded DNA synthesized on the discontinuous site of a DNA replication fork. (see also semi-discontinuous)

  Leading strand —— The continuous DNA strand synthesized at a fork during DNA replication. (see also lagging strand; semi-discontinuous)

  Ligase —— One of a class of enzymes that join two substrate molecules in energy- (usually ATP-) dependent reaction, e.g. an amino acyl-tRNA synthetase, a carboxylase; in molecular biology, an enzyme that attaches the 3-end of one polynucleotide to the 5-end of another. (see also synthetase)

  Locus control region (LCR) —— a stretch of DNA containing regulatory elements which control the expression of genes in a gene cluster that may be located tens of kilobases away.

  基因点控制区 —— 一群基因丛集中额外含有控制基因表现的调节子的DNA,可能位于数万个碱基之外

  M

  Maximum parsimony —— The selection of the phylogenetic tree requiring the least number of substitutions from among all possible phylogenetic trees as the most likely to be the true tree.

  Messenger RNA (mRNA) —— an RNA molecule that serves as a template for protein synthesis.

  信使核糖核酸 —— 核糖核酸的一种,当蛋白质合成中当作模板指定讯息的转译。

  Monophyletic —— Sharing a common ancestor.

  Multifurcation —— A graphical representation of an unknown branching order in a phylogenetic tree involving three or more taxa. Rarely, a graphical representation of a speciation event resulting in the simultaneous production of more than two species.

  N

  Natural selection (selection) —— Differential reproduction of different members of a species due to the variability in fitness among individuals or genotypes, leading to changes in allele frequencies over time.

  天择 —— 天择是改变对偶基因频率的主要因素,因为天择的结果使某种基因型的个体减少,因而改变原有的对偶基因频率。

  Neutral mutation —— Evolution at the molecular level is primarily determined by mutational input and random genetic drift, rather than by natural selection.

  天然突变 —— 演化过程中在分子的层次上主要是经由随机的基因流而决定,并非藉由天择所影响。

  Northern blot —— An electroblotting method in which RNA is transferred to a filter and detected by hybridization to32 P-labelled RNA or DNA.

  北方转渍法 —— 一种电子转印方法,将 RNA 转移至滤纸上,加上要试验的放射性标志RNA或DNA,以进行杂合,以自动显影技术观察

  O

  P

  PDB —— Protein Data Bank

  PDB —— 蛋白质数据库

  Phylogenetics —— The reconstruction of the evolutionary history of a group of taxa or genes.

  中性(一般)突变 —— 分子层次的演化,主要来自天然突变和遗传漂变,而不是天择。

  系统发生学重建生物之间数个相关种或一群相关基因的演化历史

  Phylogeny —— The evolutionary history of a group of taxa or genes and their ancestors.

  Poly-A tail —— a tract of about 200 adenine nucleotides added to the 3‘ ends of eukaryotic mRNAs.

  Polyadenylation —— the process of adding a poly-A tail to a pre-mRNA.

  Polymerase chain reaction  (PCR) —— The first practical system for in vitro amplification of DNA, and as such one of the most important recent developments in molecular biology. Two synthetic oligonucleotide primers,  which are complementary to two regions of the target DNA (one for each strand)  to be amplified, are added to the target DNA (that need not be pure), in the presence of excess deoxynucleotides and Taq polymerase〉  Taqpolymerase, a heat-stable DNA polymerase. In a series (typically 30) of temperature cycles, the target DNA is repeatedly denatured (around 90°C), annealed to the primers (typically at 50-60°C) and a daughter strand extended from the primers (72°C)。 As the daughter strands themselves act as templates for subsequent cycles, DNA fragments matching both primers are amplified exponentially, rather than linearly. The original DNA need thus be neither pure nor abundant, and the PCR reaction has accordingly become widely used not only in research, but in clinical diagnostics and forensic science.

  聚合(酉每)反应 —— 以人工方法将一段DNA复制,是分子生物近期的一项重大发明。利用两种合成的引发物(primer),互补于目标DNA 的两端(分别在不同的单股),加入目标DNA(不需特别纯化),加入过量的dNTP和Taq聚合(酉每)( Taq聚合(酉每) : 是耐热(酉每)  )。在一连续的温度变化周期(典型30个周期),重复的使目标DNA变性(约摄氏90度),黏附住引发物(典型于摄氏50-60度)借此延伸复制出子股 (摄氏72度)。而子股则在下一次的周期中被当成新的模板,这些DN**段以指数性倍率被复制,并非线性。如此一来取得的DNA可以容许不够干净或量极少,因此聚合(酉每)反应不只用于科学研究,也被广泛的用于临床使用和法医学上。

  Pre-mRNA —— the primary transcripts that are processed to form messenger RNAs in eukaryotic cells.

  信使核糖核酸前驱物 —— 为脱氧核糖核酸经由转录而得的最初转录体,要再经过修饰处理才变成信使核糖核酸,在真核生物中,修饰的作用包括5‘端的加帽作用及3’端的聚腺核苷酸化作用,此外,也会进行编码序列剪接作用。

  Primase —— An enzyme that creates an RNA primer for initiation of DNA replication.

  Primer —— An RNA sequence hybridized to a DNA template whose elongation by a DNA polymerase constitutes DNA synthesis. A random primer is a mixture of polynucleotides with all four bases at each sequence position; an arbitrary primer is a single species with a single base at each sequence position.

  Probe —— A polynucleotide, often radiolabelled, used to detect complementary sequences, e.g. an mRNA used to locate its gene by a corresponding Southern blotting method.= hybridization probe

  Promoter —— a combination of short sequence elements to which RNA polymerase binds in order to initiate transcription of a gene.

  R

  Reading frame —— The translational reading frame describes the mechanism which moves a ribosome three nucleotides at a time during translation.

  读取片段 —— 一种机制,用于描述核醣体在转译的过程,一次移动三个核甘酸

  Recombinant DNA technology —— Techniques of gene cloning. Recombinant DNA refers to the molecule formed by joining a DNA of interest to vector DNA. See gene cloning.

  Replication forks —— The point at which the two strands of DNA are separated to allow replication of each strand.

  Restriction endonucleases —— Endonuclease that recognizes a particular short DNA sequence which they cleave. They help to protect cells from viral infection and are used in work with DNA.

  Reverse transcriptase —— A DNA polymerase that uses an RNA template; an RNA-dependent DNA polymerase.

  Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) —— the RNA component of ribosomes.

  核糖体核糖核酸 —— 核糖核酸的一种,为组成核糖体的成分

  Ribosomes —— particles composed of RNA and proteins that are the sites of protein synthesis.

  粒线体 —— 由核糖核酸和蛋白质组成的颗粒,是蛋白质合成的场所。

  Root —— In rooted trees, the common ancestor of all the taxa under study.

  RNA (ribonucleic acid) —— a polymer of ribonucleotides

  核糖核酸 —— 为核糖核苷酸的聚合物,核糖核甘酸由含氮碱基、五碳醣基与磷酸根组成,其中碱基决定为哪一种核糖核酸,核糖核苷酸的种类有四种,有:腺核糖核苷酸、尿核糖核苷酸、鸟份核糖核苷酸、胞核糖核苷酸

  RNA splicing —— RNA sequences transcribed from introns are excised and discarded while those transcribed from exons are spliced together in the same linear order as the exons.

  S

  SAGE —— Serial Analysis of Gene Expression, or SAGE, is an experimental technique designed to gain a quantitative measure of gene expression. The SAGE technique itself includes several steps utilizing molecular biological, DNA sequencing and bioinformatics techniques. These steps have been used to produce 9 or 10 base "tags", which are then, in some manner, assigned gene descriptions. For experimental reasons, these tags are immediately adjacent to the 3 end of the 3-most NlaIII restriction site in cDNA sequences

  SAGE —— 基因表现的连续分析(SAGE),是一种实验的设计为了得到一个确切的基因表现量。SAGE技术包括利用几个分子生物的步骤, DNA定序及生物信息的技术。这个步骤可以产生9或10个碱基的“标签”经由实验的结果,这些标签会接近含有大量NlaIII限制脢的cDNA序列的3端

  Sense strand —— the DNA strand of a gene which is complementary in sequence to the anitsense strand, and identical to the transcribed RNA sequence, except that in the latter the base thymine has consistently been replaced by uracil.

  Signal (leaser) sequence —— a hydrophobic sequence at the amino terminus of a polypeptide chain that targets it for secretion in bacterial or incorporation into the endoplasmic reticulum in eukaryotic cells.

  讯息(指挥)序列 —— 蛋白质末端的一段疏水性氨基酸,在细菌中引导蛋白质分泌或在真核细胞中将蛋白质并入内质网。

  Signal recognition particle (SRP) —— a particle composed of proteins and 7SL RNA that binds to signal sequences and targets polypeptide chains to the endoplasmic reticulum.

  讯号认识颗粒 —— 由蛋白质和7sL RNA所组成的颗粒,会与讯号序列结合并带领生太链到内质网中

  Single-strand binding protein (SSB) —— Protein that binds to single-stranded DNA usually near the replication fork to stabilize the single strands.

  SnRNA —— small nuclear RNA species, such as the U1, U2, U3 series, which are often involved in the RNA splicing mechanism.

  SnRNA —— 为 small nuclrar RNA 的缩写 ,为小分子的核糖核酸 , 例如 U1 , U2 , U3 系列 , 通常与核糖核酸的剪接有关

  Splice acceptor site —— the junction between the end of an intron terminating in the dinucleotide AG, and the start of the next exon.

  剪接接受位 —— 位在介入子终端的AG核苷对和下一个表现子之间的接合点

  Splice donor site —— the junction between the end of an exon and the start of the downstream introns, commencing with the dinucleotide GT.

  剪接提供位 —— 位在表现子终端和下一个表现子之间的接合点,由GT核苷对起始。

  Sticky ends —— Descriptive of the structure of a double-stranded polynucleotide in which one strand extends further from the end than the other to create a single-stranded tail; especially the product of cleavage by a restriction endonuclease at a palindromic sequence. Also known as cohesive ended or staggered ended. (see also blunt ended (flush ended))

  T

  TATA box —— a common promoter element.

  Taxon (plural, taxa) —— A taxonomic group of any rank (e.g., species, genus, etc.) to which individual organisms are assigned.

  Template —— A polynucleotide that encodes the information from which another polynucleotide, of complementary sequence, is synthesized.

  Topology —— The branching pattern of a phylogenetic tree.

  拓朴学 —— 演化树的分枝图样

  Transcription —— the synthesis of RNA from DNA using RNA polymerase.

  Transcription factor —— a protein that regulates the activity of RNA polymerase.

  Transfer RNA (tRNA) —— RNA molecules that function as adaptors between amino acids and mRNA during protein synthesis.

  转移核糖核酸 —— 核糖核酸的一种,当蛋白质合成时,当氨基酸与信使核糖核酸的转接器。转移核糖核酸与将被送到组装位置的氨基酸共价键结,每一个转移核糖核酸的3‘端均为CCA序列,这个序列对蛋白质的合成非常重要,因为转移核糖核酸的3’端正是蛋白质合成时,氨基酸的接受处

  Transformation —— The process by which a cell line, that can normally be expected to undergo a limited number of cell divisions before death, becomes immortal; also the process by which isolated foreign DNA is introduced into a cell or bacterium.

  Translation —— the synthesis of a polypeptide chain from an mRNA template.

  转译 —— 由信使核糖核酸片段合成多肽键的过程

  Transgenic organism —— An organism whose genome has been modified by introduction of novel DNA.

  Transition —— The substitution of a purine from a puring or a pyrimidine from a pyrimidine.

  转换 —— DNA的碱基取代突变,其中一个purine(如Adenine)被另一个purine(如Guanine)所取代,或一个pyrimidine被另一个pyrimidine所取代。

  Transversion —— The substitution of a purine from a pyrimidine or vice versa.

  转变 —— DNA的碱基取代突变,其中一个purine(如Adenine)被另一个pyrimidine (如thymidine)所取代,或一个pyrimidine被另一个purine所取代。

  U

  UniGene —— UniGene is an experimental system for automatically partitioning GenBank sequences into a non-redundant set of gene-oriented clusters. Each UniGene cluster contains sequences that represent a unique gene, as well as related information such as the tissue types in which the gene has been expressed and map location.

  单基因 —— 单基因为一实验系统,可将基因库序列自动分割成多个非重复的基因导向丛,每个单基因丛含有单基因的序列并含有基因在组织中如何表现与其在染色体的位置

  Uracil —— a pyrimidine found in RNA that base-pares with adenine.

  尿嘧啶 —— 核糖核酸中的一种嘧啶,与腺嘌呤形成碱基对。

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