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70天攻克考研英语阅读 DAY60

2006-7-28 01:05  

  DAY60

  Reading comprehension

  Direction: In this part, there are four passages followed by questions or unfinished statements, each with four suggested answers marked A, B, C and D. Choose the one that you think is the correct answer.

  Passage 1

  Readers in Britain will, no doubt, be sick of the word “Greenwich”。The borough,a suburb of London, is cut in half by longitude 0°。This is the meridian line from which time (Greenwich Mean Time) is measured around the world. As a result, Greenwich has been chosen as the site for a huge exhibition to mark the turn of the millennium — an exhibition whose existence has been the cause of much hand wringing over the past few weeks.

  After a government decision to back it (though not, it is promised, with taxpayers money), the millennium exhibition now looks as if it will go ahead. But, with an exquisite irony, it seems likely that another government decision is going to close down the reason that the meridian goes through Greenwich in the first place the royal observatory that was founded there by King Charles II in 1675.

  Though the royal Greenwich Observatory (RGO) actually deserted the smoggy skies of London long ago (its headquarters are now in Cambridge, and its telescopes are in the balmy climes of the Canary Islands), it still does a lot of research. As such, it is probably the oldest scientific laboratory in the world. Indeed, until the title was unceremoniously stripped from the post in 1972, the RGOs head carried the pleasingly arcane responsibility of being “Astronomer Royal”(the handle is now borne by Mr. Martin Rees, who works just down the road from the RGO, at Cambridge University. )。

  The original reason for the RGOs creation was to try to solve the “longitude problem”, in other words, to work out a method by which a ships captain could calculate his vessels longitude at sea. The first Astronomer Royal, John Flamsteed, compiled the most accurate star catalogue of his day as part of this attempt (though the solution was eventually provided by John Harrison, a clock maker who designed a timepiece that was robust enough to withstand the rigours of sea travel, and was thus able to substitute for the stars in the relevant calculations)。 Today, the observatory is more concerned with issues like star formation and the origins of quasars,but it still does worldrespected science.

  The Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council, to which it is now answerable,however, is not respecter of history. Though it will not say so publicly, the council seems keen to close the RGO and transfer its functions to the Royal Observatory, Edinburgh (founded in 1859)。 Its recommendation, arrived at secretly, is now on the desk of John Battle, Britains new science minister.

  The closure of the RGO would not necessarily be a huge scientific loss, but it might be thought something of a shame. The amount of money that would be saved about £1($1.65) a year is not trivial, but neither is it enormous (the councils total annual budget is £200)。 By comparison, the dome that will house the millennium exhibition is expected to cost £40, while the budget for the exhibition as a whole is almost £600. If Mr.Battle decides that the government cannot afford the RGO, it might be a nice gesture if the exhibitions gesture could come up with a few extra coppers for the upkeep of the organization that is the ultimate reason they are there.

  1. The main purpose of the passage is to .

  A. propose to save the Royal Greenwich Observatory from closure

  B. choose the RGO as the site for a huge exhibition

  C. persuade the British government to give more budget to the huge exhibition

  D. tell us the history of the RGO

  2. According to the passage, which of the following is NOT true?

  A. Longitude 0° is the meridian line from which time is measured around the world.

  B. British government backed the millennium exhibition promising not using the taxpayers money.

  C. The RGO was founded by King Charles Ⅲ in 1675.

  D. The RGO still does a lot of researches.

  3. Which is the original reason for the RGOs foundation?

  A. The first Astronomer Royal, John Flamsteed, compiled the most accurate star catalogue.

  B. The climes of the Canary Island are balmy.

  C. The ships captain could calculate his vessels longitude at sea with the help of the RGO.

  D. It was the order of the King.

  4. It can be inferred from this passage that

  A. The Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council claimed publicly to close down the RGO.

  B. The closure of the RGO would be a huge scientific loss.

  C. The RGO is more concerned with the issue like star formation and the origins of quasars.

  D. The British government can not afford the RGO.

  5. What does the underlined word “arcane” mean?

  A. secret, mysterious B. natural

  C. entirely, completely D. amazing, surprising

  Passage 2

  Boasting itself to be the “model of democracy,” the United States has been trying hard to sell to the world its mode of democracy. In fact, American “democracy” has always been democracy of the rich, a small number of the population. Just as an article in the International Herald Tribute of the January 24, 2002 issue says, “The American problem is domination of politics by money”。

  According to an analysis made by the Associated Press based on data from the Federal Election Commission, in the 2002 midterm elections,95 percent of the seats in the House of Representatives and 75 percent of the seats of the Senate went to candidates who had spent the most in campaigning. In a report filed on August 30, 2002, AP said President George W. Bush, in order to win control the House and the Senate, cashed in on his cachet to raise donations for midterm elections of his Republicans, and collected $110 million for three GOP candidates in Oklahoma and Arkansas, setting records in campaign cash raising. Election of judges in the United States is also like a race of money. In the year of 2000, judge candidates in only two states bought TV advertising, whereas during the midterm elections in 2002, chief justice candidates in nine states bought TV commercials.

  “Money politics” has made more and more American people lose interest in political participation. Statistics show the United States has experienced declining voter turnout in presidential election years for about four decades. In contrast, 60 percent of eligible voters shunned the midterm elections in 2002, leaving the voter turnout at 40 percent.

  A survey of minority voters in three cities of California showed almost all the surveyed were fed up with the fact that money can buy over politics and were not interested in political participation. Asian American voters reckoned that money had too much influence over politics, which is unfair; African Americans and Hispanics felt being shut out of the door of politics and had become victims.

  The United States has been flaunting its “freedom of the press,” but it met with criticisms from many sides in 2002 in this respect. In an annual report published on February 21,2002, the International Press Institute accused the United States of violating freedom of the press and said it is the most astonishing event of 2001 that the way the Bush administration treated the work of the media during the Afghan war and the practices of the Bush administration attempting to suppress freedom of speech by independent media (Vienna, February 21, 2002, AFP)。 Two senior journalists with the Washington Post wrote in their book entitled The News About the News: American Journalism in Peril that practices of pursuing profits have destroyed the sense of mission of the journalistic community of the United States, and believed an overwhelming majority of the media owners and publishing businessmen forced newspaper editor and TV news executives to concentrate on profits as opposed to quality of coverage (New York, March 29,2002, AP)。 In its annual report published on May 2, 2002, Reporters Without Borders exposed since September 11 attacks, the United States has exerted pressure on the journalistic community in the war against terrorism, which has restricted freedom of the press (Paris, May 2,2002, EFE)

  On August 6,2002, a major news organ in the United States published a survey showing the public wanting the media to “shut up.” The survey found among the respondents, 69 percent believe the media is biased, and over twothirds of them read news reports with disbelief.

  1. Whats the best title for this passage?

  A. Presidential Election in the USA B. Moneydriven Democracy

  C. Freedom of SpeechD. The biased media

  2. Which of the following statement is not TRUE according to the passage?

  A. “Money Politics” has made more and more American people lose interest in political participation.

  B. American “democracy” has always been democracy of the rich, a small number of the population.

  C. The number of the voter turnout in presidential election is increasing.

  D. Freedom of the press in the USA met with criticism from many sides.

  3. According the passage, who forced the media to concentrate on profits as opposed the quality of coverage?

  A. American government

  B. The media owners and publishing businessmen

  C. Newspaper editor and TV news executives

  D. The journalists

  4. What does the underlined word “shun” mean?

  A. shiver, tremble B. keep away from, avoid

  C. close, block D. shrunk

  5. The author has a(n) attitude towards political election in the USA.

  A. critical B. favourableC. optimisticD. indifferent

  Passage 3

  The earth last year was at its hottest since records began. Scientists at Hadley Centre of Climate Prediction and Research said yesterday that, on average, the worlds temperature is 1℃, higher than in 1860, when measurements were first properly recorded.

  The United Nations team of climate scientists charged with advising governments about the myth or reality of global warming recently concluded that the world is in the grip of a greenhouse effect that is at least partly attributable to mankinds carbon emissions.

  They said: “The balance of evidence suggests a discernible human influence on global climate through emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases.”

  The official figures for 1995 confirm their fears that, by 2052, the world could be 2℃ hotter unless urgent action is taken. While this may not appear a huge increase, a permanent shift in global temperatures of this magnitude could have devastating effects on agriculture, wildlife and water supplies. Dr.Phil Jones of the University of East Anglias climate Research Unit in Norwich, which has helped the Meteorological Office to compile the figures, said yesterday:“The way to understand it is by comparison with last years temperature in Britain. It was 10.5℃ or one degree above the average. A lot of people thought it was very hot last year. What might they think if it were to become two degrees higher, which is a bit warmer?”

  Scientists still cannot say for certain how the worlds climate will behave. The missing links are the levels of rainfall likely over different continents, and whether the Gulf Stream, which warms Britain, might shift south, causing cooling rather than heating.

  The new figures show that, on average, surface temperature last year was 0.4℃ above the 1961—1990 average, which is the 30year yardstick against which measurements are made. Previously, 1990 had been recorded as the warmest year, with temperatures climbing to an average 0.36℃ above the 30year level.

  The gradual warming of the Earths surface was slowed down by the eruption of Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines in June 1991. The volcano pumped thousands of tons of dust into the atmosphere, creating a veil that filtered the Suns ray. Researchers say the dust effect has now disappeared and warming has recommenced.

  Dr.Jones said: “1995 was the warmest year and we would expect gradually to get more and more of these. They will go on. Its all down to burning fossil fuels and the release of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere from power stations. To slow it down, we have really got to do something and that is where the political side of things comes in.”

  While Britain and Germany are pushing hard for cuts in emissions beyond 2000, scientists concerned that America, the most important country in climate negotiations, is being overwhelmed by lobbying from industry and big business.

  Researchers investigating the likely effect of climatic change on the frequency of food poisoning have found evidence suggesting that the food industry, and not the housewife, is to blame for the rising number of cases.

  A team at the University of East Anglia compared the number of cases of food poisoning in England and Wales with the average monthly temperatures and found the crucial factor was the temperature of the previous month, and not the month in which the food was consumed, suggesting the food was contaminated on the farm or in the food processing industry rather than in the home.

  1. Which of the following would be the most appropriate title for this passage?

  A. Warning on greenhouseB. Carbon dioxide gases

  C. Global warningD. Food poisoning cases

  2. It can be inferred that the author has a(n) attitude towards the international cooperation with America concerning the reduction in emissions.

  A. worriedB. indifferentC. sympatheticD. objective

  3. It is true that

  A. the greenhouse effect that completely attributes to mankinds carbon emissions.

  B. scientists can say for certain how the worlds climate will behave.

  C. the rising global temperature will have devastating effects on agriculture, wild life and water supplies.

  D. the eruption of Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines sped up the warming of the Earths surface.

  4. In paragraph 8, Line 2, the word “these” refers to.

  A. the eruption of volcanoB. warm year

  C. fossil fuelsD. carbon dioxide

  5. is to blame for the frequency of food poisoning cases.

  A. The housewifeB. Temperature of the previous month

  C. Food in the homeD. The food processing industry

  Passage 4

  Perhaps all criminals should be required to carry words which read,“Fragile: Handle With Care.” It will never do, these days, to go around referring to criminals as violent thugs. You must refer to then politely as social misfits. The professional killer who wouldnt think twice about using his cosh or crowbar to batter some harmless old lady to death in order to rob her of her meager lifesavings must never be given a dose of his own medicine. He is in need of hospital treatment. According to his misguided defenders, society should be blamed. A wicked society breeds evil— or so the argument goes. When you listen to this kind of talk, it makes you wonder why we arent all criminals. We have done away with the absurdly harsh laws of the nineteenth century and this is only right. But surely enough is enough. The most senseless piece of criminal legislation in Britain and a number of other countries has been the suspension of capital punishment(死刑)。

  The violent criminal has become a kind of herofigure in our time. He is glorified on the screen; he is pursued by the press and paid vast sums of money for his 'memoirs'。 Newspapers that specialize in crime reporting enjoy enormous circulations and the publishers of trashy cops and robbers stories or 'murder mysteries’ have never had it so good. When you read about the achievements of the great train robbers, it makes you wonder whether you are reading about some glorious resistance movement. The hardened criminal is cuddled and cosseted by the sociologists on the one hand and adored as a hero by the masses on the other. Its no wonder he is a privileged person who expects and receives VIP treatment wherever he goes.

  Capital punishment used to be a major deterrent. It made the violent robber think twice before pulling the trigger. It gave the coldblooded poisoner something to ponder about while he was shaking up or serving his arsenic cocktail. It prevented unarmed policemen from being mowed down while pursuing their duty by killers armed with automatic weapons. Above all, it protected the most vulnerable members of society, young children, from brutal sexmaniacs. It is horrifying to think that the criminal can literally get away with murder. We all know that life sentence does not mean what it says. After ten years or so of good conduct, the most desperate villain is free to return to society where he will live very comfortably, thank you, on the proceeds of his crime, or he will go on committing offences until he is caught again. People are always willing to hold liberal views at the expense of others. Its always fashionable to pose as the defender of the underdog, so long as you, personally, remain unaffected. Did the defenders of crime, one wonders in their desire for fairplay, consult the victims before they suspended capital punishment? Hardly. You see, they couldnt, because all the victims were dead.

  1. The tone of this passage is

  A. serious B. humorousC. sarcasticD. relaxing

  2. According to the passage, which of the following statement does the author not mention?

  A. The violent criminal has become a kind of herofigure in our time.

  B. It is very stupid to suspend the capital punishment.

  C. The crimereporting newspapers enjoy enormous circulations.

  D. Criminals need medical care because they are badly treated by the society.

  3. In paragraph 2, what does the underlined word “cosseted” mean?

  A. give a lot of attention to making someone comfortable and to protecting him or her from anything unpleasant.

  B. try to make someone as if he is completely evil

  C. deceive someone

  D. destroy or remove completely

  4. The attitude of the author towards the capital punishment might best be summarized as.

  A. dissatisfactionB. suspicionC. approvalD. tolerance

  5. The main idea of this passage is .

  A. a wicked society breeds evil — there are so many violent criminals

  B. capital punishment is the only way to deter criminals.

  C. criminals enjoy many privileges

  D. capital punishment should be suspended

  Keys and notes for the passage reading:

  Passage 1

  本文简单地介绍了皇家格林威治天文台的历史,呼吁社会保住天文台。

  1. The original reason for the RGOs creation was to try to solve the “longitude problem”, in other words, to work out a method by which a ships captain could calculate his vessels longitude at sea. 建造皇家格林威治天文台的最初原因是为了解决 “方位问题”——也就是想研究出一种方法来帮助航行在海上的轮船船长们确定其所在位置。

  2. The first Astronomer Royal, John Flamsteed, compiled the most accurate star catalogue of his day as part of this attempt (though the solution was eventually provided by John Harrison, a clock maker who designed a timepiece that was robust enough to withstand the rigours of sea travel, and was thus able to substitute for the stars in the relevant calculations)。 第一任观象大公约翰·弗拉姆斯蒂德就曾为此编制出了他那时候最精确的星体图(最终的解决方法是由钟表匠约翰·哈里森提出的。他设计了一只经得住海浪颠簸﹑ 结实耐用的钟,并以它代替各种星体,进行相关的演算。)

  1. 「A」本文第二段说,英国政府要关闭皇家格林威治天文台是荒唐滑稽的, 最后一段作者建议:如果展览会的筹办者们能为保住皇家格林威治天文台再稍稍多拿些钱的话,就不失为一项善举了。所以此文的目的是为保住皇家格林威治天文台。

  2. 「C」皇家格林威治天文台是由英王查理二世于1675创建的,而不是查理三世创建的; 选项A见第一段第三句,选项B见第二段第一行括号内容,英国政府支持千年纪念展览会,许诺不用纳税人的钱,选项D见第三段第一句。

  3. 「C」见第四段第一句(参见难句解析1)。 其他选项A,B,D都不是最初的原因。

  4. 「C」第四段描述了皇家格林威治天文台更多地侧重于诸如星体形成和类星体起源之类的问题; 英国粒子物理和天文研究委员会是不公开声明关闭皇家格林威治天文台的,所以A错; B项与最后一段第一句不符; 选项D在文中只是假设,不是事实。

  5. 「A」“arcane”的意思是神秘的、秘密的。

  Passage 2

  本文介绍了美国的金钱政治,并因此造成美国新闻自由受到各方面的限制;大多数公众都对媒体表示怀疑。

  Two senior journalists with the Washington Post wrote in their book entitled The News About the News: American Journalism in Peril that practices of pursuing profits have destroyed the sense of mission of the journalistic community of the United States, and believed an overwhelming majority of the media owners and publishing businessmen forced newspaper editor and TV news executives to concentrate on profits as opposed to quality of coverage. 《华盛顿邮报》两名资深人士出版的题为《危机中的美国新闻》一书指出,追求利润的做法破坏了美国新闻界的使命感, “大多数业主和发行商都强行要求编辑人员更多地关注利润的高低,而不是关注新闻的好坏。”

  1. 「B」可参考文章大意,“以金钱所驱动的民主”为最佳标题。

  2. 「C」文中第三段第二句说:据统计, 美国选民参加总统大选的比率呈下降趋势, 因此C项错。选项A,B,D均可在原文中找到。

  3. 「B」见第五段第三句

  4. 「B」“shun”是“避开, 回避”的意思。

  5. 「A」本文提到美国的“金钱政治” 使越来越多的美国民众失去了参与政治的热情;根据对加州三个城市少数族裔选民的调查显示,几乎所有被调查者都对金钱能买通政治感到厌倦,亚裔选民认为金钱对政治影响过大,不公平; 黑人和拉丁族裔感到被关在政治门外, 成为政治的牺牲品。所以作者是持批评态度的。

  Passage 3

  人类排放的二氧化碳和别的能产生温室效应的气体使全球变暖,可能会产生灾难性后果。

  The United Nations team of climate scientists charged with advising governments about the myth or reality of global warming recently concluded that the world is in the grip of a greenhouse effect that is at least partly attributable to mankinds carbon emissions. 负责向各国政府提出关于全球正在变暖到底是神话还是事实的联合国气候专家组最近作出结论: 世界目前正处于温室效应的控制下,这至少应部分地归因于人类所排放的碳。

  1. 「A」本文通篇在讲由于温室效应而导致气温上升, 食物污染与气温有关, 作者向人们敲响了温室效应的警钟, 所以选A.

  2. 「A」倒数第三段中说到:科学家们主要对美国这个需要在气候方面与之磋商的最重要的国家感到担忧, 因为这个国家正淹没于工业界和庞大的商业界的游说中,所以选A.

  3. 「C」文中第二段说:世界目前正处于温室效应的控制下, 这至少应部分归因于人类所排放的碳,而A项认为完全归因于人类所排放的碳,过于绝对。科学家们不能判定世界气候会怎样变化,因此B错;从第十段第一句可知D错。C项可从第四段中找到,上升的全球温度将会对农业、野生动植物以及水资源产生灾难性的后果。

  4. 「B」原句意为“1995年是最热的一年, 我们预期热年情况会越来越多”, 所以应选B.

  5. 「D」见倒数第二段的最后一句。

  Passage 4

  作者用讽刺的语言描述当今社会罪犯的猖狂,提出死刑是惟一威慑犯罪的方法。

  1. The professional killer who wouldnt think twice about using his cosh or crowbar to batter some harmless old lady to death in order to rob her of her meager lifesavings must never be given a dose of his own medicine. 一个职业杀手毫不犹豫地使用他的铁芯橡皮管或铁棍,把一个无辜的老妪活活打死,只是为了抢劫她一生微薄的积蓄。对这样的人,我们却不能以其人之道还治其人之身。

  2. It gave the coldblooded poisoner something to ponder about while he was shaking up or serving his arsenic cocktail. 它也会使那些冷血投毒者在搅拌和端上掺砒霜的鸡尾酒的时候,能思考片刻。

  1. 「C」纵观全文,作者讽刺社会上种种宣扬罪犯的现象,提倡死刑,以示警戒。所以应选C.

  2. 「D」A项见第二段第一句; B项见第一段最后一句,英国和其他许多国家的刑法中最愚昧的一条就是中止了极刑; C项见第二段第三句; D项未提及。

  3. 「A」“cosset”意思为“受宠, 娇养”。

  4. 「C」见第一段最后一句和最后一段第一句,“极刑曾经是一种主要的威慑手段”,作者在文中还列举了它的种种威慑效应,可见作者赞同极刑。

  5. 「B」可参照第4题的分析讲解。

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