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胡小笛大使在第59届联大一委专题辩论中关于外空问题的发言

2006-07-07 18:23

  Mr. President,

  The Weaponization of Outer Space and Its Negative Consequences

  The peaceful use of outer space is in the interest of all peoples of the world. The undertakings in such areas as communication, navigation, meteorology, remote sensing, culture, and disaster reduction have come to be intricately linked with the peaceful use of outer space.

  However, as nuclear energy per se can be both used as a clean and efficient energy and nuclear weapon, outer space can also benefit all while at the same time harbor fresh military confrontations and threats.

  With the rapid development of outer space technology, out space, the once-deemed “high frontier”, has been attached with increasing military value. Such combat theories and concepts as “control of outer space, power projection into and through outer space” as well as the R&D of outer space weapons have found their ways into implementation. It is no exaggeration to say that outer space would become the fourth battlefield after land, sea and air should we sit on our hands watching the above developments.

  The deployment of weapons in outer space would result in a series of grave fallouts: breaking strategic balance and stability, undermining international and national security, damaging existing arms control treaties, particularly agreements related to nuclear weapons and missiles, and triggering an arms race. In addition, the deployment and use of weapons in outer space would seriously threaten the security of outer space assets and bring harm to the Earth's biosphere. The testing of outer space weapons in the low Earth orbits would aggravate the already acute problem of “space debris”。

  The Lacunae of Existing International Legal Regime related to Outer Space

  Facing the risk of the weaponization of and an arms race in outer space, existing international legal regime related to outer space displayed its lacunae, i.e., it falls short in preventing and prohibiting the deployment and use of weapons other than those of mass destruction in outer space; and in preventing and prohibiting the use or threat of force from the Earth's surface against outer space objects.

  Efforts by the International Community

  Over years, the international community has endeavoured on many fronts in preventing the weaponization of and an arms race in outer space. The Conference on Disarmament (CD) at Geneva had set up the ad hoc committee for ten consecutive years from 1985 to 1994 discussing relevant issues. The UN General Assembly has, for many years without interruption, overwhelmingly adopted (with no negative votes) the resolution of “Prevention of an Arms Race in Outer Space”。 The UN Secretary General and many people of insight had repeated their calls for attaching importance to this issue. Canada, Sri Lanka, France, Sweden, Italy and many others have also come up with their own constructive proposals.

  In 2002, China and Russia, along with Vietnam, Indonesia, Belarus, Zimbabwe and Syria Arab Republic, tabled in the CD a working paper entitled “POSSIBLE ELEMENTS FOR A FUTURE INTERNATIONAL LEGAL AGREEMENT ON THE PREVENTION OF THE DEPLOYMENT OF WEAPONS IN OUTER SPACE, THE THREAT OR USE OF FORCE AGAINST OUTER SPACE OBJECTS” (contained in CD/1679)。 It is our hope that the CD can take this document as a basis for negotiating and concluding a new outer space legal instrument. This document contains the following basic obligations:

  - Not to place in orbit around the Earth any objects carrying any kinds of weapons, not to install such weapons on celestial bodies, or not to station such weapons in outer space in any other manner.

  - Not to resort to the threat or use of force against outer space objects.

  - Not to assist or encourage other States, groups of States, international organizations to participate in activities prohibited by this Treaty.

  CD/1679 is still evolving and improving. All relevant sides have put up their pertinent suggestions and proposals for the document. In this regard, after in-depth study, the Delegations of China and the Russian Federation distributed in the CD two non-papers entitled “Existing International Legal Instruments and the Prevention of the Weaponization of Outer Space” and “Verification Aspects of PAROS”。 All are welcomed in joining the discussion on above issues so as to put the future substantive work of the outer space ad hoc committee on a better footing.

  It is the hope of the Chinese Delegation that the CD could take up as soon as possible, as the UN General Assembly relevant resolution stipulates, “the primary role in the negotiation of a multilateral agreement or agreements, as appropriate, on the prevention of an arms race in outer space in its all aspects.”

  Peace, development and cooperation represent the trend of the times. An early conclusion of an international legal instrument on the prevention of an arms race in outer space is conducive to maintaining peaceful use of outer space, facilitating related international cooperation and promoting common security for all. Let's make concerted efforts in preserving the vastness of outer space a tranquil place for the benefit of our future generations.

  Thank you, Mr. President.

  主席先生:

  和平利用外空符合世界各国人民的根本利益。通讯、导航、气象、遥感、文化、减灾等各项事业,都离不开对外空的和平利用。

  然而,如同核能既可作为清洁和有效的能源,又可被用于制造核武器一样,外空既可造福于各国,也可能成为军事对抗的新领域以及新威胁的根源。

  随着外空技术的迅猛发展,曾被视为“高边疆”的外空被日益赋予重要的军事价值。“控制外空、外空力量投送” 等相关作战理论和构想、外空武器的研发正在实施。倘若我们对此听之任之,毫不夸张地说,外空将成为继陆、海、空之后的第四个战场。

  在外空部署武器将产生一系列严重的消极后果:打破战略平衡与稳定、破坏国际和国家安全、损害现有军控条约特别是与核武器和导弹相关的协定、引发军备竞赛。此外,部署和使用外空武器,将严重威胁外空资产的安全,对地球生物圈也会造成危害。在近地轨道试验外空武器,将加剧业已严重的“空间碎片”问题。

  面对外空武器化和外空军备竞赛的危险,现有外空国际法律机制暴露了其局限性,即,不能防止和禁止在外空部署和使用除大规模杀伤性武器以外的武器; 不能防止和禁止从地球表面对处于外空的物体使用武力或威胁使用武力。

  多年来,国际社会为防止外空武器化和防止外空军备竞赛进行了有益尝试。裁谈会曾自1985至1994年连续十年设立特委会讨论有关问题。联大多年来连续以压倒性多数票(无人反对)通过“防止外空军备竞赛”决议案。联合国秘书长和许多国际有识之士多次呼吁重视此问题。加拿大、斯里兰卡、法国、瑞典、意大利等许多国家也提出了建设性主张。

  2002年,中国、俄罗斯联合越南、印度尼西亚、白俄罗斯、津巴布韦和叙利亚的驻日内瓦代表团,在裁谈会提出了题为《关于未来防止在外空部署武器、对外空物体使用或威胁使用武力国际法律文书要点》的工作文件(载于CD/1679),希望裁谈会以此为基础,谈判达成一项新的外空法律文书。该文件包括以下基本义务:

  不在环绕地球的轨道放置任何携带任何种类武器的物体,不在天体放置此类武器,不以任何方式在外空部署此类武器;不对外空物体使用或威胁使用武力;不协助、不鼓励其他国家、国家集团和国际组织参与本条约所禁止的活动。

  CD/1679仍处于不断发展和完善的过程中。有关各方已就该文件提出了中肯的意见和建议。鉴此,中俄代表团在深入研究的基础上,于今年8月在裁谈会散发了“现有国际法律文书与防止外空武器化”和“防止外空军备竞赛的核查问题”两份专题文件。我们欢迎各方参加到上述问题的讨论中来,为将来外空特委会的实质性工作打下基础。

  中国代表团希望,裁谈会能尽快按照联大决议所规定的那样,“在酌情缔结一项或多项防止外层空间军备竞赛各方面问题的多边协定的谈判中发挥主要作用”。

  和平、发展、合作是时代潮流。早日达成一项防止外空武器化的国际法律文书,有利于维护对外空的和平利用,促进相关的国际合作,并增进各国的共同安全。让我们共同努力,为子孙后代保留这片净土,确保广袤无垠的外层空间永远造福于全人类。

  谢谢主席先生。

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