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70攻天克考研英语阅读 DAY33

2006-7-28 01:04  

  Increasing reading speed

  Directions:Do the phrase recognition drill below.Quickly underline or mark the key phrase every time it appears in the columns.Try to finish in 10 seconds or less by reading down the column,not left to right.

  Starting Time:

  Key phrase:The scientific phenomenonthe scientific phenomennonthe scientific experiment

  the physical phenomenon       the scientific phenomenon

  the scientific phenomenon           the transient phenomenon

  the natural phenomenon        the scientific phenomenon

  the interesting phenomenon          the scientific apparatus

  the scientific phenomenon           thescientific instrument

  the scientific training             the unhealthy phenomenon

  the scientific phenomenon           the electrical phenomenon

  the scientific phenomena            the scientific knowledge

  the scientific phenomenon           the scientific socialism

  the scientific literature                 the scientific phenomenon

  the scientific phenomenon           the scientific management

  the scientific inventions           the scientific phenomenon

  Finishing Time: Total Reading Time:

  Check each line very carefully.Key phrase appears 10 times.

  Black HolesBlack holes. They act like huge drains in the universe. Frightening?Fascinating?Or just fantasy?The very concept of black holes confuses our common sense notions of matter,time and space. The theory that black holes can, and probably do,exist in space doesn't only concern scientists and astronomers. For if the theory is valid,we must question all our basic physical laws and,indeed,our "normal" experience of the physical world around us.

  What is a black hole?Well,it's difficult to answer this question,since the terms we would normally use to describe a scientific phenomenon are inadequate here. Astronomers and scientists think that a black hole is a region of space (not a thing)into which matter has fallen and from which nothing can escape  -  not even light. So we can't see a black hole. A black hole exerts a strong gravitational pull and yet it has no matter. It is only space - or so we think. How can this happen?

  The theory is that some stars explode when their density increases to a particular point;they "collapse" and sometimes a supernova occurs. The collapse of a star may produce a "White Dwarf" or a "neutronstar" -  a star whose matter is so dense that it continually shrinks by the force of its own gravity.  But if the star is very large (much bigger than our sun)this process of shrinking may be so intense that a black hole results. Imagine the earth reduced to the size of a marble, but still having the same mass and a stronger gravitational pull,and you have some idea of the force of a black hole. Any matter near the black hole is sucked in. It is impossible to say what happens inside a black hole.

  Our space and time laws don't seem to apply to objects in the area of a black hole. Einstein's relativity theory is the only one that can explain such phenomena. Einstein claimed that matter and energy are interchangeable,so that there is no absolute time and space. There are no constants at all,and measurements of time and space depend on the position of the observer - they are relative. We do not yet fully understand the implications of relativity theory;but it is interesting that Einstein's theory provided a basis for the idea of black holes before astronomers started to find some evidence for their existence. It is only recently that astronomers have begun specific research into black holes.

  The most convincing evidence of black holes comes from research into binary star systems. In some binary systems, astronomers have shown that there is an invisible companion star,a "partner" to the one which we can see in the sky. There is one star,called by its catalogue number HDE 226868,which must have a partner. This partner star has a mass ten or twenty times greater than the sun - yet we can't see it. Matter from HDE 226868 is being dragged towards this companion star. Could this invisible star,which exerts such a great force,be a black hole?Astronomers have evidence of a few other stars too,which might have black holes as companions.

  The story of black holes is just beginning. Speculations about them are endless. There might be a massive black hole at the centre of our galaxy swallowing up stars at a very rapid rate. Mankind may one day meet this fate. On the other hand, scientists have suggested that very advanced technology could One day harness the energy of black holes for man's use on earth. There are also suggestions that black holes could be used to create bombs in the future by amplifying radio waves sent up to them. These speculations sound like science fiction. But the theory of black holes in space is accepted by many serious scientists and astronomers. They show us a world which operates in a totally different way from our own and they question our most basic experience of space and time.

  —— from BBCModern English

  Time: 677 words=wpm



  Select the answer which is most accurate according to the information given in the passage.

  1. That black holes exist in the universe .

  A. has been confirmed by scientistsB. is a scientific hypothesis

  C. is out of the question D. is frightening

  2. Which of the following does not fit the definition of the black hole?

  A. A black hole sucks in any object that passes by it.

  B. A black hole is a celestial body.

  C. A black hole is visible through an infrared telescope.

  D. A black hole captures all wavelengths of light.

  3. Why does the author put "neutron star" in quotation marks?

  A. He is borrowing the term from astronomy.    B. It is an invented term.

  C. He is quoting an authority. D. He is using the term ironically.

  4. What leads to the formation of a black hole?

  A. The explosion of a star.

  B. A collision between two large stars.

  C. The shrinking of a small neutron star.

  D. A huge neutron star that shrinks by its own gravitational force.

  5. According to the author,objects in the area of a black hole .

  A. are gathered in its centre

  B. strike against one another quite frequently

  C. are not in conformity with the basic physical laws

  D. cause a series of explosions in the hole

  6. Which of the following is not true according to Albert Einstein?

  A. Matter can be converted into energy,and vice versa.

  B. Time and space are interchangcable.

  C. There is no absolute time and space,only time and space relative to the position of the observer.

  D. There are no constants in the universe.

  7. If there is indeed an invisible star accompanying HDE 226868,what will most probably happen to the visible one some day?It will .

  A. escape from its partner

  B. be accompanied by its partner for good

  C. shrink at an incredible speed until a black hole results

  D. be sucked in by its partner

  8. The authors attitude towards the black hole is .

  A. objectiveB. skepticalC. sentimentalD. negative


  Read the following article and figure out the meaning of the words in italics using the context given and word building skills.

  Light,like heat,is a form of energy,and there is a close connection between the two. This is shown by the fact that most bodies which emit light also emit heat:for example the sun,the glowing filament of an electric light bulb,or a fire. All these bodies emit light energy and can be seen by the light that they give out. Such bodies are said to be luminous,while bodies such as bricks and pieces of iron or glass,which do not themselves produce light,are said to be non luminous. Nonluminous bodies do not emit light energy but they can be seen when light from luminous bodies falls on them and is reflected from their surfaces. Substances such as clear glass and water which allow light to pass through them so that objects on the other side can be clearly seen are said to be transparent. Substances which allow light to pass through them without objects on the other side being clearly seen are said to be translucent,while substances which do not permit the passage of light are said to be opaque.

  ——from English in Physical Science by J.P.B.Allen,Oxford University Press, 974,p. 92


  Complete the following passage by filling in the blanks with appropriate words.

  Something about Comets

  Comets have always fascinated,and occasionally terrified,the human race. These unpredictable visitors were once thought of as signs of war,famine and pestilence (瘟疫),or as fireballs cast down by God as warnings.

  The truth is that a comet is "a dirty snowball." "a dirty snowball," up to several    1  to several kilometers in diameter and     2     of ice and various quantities of frozen gases. As relics (残片;遗迹) of the early     3     system, comets are     4     important. They are relatively unchanged     5     the formation of the planets because they lie     6     "cold storage." They tell scientists about the     7     and composition of the ancient     8     cloud which formed the Sun, and     9     formation processes in   10    around of the birth of our planetary system.

  Most comets travel in   11   elliptical(椭圆的),cigar shaped orbits that seldom bring them   12    to the warmth of the sun. When they   13   the sun,the frozen volatiles (挥发物)evaporate to   14   a fuzzy Rio (绒毛状晕圈)of gas,called a coma (慧发),  15   the nucleus. This coma is usually   16   that can be seen   17   a comet is discovered.    18   the comet approaches the sun,the gases and  19  are blown away,billowing (像波浪似的翻腾) behind to form the familiar 20.

  So far as the combination of comets is concerned,it may not sound very thrilling;but with the imminent approach of the most famous of them all,Halley's Comet,a new space race has begun to be the first to meet it.

  Halley's Comet is named after the English astronomer Edmund Halley who observed the comet in 1682,calculated its orbit and correctly predicted its return in 1757.

  Halley's Comet returns to Earth every 76 years and it is next scheduled to pass close to the sun in 1986. When it does, a cluster of space probes will stop it.

  ——from Time