If a farmer wishes to succeed， he must try to keep a wide gap between his consumption and his production. He must store a large quantity of grain instead of consuming all his grain immediately. He can continue to support himself and his family only if he produces a surplus. He must use this surplus in three ways： as seed for sowing， as an insurance against the unpredictable effects of bad weather and as a commodity which he must sell in order to replace old agricultural implements and obtain chemical fertilizers to feed the soil. He may also need money to construct irrigation channels and improve his farm in other ways. If no surplus is available， a farmer cannot be self-sufficient. He must either sell some of his property or seek extra funds in the form of loans. Naturally he will try to borrow money at a low rate of interest， but loans of this kind are not frequently obtainable.
consumption n. 消费， 消费量， 肺病
[例] The petrol consumption of the big car as very high.
[反义] production n. 生产， 产品， 作品， （研究）成果
[派生] consume vt. 消耗， 消费， 消灭， 大吃大喝， 吸引
vi. 消灭， 毁灭
surplus n. 剩余， 过剩， [会计]盈余 adj. 过剩的， 剩余的
vt. 转让， 卖掉
[例] Brazil has a big surplus of coffee. 巴西有很多剩余的咖啡。
[同义] additional ，excess， extra， leftover， spare， superfluous ， supplementary
[反义] deficit n. 赤字， 不足额
[固定搭配] operation surplus 营业盈余； overall surplus 总顺差；
commodity n. 日用品
[例] Air conditioners are one of the many commodities that Japan sells abroad.
[同义] article ， product ， ware
implement n.工具， 器具 vt. 贯彻， 实现 v. 执行
[例] The committee's decisions will be implemented immediately.
[同义] apparatus， appliance ，bring about， carry out ，complete， contraption
[派生] implementation n. 执行
implementary adj. 实施的， 执行的
fertilizer n. 肥料（尤指化学肥料）， [动]受精媒介物
[例] He was not only a distinguished writer but a fertilizer of other talents.
[派生] fertilize vt. 施肥， 使丰饶， 使受精， 使肥沃， 使多产
irrigation n. 灌溉， 冲洗
[例] bring the farmland under irrigation 使农田水利化
[派生] irrigate vt. 灌溉， 修水利， 冲洗伤口， 使潮湿 vi. 进行灌溉
sufficient adj. 充分的， 足够的
[例] Sufficient data have been collected for the building project.
[同义] adequate， ample ，enough ， plenty， satisfactory
[反义] insufficient adj. 不足的， 不够的 n.不足
[派生] sufficiency n. 充足， 自满， 足量
fund n. 资金， 基金 v. 支助， 投资
[例] public welfare fund 公益金
[同义] assets， stock ， supply
[固定搭配] in funds 手头有钱； 有资本；no funds 存款不足（银行退回空头支票时用语）； out of funds 缺钱；slush fund 职工文娱活动的资金；
loan n.（借出的）贷款， 借出 v. 借， 借给
[例] The bank loaned me some money. 银行借给了我一些钱。
[同义] advance ，give， lend
[反义] borrow v. 借， 借入， 借用
[派生] loanable adj. 可借出的