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全国职称外语等级考试综合类概括大意 7

2006-07-06 17:29   来源:       我要纠错 | 打印 | 收藏 | | |

  PASSAGE 14 


  Every year earthquakes are responsible for a large number of deaths and a vest amount of destruction in various parts of the world. Most of these damaging earthquakes occur either in a narrow belt which surrounds the Pacific Ocean or in a line which extends from Burma to the Alps in Europe. Some of the destruction is directly caused by the quake itself. An example of this is the collapse of buildings as a result of the quake itself. Other damage results from landslides or major fires which are initiated by the quake.

  There are about a million quakes a year. Fortunately, however, not all of them are destructive. The intensity of an earthquake is measured on the Richter Scale, which goes from 0 upward. The highest scale recorded to date is 8.9. Major damage generally occurs from quakes ranging upwards from 6.0.

  The actual cause of the quake itself is the breaking of rocks at or below the earth s surface. This is produced by pressure which scientists believe may be due to a number of reasons, two of which are the expansion and contraction of the earth s crust and continental drift.

  In order to limit the damage and to prevent some of the suffering resulting from earthquakes, scientists are working on ways to enable accurate prediction. Special instruments are used to help people record, for example, shaking of the earth. Scientists are trying to find methods that will enable them to indicate the exact time, location and size of an earthquake.

  Certain phenomena have been observed which are believed to be signs of imminent earthquakes. These include strange behaviors of some animals, the changes in the content of mineral water, etc. The magnetic properties of rocks may also display special pattern before major earthquakes happen.


  1. Paragraph 2_____.

  2. Paragraph 3_____.

  3. Paragraph 4_____.

  4. Paragraph 5_____.

  A Earthquakes forecast

  B Historical records of earthquakes

  C Intensities of earthquakes

  D Cause of earthquakes

  E Indications of earthquakes

  F Damaging earthquakes

  5. Not all damage during an earthquake is caused ____.

  6. Not all earthquakes are strong enough ___.

  7. Scientists have been working hard to warn people ___.

  8. Earthquakes can be predicted by observing ___.

  A by the quake itself

  B not be prevented

  C to cause damage of property and loss of lives

  D of a possible earthquake

  E the unusual behaviors of some animals

  F the strong behaviors of human beings

  KEY: C D A E A C D E


  Transport and Trade

  Transport is one of the aids to trade. By moving goods from places where they are plentiful to places where they are scarce, transport adds to their value. The more easily goods can be brought over the distance that separates producer and consumer, the better for trade. When there were no railways, no good roads, no canals, and only small sailing ships, trade was on a small scale.

  The great advances made in transport during the last two hundred years were accompanied by a big increase in trade. Bigger and faster ships enabled a trade in meat to develop between Britain and New Zealand, for instance. Quicker transport makes possible mass-production and big business, drawing supplies from, and selling goods to, all parts of the globe. Big factories could not exist without transport to carry the large number of workers they need to and from their homes. Big city stores could not have developed unless customers could travel easily from the suburbs and goods delivered to their homes. Big cities could not survive unless food could be brought from a distance.

  Transport also prevents waste. Much of the fish landed at the ports would be wasted if it could not be taken quickly to inland towns. Transport has given us a much greater variety of foods and goods since we no longer have to live on what is produced locally. Foods which at one time could be obtained only during a part of the year can now be obtained all through the year. Transport has raised the standard of living.

  By moving fuel, raw materials, and even power, as, for example, through electric cables, transport has led to the establishment of industries and trade in areas where they would have been impossible before. Districts and countries can concentrate on making things which they can do better and more cheaply than others and can then exchange them with one another. The cheaper and quicker transport becomes, the longer the distance over which goods can profitably be carried. Countries with poor transport have a lower standard of living.

  Commerce requires not only the moving of goods and people but also the carrying of messages and information. Means of communication, like telephones, cables and radio, send information about prices, supplies, and changing conditions in different parts of the world. In this way, advanced communication systems also help to develop trade.


  1. Paragraph 2 _________

  2. Paragraph 3 _________

  3. Paragraph 4 _________

  4. Paragraph 5 _________

  A. Higher living standard

  B. Importance of transport in trade

  C. Various means of transport

  D. Birth of transport-related industries and trade

  E. Role of information in trade

  F. Public transportation

  5. The development of modern means of transport _________.

  6. Only when goods can be carried to all parts of the world quickly ___________.

  7. Transport has made it possible for people to eat whatever food they want _________.

  8. In the trade of modern society the transmission of information plays as important a role as ________.

  A. to send goods to various parts of the world

  B. at any time during the year

  C. has greatly promoted trade

  D. is it possible to produce on a large scale

  E. the transport of goods

  F. it is possible to produce on a large scale


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