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考研阅读高分十二大策略之词义原则

2006-7-14 22:49  

  阅读中的词汇题通常会有两种情况,一种是考生一看到所考的单词立刻心跳加速:“完了,这个词不认识,大纲上也没有。”还有就是一看到单词,立刻欣喜不已:“哈哈,这么容易的单词。”第一种情况下考生往往会随便猜一个选项,错误率很高。而第二种情况下,考生往往落入命题专家的陷阱,不知不觉地失了分,原因是考生并没有掌握阅读词汇题的基本命题原则。在阅读部分的词汇题要考的并不是考生认不认识题中所考的单词,否则便是命题失效。此处要考的是考生阅读中的推断能力,也就是说题中所考单词的词义必定能根据上下文推断出来。所以考生在遇到阅读中的词汇题时,一定要冷静,去上下文中细找,推断出词义后,可将词义代入原文看是否通畅。

  例1

  Railroads justify rate discrimination against captive shippers on the grounds that in the long run it reduces everyone's cost. If railroads charged all customers the same average rate, they argue, shippers who have the option of switching to trucks or other forms of transportation would do so, leaving remaining customers to shoulder the cost of keeping up the line. It's a theory to which many economists subscribe, but in practice it often leaves railroads in the position of determining which companies will flourish and which will fail. “Do we really want railroads to be the arbiters of who wins and who loses in the marketplace?” asks Martin Bercovici, a Washington lawyer who frequently represents shippers.

  The word “arbiters” most probably refers to those.

  [A] who work as coordinators[B] who function as judges

  [C] who supervise transactions[D] who determine the price[2003年54题]

  B[正确答案]

  例2

  For any job search, you should start with a narrow concept—what you think you want to do—then broaden it. “None of these programs do that,” says another expert. “There's no career counseling implicit in all of this.” Instead, the best strategy is to use the agent as a kind of tip service to keep abreast of jobs in a particular database; when you get E_mail, consider it a reminder to check the database again. “I would not rely on agents for finding everything that is added to a database that might interest me,” says the author of a job_searching guide.

  The expression “tip service” most probably means .

  [A] advisory[B] compensation

  [C] interaction[D] reminder[2004年43题]

  D[正确答案]

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