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考研英语范文阅读(二)

2006-7-6 21:40  

  In the last half of the nineteenth century capital and labor were enlarging and perfecting their rival organizations on modern lines. Many an old firm was replaced by a limited liability company with a bureaucracy of salaried managers. The change met the technical requirements of the new age by engaging a large professional element and prevented the decline in efficiency that so commonly spoiled the fortunes of family firms in the second and third generation after the energetic founders. It was moreover a step away from individual initiative, towards collectivism and municipal and state-owned business. The railway companies, though still private business managed for the benefit of shareholders, were very unlike old family business. At the same time the great municipalities went into business to supply lighting, trams and other services to the taxpayers.

  The growth of the limited liability company and municipal business had important consequences. Such large, impersonal manipulation of capital and industry greatly increased the numbers and importance of shareholders as a class, an element in national life representing irresponsible wealth detached from the land and the duties of the landowners; and almost equally detached from the responsible management of business. All through the nineteenth century, America, Africa, India, Australia and parts of Europe were being developed by British capital, and British shareholders were thus enriched by the world's movement towards industrialization. Towns like Bournemouth and East Bourne sprang up to house large comfortable classes who had retired on their incomes, and who had no relation to the rest of the community except that of drawing dividends and occasionally attending a shareholders' meeting to dictate their orders to the management. On the other hand Shareholding meant leisure and freedom which was used by many of the later Victorians for the highest purpose of a great civilization.

  The shareholders as such had no knowledge of the lives, thoughts or needs of the workmen employed by the company in which he held shares, and his influence on the relations of capital and labour was not good. The paid manager acting for the company was in more direct relation with the men and their demands, but even he had seldom that familiar personal knowledge of the workmen which the employer had often had under the more patriarchal system of the old family business now passing away. Indeed the mere size of operations and the numbers of workmen involved rendered such personal relations impossible. Fortunately, however, the increasing power and organisation of the trade unions, at least in all skilled trades, enabled the workmen to meet on equal terms the managers of the companies who employed them. The cruel discipline of the strike and lockout taught the two parties to respect each other's strength and understand the value of fair negotiation.

  59. It's true of the old family firms that ________.

  (A)they were spoiled by the younger generations

  (B)they failed for lack of individual initiative

  (C)they lacked efficiency compared with modern companies

  (D)they could supply adequate services to the taxpayers

  60. The growth of limited liability companies resulted in ________.

  (A)the separation of capital from management

  (B)the ownership of capital by managers

  (C)the emergence of capital and labour as two classes

  (D)the participation of shareholders in municipal business

  61. According to the passage, all of the following are true except that ________.

  (A)the shareholders were unaware of the needs of the workers

  (B)the old firm owners had a better understanding of their workers

  (C)the limited liability companies were too large to run smoothly

  (D)the trade unions seemed to play a positive role

  62. The author is most critical of ________.

  (A)family firm owners

  (B)landowners

  (C)managers

  (D)shareholders

  答案及试题解析

  CACD试题解析:

  59.(C)本题提问部分意为:事实上,老家族公司……。选择项(C)意为:与现代公司相比,它们缺乏效率。

  第一段第二、三句指出,许多老公司被拥有各级拿薪水的经理的有限(责任)公司所取代。这一变化通过一大批专业人员的使用适应了新时代技术的要求、防止了效率的下降。而效率的下降使许多家族公司破产,因为第二、三代继承人已不像公司的创立者那样精力充沛。

  A意为:它们被后代毁了。(A)不对主要有两个原因,其一,原文指出:是效率的下降毁了家庭公司,而效率的下降可能是主观原因造成的,也可能是客观原因造成的;其二,根据原文,效率的下降通常(so commonly)在第二、三代毁了家庭公司,so commonly一词的使用说明还有没破产的家庭公司。

  B意为:它们因缺乏个人的独创精神而破产。从以上的分析可见,破产的原因是缺乏效率。

  D意为:它们能为纳税人提供足够的服务项目。

  60.(A)意为:资本与管理的分离,第二段指出,有限公司及市营买卖的发展引起了重大变化。对资本与企业的如此大规模的非个人操纵大大地增加了作为一个阶级的持股人的数量及其地位的重要性。国民生活中这一现象的出现代表了与土地及土地所有者相分离的不由个人负责的财富的出现,而且这也意味着(不由个人负责的财富)几乎在同等程度上与由个人负责的商业管理的分离。在整个19世纪,美洲、非洲、印度、澳大利亚及欧洲的部分国家的发展靠的是英国的资本,因此,在世界走向工业化的过程中英国的股东们大发其财。从以上的论述可以看出,作者认为:有限公司的发展引起了资本与经营的分离,投资者(股东)并不实际参加经营,而是坐吃红利(dividends)或有时参加些间接管理;而真正的管理者未必再是公司的拥有者。这一点从第三段的论述也同样可以看出。

  B意为:经理对资本的所有权。

  C意为:劳资两个阶级的出现。劳资两个阶级早在资本主义的形成时期就已经存在了。

  D意为:股东对市办买卖的参与。

  61.(C)意为:有限公司太大以至于运转艰难。本文并未提到这一点。

  A意为:股东不了解工人的需要。这一点在第三段第一句说得很清楚。该句可译为:这样的股东根本就不了解自己持股的公司里的工人们的生活、思想和需要,因此。他们对劳资双方的关系有不良影响。

  B意为:老公司的老板更了解自己的工人。第三段第二、三句指出,公司的拿薪水的执行经理与工人和他们的需要有更直接的关系。但是,与现在正在消失的世袭制的旧家族企业的老板相比,即使是他也很少有过去那种对工人的熟悉程度。的确,仅经营的规模和雇用工人的数量两方面就使得这种个人关系的建立成为不可能的事。

  C意为:工会似乎起一个正面作用。第三段第三、四句指出,然而,值得庆幸的是,至少在所有技术行业,工会与日俱增的力量使得工人们可以同他们的雇主平起平坐。罢工与封厂的严酷惩罚使双方学会了互相尊重,明白了公平协商的价值。可见,在这方面,工会起到了保护工人的积极作用。

  62.(D)提问中is critical of意为:对……持批评态度。

  第二段第四句将股东阶层称为饱食终日(comfortable)者,他们与别人的关系仅限于抽取红利,他们偶尔也参加一次股东会,对企业的管理指手画脚(dictate their orders)。第三段指出,他们不了解工人,不关心工人。这里使用的显然是一种批评的语气。

  翻译句子

  1、The change met the technical requirements of the new age by engaging a large professional element and prevented the decline in efficiency that so commonly spoiled the fortunes of family firms in the second and third generation after the energetic founders.

  [参考译文] 这种变化通过引入许多的专业因素从而适应了这个新时代的技术要求,并且它(这种变化)防止了效率的降低。这种效率的降低在精力充沛的创业者之后的第二代和第三代人(领导公司)的时候,经常会毁掉那些家族公司的财富。

  [结构剖析] 句子的主干结构是 The change met…requirements…and prevented the decline…。其中 by engaging a large professional element 是介词词组作状语,说明 met the technical requirements of the new age 的方式。decline in efficiency 后面的 that 引导定语从句修饰前面的 decline in efficiency.

  [阅读重点] 此句的阅读关键在于抓住句子的主干,即主要谓语动词,这样就能把握句子的基本结构,从而明白句子的主要意思。engage 在这里的意思是使卷入,涉及。

  2、Such large, impersonal manipulation of capital and industry greatly increased the numbers and importance of shareholders as a class, an element in national life representing irresponsible wealth detached from the land and the duties of the landowners; and almost equally detached from the responsible management of business.

  [参考译文] 这样巨大而非个人的对资金和产业的操纵极大地增加了股东的数量和他们作为一个阶级的重要性,这是国家生活中代表不负责任的财富的一个因素,这种财富不但远离了土地和土地拥有者的责任,而且几乎同样与公司的负责任的管理毫无关系。

  [结构剖析] 这个句子的主干结构是…manipulation…increased the numbers and importance of shareholders as a class…。其中 an element 是 class 的同位语,representing irresponsible wealth 是现在分词作定语修饰前面的 element,detached from 则是过去分词作后置定语,相当于是省略了 which is 的定语从句。and 连接两个 detached from,都修饰前面的 wealth.

  [阅读重点] 理解 an element 是 a class 的同位语是理解此句的关键。只要分清句子的主语、谓语动词的中心词,就能够抓住句子的主要意思。在速度的时候,也可以先抓住主句而略过 an element 后面的部分不看。另外句中一些短语的意思也会影响到对整句的理解,如:detach from 与……相分离;irresponsible wealth 不负责任的财富,在本句中指的是股东们虽然拥有大量财富,但并不参与公司的运作,不承担任何经营管理的责任。

  3、The shareholders as such had no knowledge of the lives, thoughts or needs of the workmen employed by the company in which he held shares, and his influence on the relations of capital and labour was not good.

  [参考译文] 这样的股东对他拥有股份的公司所雇用的工人们的生活、思想和需求一无所知,而且他们对劳资双方的关系都不会产生积极的影响。

  [结构剖析] 这个句子是 and 连接的两个并列句。第一个句子的主干结构是 The shareholders had no knowledge…。在第一个句子中,employed 作定语修饰前面的workmen,相当于省略了who were (employed by)……。which 引导定语从句 in which he held shares 修饰前面的 company.第二句的主干结构 his influence…was not good 是常见的主语+系动词+表语结构。

  [阅读重点] 第一分句中要认清 employed by 和后面 which 引导的从句都修饰什么成分的。另外,在阅读本句中,指代关系也非常重要,要看清代词 he 和 his 都是指代前面的 shareholders.

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