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70天攻克考研英语阅读 DAY20

2006-7-28 01:04  

  Increasing reading speed

  Directions: Do the word recognition drills below. Note the words on the left then underline them every time they appear in the same form to the right. No regression, no vocalization. Try to finish in 15 seconds or less.

  Starting Time:

  1. reactionreact reactant reactance reaction reactor

  2. battle      batter battle cattle settle little

  3. serious      series serial serious various obvious

  4. protect      protector protective protection product protect

  5. efficient    efficiency effective efficient efficacy effecter

  6. region      regional region register registry resign

  7. estimate    estimated estimation estimate esteem intimate

  8. determine    determined examine determine terminate decide

  9. provide    provided providence province provision provide

  10. journal    journey journalist informal journal internal

  Finishing Time:  Total Reading Time:

  Errors: Check each line carefully for mistakes.

  Computers Battle Bugs"How can you use computers to fight insect pests? Do you swat them with floppy disks?"

  That was one reaction to the news that entomologists are using computers in the battle against destructive bugs.

  Despite the jokes, the effort to control insect pests is serious business. Last year, insects caused $13 million worth of crop damage in the U.S. An additional $ 4.6 million was spent to protect crops from such bugs. And many people feel that some of those protective measures - uses of pesticides - were wasteful, inefficient, and harmful to the environment.

  So, the news that computers are joining in the fight against insect pests has been welcomed by farmers and environmentalists.

  Name Your PestUsing masses of information about insect behavior, entomologists have created computer programs to help farmers fight particular pests at particular times.

  Lets consider a sample case. A farmer plans to grow alfalfa and wants to find the cheapest, most efficient way to protect that crop. So he/she turns to a microcomputer containing entomological software.

  The software program "asks" the farmer to enter certain information into the computer. This may include factors such as annual rainfall and average temperature range for the region. The computer program may also "ask" the farmer to estimate the expected number of alfalfa weevils per acre based on previous years experience.

  With these inputs, and a database of entomological information, the computer determines the best times to plow, plant, and harvest. It gives advice on whether or not to spray. If the decision favors spraying, the computer advises the farmer on when, where, how often, and what type of spray solution to use.

  This type of information can be provided for hundreds of different crops and thousands of different insect pests. Entomologists are gaining new knowledge on insect behavior and insect control methods all the time. At one time, much of this knowledge might have been "locked away" in science journals. But now most of it is going into computer programs where it is, literally, at a farmers fingertips.

  Less Bug SprayComputer advice on pest control is expected to sharply reduce use of pesticides, and at the same time, increase crop protection.

  In the nottoodistant future, computers will probably give advice on every aspect of farming: which crops to plant, when and where to plant them, how much and what types of fertilizer to use, and when and where to market the crops. Computers are also likely to control the irrigation of crops and the feeding of farm animals. Computercontrolled robots may do most of the harvesting.

  ——from Science World, March 30,1981

  Time:  439words=wpm

  MinutesEXERCISESⅠ。 READING COMPREHENSION

  Select the answer which is most accurate according to the information given in the passage.

  1. In the year prior to the time this article was written, .

  A. $13 million had been allocated for compensating the crop damage and another $4.6 million was spent to protect crop from pests

  B. crop damage caused by destructive pests was equivalent to $13 million

  C. the money allotted by the U.S. government both for compensating the crop damage and taking protective measures totaled $17.6 million

  D. $ 4.6 million was spent in buying pesticides

  2. Using masses of information about insect behavior, entomologists have designed computer programs that can foretell .

  A. when farmers should fight a particular sort of pests

  B. the annual rainfall for the region

  C. average temperature range for the region

  D. both B and C

  3. The computer program requires the farmer to .

  A. insert an informationbearing disk into the computer

  B. input into the computer such data as annual rainfall and average temperature range for the region

  C. anticipate the exact amount of rainfall for the year

  D. predict which kind of pesticide to use

  4. With the inputs of specific information and a database of enological information, the computer .

  A. decides the ideal times to plough, plant and gather crops

  B. determines when to spray water on to the field

  C. decides whether or not a pesticide should be applied

  D. both A and C

  5. "This type of information can be provided for hundreds of crops and thousands of different insect pests."(paragraph 9) Which of the following sentences means almost the same as the above statement?

  A. Farmers can only provide the information for hundreds of crops.

  B. Farmers can only provide the information for thousands of different pests.

  C. The computer can display the output information for a great variety of crops and insect pests.

  D. Both A and B.

  6. At one time, much of the knowledge of insect behavior and insect control methods       .

  A. was available only in science journals

  B. was strictly restricted to science books

  C. was highly confidential and was therefore confined to science reports

  D. was a subject under dispute in science journals

  7. The advice given by the computer on pest control is expected to help .

  A. lessen the danger in the use of pesticides and increase their positive effects

  B. lower the amount of pesticides used in the fields and in the meantime increase their effect iveness at killing

  C. greatly reduce chances of applying pesticides, and in the mean time increase crop protection

  D. decrease the harmful ingredients in pesticides and at the same time reinforce the immunity of crops

  8. Of the following sentences, which is not meant by the author?

  A. In the near future, computers will advise farmers on which crops to plant, and when and where to plant them.

  B. In the near future, computers will recommend that farmers stop using pesticides and develop new biologicalcontrol methods.

  C. In the foreseeable future, computers will advise farmers how much and what types of fertilizer to use.

  D. In the years ahead, computercontrolled robots may do most of the harvesting.

  Ⅱ。 CONTEXTUAL REFERENCE

  Guess the meaning of the following words in italics using reading techniques.

  1. A computer can help diagnose an illness. It can analyze test results. It can watch over a very sick patient. It can "write" a proper diet for a patient.

  2. Medical scientists and computer scientists have worked together to develop computer programs to identify diseases from signs, symptoms and test results.

  3. When talking about computers, both hardware and software need to be considered. The former refers to the actual machinery, whereas the latter refers to the programs that control and coordinate the activities of the hardware.

  4. The first computer was built in 1930, but since then computer technology has evolved a great deal. There are three different kinds of computers in use today: the mainframe, the minicomputer, and the microcomputer. All three have one thing in common: they operate quickly and accurately in solving problems.

  5. The lawmakers were talking about "computer matching." With computer matching, government agencies hope to be able to find criminals, and stop waste. How? By sharing information about us that they have gathered and stored in their agencies computers.

  6. Last year the Wells Fargo Bank lost more than $20 million because of computer crime. Nationwide, the total may have exceeded $100 million.

  Ⅲ。 CLOZE

  Complete the following passage by filling in the blanks with appropriate words.

  More than three decades ago, after struggling through pioneering computer projects the United States Government gave up trying to build the worlds fastest computers by itself. The expense and the     1     hurdles (障碍) convinced Federal officials     2     private industry was better equipped 3     define the state of the art.

  Now, frustrated (感到灰心的)     4     the reluctance of     5     computer makers to plunge  6     a new, risky computer     7, the Defense Department and the  8     intelligence agencies are     9     tens of millions of dollars     10     a renewed, largely secret effort to     11     their own machines.

  In an unmarked building here     12     45 minutes from     13     Washington the National Security Agency     14     assembled 10 of the nations     15     computer engineers at its new Supercomputing      16      Center and     17     to recruit (吸收) 60 more. The     18     expects to build prototypes (原型) of      19     specialized machines, a breed of supercomputers      20     parallel processors. Most experts believe these will eventually be able to outpace (超过) - by multiples of l0 or 100the fastest supercomputers now available.

  ——from The New York Times, Aug. 13,1987

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