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70天攻克考研英语阅读 DAY44

2006-7-28 01:05  

  DAY44

  Reading comprehension

  Direction: In this part, there are four passages followed by questions or unfinished statements, each with four suggested answers marked A, B, C and D. Choose the one that you think is the correct answer.

  Passage 1As mentioned above, clarification of the groundwater flow mechanism in the entire plain, including recharge. Discharge, runoff, water level variation, etc, is a very important step in land subsidence modeling. The groundwater system in the Saga plain is composed of unconfined water and confined water. Unconfined water is mostly stored in a shallow position in the Ariake(阿里克) clay layer, and confined water is stored in diluvial formations. The confined water is subject to seasonal pumping and its water level variation pattern is influenced by groundwater extraction. Confined water is recharged mostly from a horizontal direction starting at the edges of the plain, the gravel composition of which makes it easy for surface water to infiltrate, while in the vertical direction there is a continuously distributed Ariake clay layer with an average thickness of 20 m, which serves as an aquitard in most areas. On the other hand, the shallow unconfined water level is as a depth of about 0.5, under the surface in most areas (Environmental Bureau of Japan 1982) and its water level change is influenced by surface water infiltration. To apply an unconfinedconfined groundwater flow simulation it is necessary to estimate the surface water infiltration by a hydrological cycle simulation. Considering that large spatial data storage and processing are necessary for surface water hydrological cycle simulation, and groundwater flow and land subsidence modeling, GIS is adopted to provide a platform and tool for all spatial data processing and analysis. The concept of the GISbased spatial and temporal prediction system for land subsidence is shown. The system consists of the following three parts:

  1.Surface water hydrological cycle simulation. The purpose is to make clear the temporal and spatial distribution of surface water infiltration quantity. Each factor relating to the surface water hydrological cycle, such as land use, precipitation, agricultural irrigation etc, will be built as a GIS data layer (vector data and raster data)。 The spatial distribution pattern can be analyzed and the relationship between all factors can also be grasped. Using the GIS layer operation, the temporal and spatial distribution of infiltration quantity can be obtained and provided for groundwater flow simulation.

  2.Groundwater flow simulation. All necessary data, such as geology, terrain, hydro conductivity and specific yield parameter distribution, initial water contour, infiltration quantity, etc., will be built as GIS data layers and used for groundwater flow model establishment and flow simulation. The data transformation from GIS to the groundwater flow simulation code will be realized by GIS data export and some Visual Basic programs.

  3.Land subsidence simulation. The groundwater flow simulation results are used for subsidence calculation considering the deformation of aquifers and aquifers. GIS displays result and overlay them with other data themes to produce a new hazard map for decisionmaking support.

  1. The purpose of the author to write this article is

  A. to explain methodology of GISbased system establishment.

  B. to introduce the source of the underground water.

  C. to classify the confined water and unconfined water.

  D. to give the basic impression of the GISbased system establishment.

  2. The unconfined water level is influenced by

  A. confined water.

  B. the level of the general underground water level.

  C. the surface water infiltration.

  D. the gravel position.

  3. Why the GISsystem is adopted to provide a platform and tool for all spatial data processing and analysis?

  A. The project need a very large space to contain the water.

  B. The imitation of the cycling surface water.

  C. The falling down of the land.

  D. The level of the underground water.

  4. Which is nothing to do with the second part of the system?

  A. To measure the depth of the unconfined water level.

  B. To have a large pace for water storing.

  C. To estimate the surface water infiltration.

  D. To do something to support the ground after the project.

  5. From the second passage we can learn that except

  A. The unconfined water usually stored in a shallow position.

  B. Confined water is not recharged from the vertical direction.

  C. The ground water is mainly consisted by the confined water and the unconfined water.

  D. Confined water is stored in diluvial.

  Passage 2About two thousand years ago, the Celts were still in their primitive society and Britain was still covered with dense forests and swamps. They knew nothing of a written language, although they could utter different sounds to exchange simple ideas. But the Celts created their own civilization of which the most shining example was the historical Stonehenge in Wiltshire. The Stonehenge, still in existence now, was a circular arrangement of monoliths built by the ancient Britons for purposes still unknown to modern historians. The Celtic language didnt disappeared completely, either. Some of the Celtic words or sounds were later assimilated into the English language. Some people in Scotland and Wales now still speak a language of Celtic origin. It is believed that the Celts were related with the ancient people in what is now France and they, perhaps, offered some help in the struggle to resist Julius Caesar when he invaded France. The Roman army, commanded by Julius Caesar, invaded England in the first century B. C. In the first Century A. D., the Romans went across the English Channel and invaded Britain for the second time. They did not meet with much resistance on the part of the natives and soon got possession of what is now known as England by driving many of the native Celts to mountainous Scotland and Wales.

  The Romans brought other things with them besides their swords. They introduced their Roman civilization into England. They built towns, temples, theatres and fine buildings, better ones than the Britons had ever dreamed of. They drained marshes, cleared away forests, built roads and taught the Britons to cultivate their land in a better way. They introduced a system of organized government in towns,which usually took on names ending in “shire”。 They remained in England for about 350 years until 410 A. D. when the Germanic races started invading Rome. The invasion made it necessary to withdraw the Roman soldiers from England to defend their home country. The island of Britain was again returned to the control of the native inhabitants.

  But the natives had been ruled and protected so long by the Roman troops that they did not know how to protect themselves, the island, therefore, became a tempting and easy prey to the tribes within easy reach. Invaders from Ireland and Scotland began to plunder and kill the weak and defenseless Britons in England. The Britons hardly knew what to do and they, in despair, asked the Romans to send back their soldiers to protect them Rome could not do this as she had more serious business on hand. Just at this time, a band of newcomers landed in the southern part of England, in what is now the county of Kent. These newcomers were known in history as the Jutes, Angles, and Saxons who had come from Northern Europe. They were aggressive rovers and pirates ready to plunder or to fight. To them the Britons turned for assistance. They asked the newcomers to join in the war against their fierce neighbors. The result was a victory for the combined Britons and AngloSaxons.

  1. The passage is mainly about

  A. How the Celts language came.

  B. Why the Roman was driven out of Britain.

  C. The reason why Britain was ruled by AngloSaxons.

  D. How AngloSaxons fought with Romans.

  2. The Celts helped France to resist

  A. AngloSaxons.B. Caesar.

  C. Germanic.D. Ireland.

  3. Which of the following statement is not true?

  A. The historical Stonehenge in Wiltshire was the most shining example of the Celts created civilization.

  B. The purposes of the ancient Britons to build the Stonehenge still unknown to modern historians.

  C. The Roman army, commanded by Julius Caesar, invaded England in the first century B.C.

  D. The Rome invaders drove the Celts to the mountains Scotland and Ireland.

  4. What is the meaning of “shire” in Para? 2?

  A. 城市B. 国家

  C. 政府D. 郡县

  5. The tone of the whole passage is

  A. neutral. B. optimistic.

  C. praising. D. critical.

  Passage 3During the passed four decades the fishery scientists of the West have studied the dynamics of fish population with the objective of determining the relation between the amount of fishing and the sustainable catch. They have developed a substantial body of theory that has been applied successfully to a large number of animal populations and has led to a major improvement in the management of some of the major marine fisheries.

  The theory has been developed for single species populations with man as a predator. Much of it is based on the Darwinian concept of a constant overpopulation of young that is reduced by density dependent mortality resulting from intraspecific competition. The unfished population tends towards a maximum equilibrium(平衡) size with relatively high portion of large, old individuals. As fishing increased and natural mortality is reduced, death from fishing eventually takes the place of most natural mortality. If the amount of fishing is increased too much, the individual will tend to be taken before realizing their potential growth, and total yield will be reduced. The maximum sustainable yields can be taken at an intermediate population size that in populations is about onethird the unfished population size.

  G.V.Nikolskii, of Moscow State University, develops his theory from a different approach. He is nonDarwinian and is (he says) a nonmathematical; rather he considers himself as ecologist and morphologist. He argues that Darwins concept of a variety as an incipient species have led to extensive mathematical analysis of racial characters. Nikolskii considers the main laws of population dynamics to be concerned with the succession of generation; their birth, growth and death. The details are governed by the relative rate of adaptation and environmental change. The mass and age structure of a population are the result of adaptation to the food supply. The rate of growth of individuals, the time of sexual maturity, and the accumulation of reserves vary according to the food supply. These factors in turn influence the success of reproduction in ways that tend to bring the size of the population into balance with the food supply.

  1. Nikolskii theories that fish population is controlled mainly by the

  A. size of the fish caught within a species. B. racial characteristics of the species.

  C. amount of food available to the species. D. death rate within a species.

  2. The author indicates the main difference between the theories of Darwin and Nikolskii is the

  A. effect of food supply on the size of the fish. B. the amount of fish that can be harvested.

  C. methods used to catch fish. D. cause of population variation in fish.

  3. The theories based on the concept of Darwin assume that fish population is controlled by the

  A. size of the fish caught within a species. B. amount of fishing pressure of the species.

  C. racial characteristics of the species. D. life expectancy within the species.

  4. The researchers discussed in the passage were mainly concerned with

  A. species of fish faced with extinction.B. the ecology of fishing.

  C. the effects of pollution of fishing. D. commercial fishing.

  5. The underlined word the third paragraph “morphologist” means “”。

  A. 生态学家B. 环境学家

  C. 形态学家D. 经济学家

  Passage 4 Surprisingly, no one knows how many children receive education in English hospitals, still less the content or quality of that education. Proper records are just not kept.

  We know that more than 850,000 children go through hospital each year, and that every child of school age has a legal right to continue to receive education while in hospital. We also know there is only one hospital teacher to every 1,000 children in hospital.

  Little wonder that latest survey concludes that the extents and types of hospital teaching available differ a great deal across the country. It is found that half the hospitals in England which admit children to have no teacher. A further quarter has only a parttime teacher. The special childrens hospitals in major cities do best; general hospitals in the country and holiday areas are worst off.

  From this survey, one can estimate that fewer than one in five children have some contact with a hospital teacher — and that contact may be as little as two hours a day. Most children interviewed were surprised to find a teacher in hospital at all. They had not prepared for it by parents or their own school. If there was a teacher they were much more likely to read books and do maths or number work; without a teacher they would only play games.

  Reasons for hospital teaching range from preventing a child falling behind and maintaining the habit of school to keeping a child occupied, and the latter is often all that the teacher can do. The position and influence of many teachers are summed up when the parents refer to them as the “library lady”or just “the helper”。

  Children tend to rely on concerned school friends to keep in touch with school work. Several parents spoke of requests for work being ignored or refused by the school. Once back at school, children rarely get extra teaching, and are told to catch up as best as they can.

  Many shortstay childpatients catch up quickly. But schools do very little to ease the anxiety about falling behind expressed by many of the children interviewed.

  1. The author points out at the beginning that

  A. every child in hospital receives some teaching.

  B. not enough is known about hospital teaching.

  C. hospital teaching is of poor quality.

  D. the special childrens hospital are worst off.

  2. It can be inferred from the last survey that

  A. hospital teaching across the country is similar.

  B. each hospital has at least one parttime teacher.

  C. all hospital surveyed offer education to children.

  D. only oneforth of the hospitals have full — time teachers.

  3. Children in hospital usually turn to in order to catch up with their school work.

  A. hospital teachersB. school mates

  C. parentsD. school teachers

  4. The underlined word “occupied” in the fifth paragraph means “”

  A. 预定 B. 占领

  C. 带走D. 使……充实

  5. We can conclude from the passage that the author is

  A. unfavorable towards children receiving education in hospital.

  B. in favor of the present state of teaching in hospital.

  C. unsatisfied with the present state of hospital teaching.

  D. satisfied with the result of the last survey.

  Keys and notes for the passage reading:Passage 1

  文章介绍了GISbased 系统对于地下水源的解决问题,地下水源分为固定性水源和非固定性水源。为了得到充分的水源制定的三个步骤。

  1. The confined water is subject to seasonal pumping and its water level variation pattern is influenced by groundwater extraction. 限制性水源取决于季节水量变化而得,它的水位变化受到地下水的抽取量的影响。

  2. Considering that large spatial data storage and processing are necessary for surface water hydrological cycle simulation, and groundwater flow and land subsidence modeling, GIS is adopted to provide a platform and tool for all spatial data processing and analysis. 考虑到他庞大的存储空间,必要的模拟表面水文循环,以及地下水的流动和地面的下沉,GIS系统会提供操作平台和数据处理和分析。

  1. 「A」根据文章的总体意思,文章介绍的是整个GIS基础系统 对于水的来源的处理。

  2. 「C」在第一段的第十四行中很明显可以看出非限制性水源正是由表面水的渗透所决定的。

  3. 「D」文中可以看出前3个答案。

  4. 「D」第二部分的测量需要A,不固定水源的深度。B,较大的存储量。C,地表水的渗入。

  5. 「B」“限制性水源”是由 “水平方向”和“竖直方向”一起影响的 ,只是水平方向的影响要比“竖直方向”的影响大很多。

  Passage 2

  在两千年前凯尔特人在不列颠居住,后来恺撒带领罗马士兵入侵并在那里建立了一系列的制度,后凯尔特人寻求保护找到了盎格鲁撒克逊人。

  1. It is believed that the Celts were related with the ancient people in what is now France and they, perhaps, offered some help in the struggle to resist Julius Caesar when he invaded France. 一般认为,凯尔特人和古代的法国人有一些联系,也许因此在恺撒侵略法国的时候,他们对法国提供了一些帮助。

  2. They introduced a system of organized government in towns which usually took on names ending in “shire”。 他们带来了一种组织政权的方式,这种方式通常被称为“郡”。

  1. 「C」凯尔特的语言问题只是在第一段中略有所提,并不是重点,所以不选A;罗马是因为自己国家受到了侵略而退走,并不是被赶出不列颠所以B、D是错的;而盎格鲁撒克逊人是被邀请来的就是统治的原因。

  2. 「B」恺撒带领罗马侵略法国的时候是凯尔特提供了帮助。

  3. 「D」罗马把凯尔特赶到了苏格兰和威尔士。

  4. 「D」第二段的第五句说明shire 在英语中是郡的意思。

  5. 「A」著者是本着很客观的叙述凯尔特人的,没有什么个人看法。

  Passage 3

  本文主要介绍了在研究影响鱼群数量的因素方面,不同的科学学派的不同结论。达尔文的理论认为,其最根本的影响因素是种族内部的竞争。而俄罗斯学者尼古尔斯基认为最主要因素是外部因素,即食物的供给状况。

  1. They have developed a substantial body of theory that has been applied successfully to a large number of animal population and has led to a major improvement in the management of some of the major marine fisheries. 他们发展了一套坚实的理论有机整体,并在多种生物群体的运用中取得成功。这一理论也导致了部分主要海洋渔业中管理问题的重大改善。

  2. The unfished population tends towards a maximum equilibrium(平衡) size with relatively high portion of large, old individuals. As fishing increased and natural mortality is reduced, death from fishing eventually takes the place of most natural mortality. 未捕捞的鱼群增加到最大平衡程度,其中年岁高的大鱼占更大比例。当捕捞量增加,自然死亡率下降时,捕捞造成的数量减少被自然减少所代替。

  3. If the amount of fishing is increased too much, the individual will tend to be taken before realizing their potential growth, and total yield will be reduced. 当捕捞量过大,鱼群还来不及实现其潜在的自然增长时就被捕捞,鱼群总的产量就会减小。

  1. 「C」第三段第七八九句指出,鱼群及其年龄结构的形成取决于食物的数量。鱼的成长率、成熟期(sexual maturity )的长短、数量的多少the accumulations of reserves 都取决于食物的多少。这些因素又影响到繁殖的成功率,最终使鱼的数量和食物的数量呈正比。

  2. 「D」第二段第二句指出,它在很大程度上是以达尔文的理论为基础的。达尔文认为,幼子(young)的不断增加会被由同一物种内的竞争 (intraspecific competition)所导致的密度死亡率(density dependent mortality)所抵消。即所谓的物竞天择,适者生存。这与尼古尔斯基的观点不一样。换言之,达尔文及其信奉者认为导致鱼数量多少在于鱼群内部,而尼古尔斯基则认为来自外部:食物的多少。

  3. 「B」第二段第三四句见难句解释。实际上,这种理论认为,决定鱼的数量的多寡的原因有二:一是捕捞量,即所谓人为原因;二是自然死亡,包括鱼之间的斗争。

  4. 「B」本文第一句是全文的主旨,该句为:在过去的40年中,西方渔业科学家研究鱼群的动态发展关系(dynamics of fish populations),目的在于确定捕捞量和持久捕捞量(sustainable catch)之间的关系。由此可见,他们研究主要是与商业性捕鱼相关。

  5. 「C」“morphologist”的意思是形态学家。

  Passage 4

  本文主要介绍了英国目前医院内为学龄住院患儿提供的教学条件的情况。作者在文中表现出十分失望的态度,呼吁社会对此表示关心,并希望及时改变现状。

  Reason for hospital teaching range from preventing a child falling behind and maintaining the habit of school to keeping a child occupied, and the latter is often all the teacher do. 医院教学的目的包括防止学生掉队和让他们保持学校生活的习惯从而充实他们的生活。

  1. 「B」提示词“at the beginning”提示相关信息在文章起始位置,相关语句为“Proper records are just not kept”。说明人们对医院内教学了解甚少。

  2. 「D」根据提示词“the last survey”可在文章第三段找到相关信息。综合分析可知,全国医院内教学状况不尽相同。一半医院承认没有老师,四分之一的医院只有兼职老师。因此可推理出只有四分之一的医院有专职老师。

  3. 「B」本题询问细节,相关语句为第六段的“Children tend to rely on concerned school friends to keep in touch with school work”。

  4. 「D」“occupied”的意思是使……充实

  5. 「C」本题询问作者对医院内教学状况的态度。全文表明,目前医院内教学状况不尽如人意。有教师的医院教学质量也不令人满意。

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