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考研英语范文阅读(十八)

2006-7-6 21:40  

  In the first year or so of Web business, most of the action has revolved around efforts to tap the consumer market. More recently, as the Web proved to be more than a fashion, companies have started to buy and sell products and services with one another. Such business-to-business sales make sense because business people typically know what product they're looking for.

  Nonetheless, many companies still hesitate to use the Web because of doubts about its reliability. “Businesses need to feel they can trust the pathway between them and the supplier,” says senior analyst Blane Erwin of Forrester Research. Some companies are limiting the risk by conducting online transactions only with established business partners who are given access to the company's private intranet.

  Another major shift in the model for Internet commerce concerns the technology available for marketing. Until recently, Internet marketing activities have focused on strategies to “pull” customers into sites. In the past year, however, software companies have developed tools that allow companies to “push” information directly out to consumers, transmitting marketing messages directly to targeted customers. Most notably, the Pointcast Network uses a screen saver to deliver a continually updated stream of news and advertisements to subscribers' computer monitors. Subscribers can customize the information they want to receive and proceed directly to a company's Web site. Companies such as Virtual Vineyards are already starting to use similar technologies to push messages to customers about special sales, product offerings, or other events. But push technology has earned the contempt of many Web users. Online culture thinks highly of the notion that the information flowing onto the screen comes there by specific request. Once commercial promotion begins to fill the screen uninvited, the distinction between the Web and television fades. That's a prospect that horrifies Net purists.But it is hardly inevitable that companies on the Web will need to resort to push strategies to make money. The examples of Virtual Vineyards, Amazon.com, and other pioneers show that a Web site selling the right kind of products with the right mix of interactivity, hospitality, and security will attract online customers. And the cost of computing power continues to free fall, which is a good sign for any enterprise setting up shop in silicon. People looking back 5 or 10 years from now may well wonder why so few companies took the online plunge.

  55. We learn from the beginning of the passage that Web business ________.

  (A)has been striving to expand its market

  (B)intended to follow a fanciful fashion

  (C)tried but in vain to control the market

  (D)has been booming for one year or so

  56. Speaking of the online technology available for marketing, the author implies that ________.

  (A)the technology is popular with many Web users

  (B)businesses have faith in the reliability of online transactions

  (C)there is a radical change in strategy

  (D)it is accessible limitedly to established partners

  57. In the view of Net purists, ________.

  (A)there should be no marketing messages in online culture

  (B)money making should be given priority to on the Web

  (C)the Web should be able to function as the television set

  (D)there should be no online commercial information without requests

  58. We learn from the last paragraph that ________.

  (A)pushing information on the Web is essential to Internet commerce

  (B)interactivity, hospitality and security are important to online customers

  (C)leading companies began to take the online plunge decades ago

  (D)setting up shops in silicon is independent of the cost of computing power

  答案及试题解析

  ACDB

  55. [A]意为:一直在竭力开拓其市场。

  第一段指出,在网络公司创办的最初一两年中,大部分措施是围绕着努力开拓(tap)消费者市场。最近,随着网络证明不仅是一种时尚而已,公司开始(在网上)相互买卖产品或提供服务,公司间的这种买卖方式是很有道理的,因为商人一般都知道自己所需要的产品。第一句和第二句都叙述了公司企图利用网上资源开拓业务的努力,第三句是对第二句提到的现象的评价。

  B意为:打算遵循一种空幻的时尚。

  C意为:企图控制市场,但徒劳无益。第一段仅提到了它们的努力,并未提到努力的结果。

  D意为:在一年左右的时间里发展迅速。第一段仅提到了它们的努力,并未提到努力的结果。事实上,正如第二段所提到的,许多公司目前仍然因为怀疑网络的安全性而对网络的使用犹豫不决。

  56. [C]意为:在策略上发生了根本改变。

  第三段第一句指出,网络商业模式的另一个重大变化是营销策略的变化。在这个句子中,technology的意思不是“技术”,而是“技巧”,这里指销售方法。根据第三段,这里所说的变化指从“推”到“拉”的变化。两种营销策略迥然不同。

  A意为:这种技术(或方法)受到了许多网络用户的喜爱。虽然第三段提到了许多用户对pull策略的喜爱,但是,在这个选择项中,the technology即使被理解为“方法”的话,究竟是指push还是pull并不清楚。

  B意为:公司对在线交易的可靠性充满信心。根据第二段第一句,许多公司对网络的可靠性表示怀疑,因此对使用网络仍然很忧虑。

  D意为:它仅限于对固定合作伙伴使用。在这个选择项中,it只能理解为指代the technology.这样,这个选择项的意思就有些令人费解。

  57. [D]意为:没有要求就不应该有在线商业信息。即:没有主动要求就不应该提供在线商业信息。

  根据第三段最后四句,“推”的策略受到了许多网上用户的厌弃,在线用户们极力推崇这种做法:信息应该根据特定要求载入(用户的)屏幕。商业信息一旦在没有要求的情况下就被推入用户的屏幕,那么,网络和电视的区别就不存在了,这种前景正是Net purists所惧怕的。这里,Net purists指主张保持网络特色的人。

  A意为:在线领域不应该有销售信息。根据对D的分析,这些人反对的是销售信息的传送方式,而不是这种信息本身。

  B意为:上网的首要目的应该是为了赚钱。

  C意为:网络的功能应该像电视一样。这正是Net purist所反对的。

  58. [B]互动、礼貌、安全对在线客户来说很重要。这里互动(指网上人机对话功能)、礼貌(指网上热情服务)、安全都指网络信息的特点或提供方式。

  在最后一段作者指出,网上的公司不使用“推”的策略也肯定能赚钱。Virtual Vineyards和Amazon.com(两个网址的名称)以及其他开拓者的例子表明:销售对路产品的网址,加上互动、礼貌、安全等特点,将同样会吸引网上客户。

  A意为:对网上商业来说,在网上“推”信息至关重要。根据上文的分析,事实恰恰相反。

  C意为:一些大公司在几十年前就开始积极尝试在线服务。第四段最后一句指出,只要回顾一下过去5年至10年的历史人们很可能会感到奇怪:为什么如此少的公司尝试在线服务呢?

  D意为:在计算机上建立销售点与(计算机的)运算能力无关。根据第四段第三句,计算机的运算能力成本不断下降,这对于企事业在计算机上建立销售点是个好的形势。所渭“计算机的运算能力成本不断下降”指计算机和网络上网价格变得便宜;所谓“在硅中设立商店”指在计算机(网络)上设立销售点。可见,二者是相关的。

  翻译句子

  1、In the past year, however, software companies have developed tools that allow companies to “push” information directly out to consumers, transmitting marketing messages directly to targeted customers.

  [参考译文]但是,在过去的一年间,软件公司已经开发出工具,使得公司可以直接将信息“推出”给顾客,直接把营销讯息传递给目标顾客。

  [结构剖析]在这个简单句中,宾语tools带了一个that引导的定语从句,修饰tools,在这个从句中真正的主语是tools,由that替代,注意这个从句中谓语动词短语allow…… to……的形式;后面跟了一个transmitting引导的现在分词短语,相当于that从句的补充成分,进一步说明push information to consumer的方式。

  [阅读重点]这个句子的主要内容集中在develop tools以及tools后面的that从句,从句中关键信息在于几个动词的使用:allow,push,transmit等。

  2、Online culture thinks highly of the notion that the information flowing onto the screen comes there by specific request.

  [参考译文]网上文化非常看重这样一个观念,那就是,流动到屏幕上的信息是在专门的请求之后才能出现的。

  [结构剖析]这个句子的主句就是that前面的部分,注意动词短语think highly of的含义,但是理解这个句子的关键在于宾语notion后面所跟的that引导的同位语从句,就是说that从句解释的就是notion的内容。这个从句中的主语information后面跟了一个修饰性的flowing引导的现在分词短语。

  [阅读重点]在抓住了主干think highly of the notion之后,理解这个句子的关键在于对that从句的理解,尤其是by specific request决定了notion的重要内容。

  补充难句翻译

  1、Some companies are limiting the risk by conducting online transactions only with established business partners who are given access to the company's private intranet.[参考译文]有些公司为了限制这种冒险,只与那些已经熟识的贸易伙伴进行在线交易,给予这些伙伴进人本公司内部网的权利。

  [结构剖析]这个句子的主谓宾很明显,但是重要的是by后面的conducting引导的动名词短语,表示的是companies limiting the risk的方式方法。还要注意的是partners后面跟了一个who引导的定语从句,说明了partners所享受的待遇。

  [阅读重点]找出其中的关键部分:…… companies…… limiting…… risk by…… transactions…… with established…… partners who…… access to…… company's…… intranet.注意intranet与internet的差别:后者是国际互联网,前者是公司内部网。

  2、The examples of Virtual Vineyards, Amazon.com, and other pioneers show that a Web site selling the right kind of products with the right mix of interactivity, hospitality, and security will attract online customers.[参考译文]像Virtual vineyards,Anlazon.com这样的先驱网站表明,一个将交互性、热情服务和安全性合理结合以销售适类商品的网址是可以吸引网上客户注意的。

  [结构剖析]这个句子的主干是…… examples…… show…… a Web site…… will attract…… customers.抓住这个主干,再看其它成分:examples后面跟的of短语是限定成分,说明examples的内容;谓语动词show后面跟的是一个that引导的宾语从句,这个宾语从句的主语a Web site后面跟了一个现在分词短语作限定成分,这个短语的动词是selling,宾语是the right kind of products,再加上一个较长的表示方式的状语,注意介词宾语mix后面有一个of引导的三个并列名词表示mix的内容,后面will attract online customers是这个从句的谓语和宾语。

  [阅读重点]找出句子的主谓宾,再看不同成分的修饰限定部分,再者要注意宾语从句的主语所带的现在分词结构的限定短语。

  3、And the cost of computing power continues to free fall, which is a good sign for any enterprise setting up shop in silicon.[参考译文]计算能力的成本持续自由下落,这对任何建立了网上销售的企业来说都是个好兆头。

  [结构剖析]这个句子的主句是逗号前的句子,容易理解,重要的是逗号后which引导的从句,这里which指代的是逗号前的这个句子,指的是这个句子所陈述的现象,which在这里充当的是从句的主语,enterprise后面有一个现在分词短语,起限定作用。

  [阅读重点]重要的是弄清从句中which引导词所指的是前面整个句子,这样就可以得知a good sign的意思。另外注意setting up shop in silicon中silicon原意是“硅”,在这里指代的是“互联网”与“计算机”。

  语言点详解

  1.revolve围绕[大纲词汇]revolve v.(使)旋转[衍生词义]revolve v.围绕,环绕[经典例句]The whole household revolved around the baby.

  2.tap开发[大纲词汇]tap n.塞子,龙头;轻叩,轻拍; v.轻叩,轻敲;利用,开发[经典例句] The government tried to tap other revenue resources to make up the deficit.

  3.make sense有道理[大纲词汇]make sense讲得通,有意义,言之有理[经典例句]His explanation didn't make sense.

  4.nonetheless不过[大纲词汇] nonetheless(=nevertheless) conj.然而,不过;ad.仍然,不过[经典例句]We failed the first time. Nonetheless, we would try again.

  5.pathway路径[扩充词汇] pathway(=Path)n.小路,小径;路线,轨道

  6.online transaction网上交易[大纲词汇]transaction n.办理,处理;交易,事务;[pl.]会刊,学报[经典例句」The lawyer was given access to the confidential information of his defendant.

  7.give access to准许进人[大纲词汇]access n.接近,进人[经典例汇]The law was given access to the confidential information of his defendant.

  8.available for可用于……[大纲词汇]available a.可用的,可得到的;可以见到的,随时可来的。[经典例句]I will make good use of the money available for traveling.

  9.focus on集中[大纲词汇] focus v.(on)使聚集,集中; n.焦点,(活动、兴趣等的)中心[经典例句] The government focused on improving the living standard of its resident.

  10.transmit传递[大纲词汇]transmit v.传播,发射;传递,传导transmission n.播送,发射;传动,传送[经典例句] Books transmit the author's idea to other people.

  11.targeted customers目标消费者[大纲词汇]target n.目标,对象,靶子[衍生词汇]targeted a.被定为目标的,被定为对象的targeted market目标市场

  12.notably值得注意地[大纲词汇]notable a.值得注意的,显著的,著名的[经典例句]His garden was most notably decorated for Christmas.

  13.screen saver(电脑的)屏幕保护

  14.subscriber订阅者[大纲词汇]subscribe v.订阅,订购[衍生词汇]subscriber n.订阅者

  15.monitor(电脑的)显示器[大纲词汇] monitor n.班长;监听器,监视器; v.监控,检测[经典例句]The police monitored all Steve's phone calls.

  16.customize按顾客的要求制造[大纲词汇]customer n.顾客,主顾[衍生词汇]customize v.按顾客的要求制造[经典例句]The automobile company are ready to customize the cars.

  17.proceed继续进行[大纲词汇]proceed v.进行,继续下去;发生[经典例句]Let us proceed to the next item on the agenda.

  18.offering待售品[大纲词汇]offer v.提供,提出,呈现,出现[衍生词汇]offering n.给予,提供,贡献;待售品[经典例句]These are the latest offerings of the company.

  19.comtempt蔑视[大纲词汇]contempt n.蔑视,藐视[经典例句]He mentioned her name with contempt.

  20.think highly of对…评价很高[扩充词汇]think highly of对…评价很高[经典例句]Many critics thought highly of his latest book.

  21.purist纯粹主义者[大纲词汇]pure a.纯的,纯洁的;纯理论的,抽象的;完全的,十足的[衍生词汇] purist n.(艺术、语言等方面的)纯粹主义者

  22.inevitable不可避免的[大纲词汇] inevitable a.不可避免的,必然发生的[经典例句] Considering his heavy smoking, lung cancer was almost inevitable.

  23.resort to求助[大纲词汇]resort v.(to)求助,诉诸,凭借; n.胜地,常去之处;手段[经典例句] The patient resorted to supernatural means to cure his disease.

  24.mix成分比例[大纲词汇] mix v.混淆;使混合[扩充词义] mix n.(混合物、计划、政策等的)成分比例[经典例句] The patient resorted to supernatural means to cure his disease.

  25.interactivity相互作用[扩充词汇]interactive a.相互作用的;相互影响的interactivity n.相互作用

  26.free fall自由降落

  27.silicon硅

  28.take online plunge开始从事网上运作[大纲词汇] plunge v.(into)(使)冲人,(使)插进,陷人;猛冲[扩充词义] Plunge n.开始从事;一投[经典例句]He took his first plunge into journalism by working for an evening newspaper.

  29.in vain徒劳[大纲词汇]vain a.徒劳的,徒然的;自负的,虚荣的; n.徒劳,白费in vain徒劳,无效[经典例句]All of our work was in vain.

  30.give priority to最优先考虑[大纲词汇] priority n.先,前;优先,优先权[经典例句] He always gives priority to his work than his family.

  31.independent of独立于…

  [大纲词汇] independent a.(of)独立的,自主的[经典例句] He is independent of his parents.

  全文翻译

  大约在网上交易的第一年当中,大部分业务活动都是围绕着努力开发消费者市场来进行的。最近,随着证明网络不仅是一种时尚而已,公司间便开始(在网上)交易产品和服务。这类公司之间的销售是很有道理的,因为商人通常都知道他们需要什么产品。

  不过,由于怀疑网络的可靠性许多公司仍对网络的使用犹豫不决。Forrester研究所的资深分析家布兰?欧文说,“商家需要认识到他们可以信赖销售商和供应商之间的这种途径。”有些公司为了限制这种冒险,只与那些已经熟识的贸易伙伴进行在线贸易,给予这些伙伴进入本公司局域网的权利。

  网络商业模式的另一个重大变化体现在营销策略上。前些年,互联网上的营销活动还集中在如何将用户“拉进”网站的策略问题上。然而,在去年,软件公司开发出新的技术,这些技术使得公司可以将信息直接“推出”给消费者,直接把营销信息传送给特定的用户。最突出的例子是Pointcast网络,该网络使用一种屏幕保护系统,将大量最新的信息和广告不断地传送到用户的计算机显示器上。用户可以定制自己想要接受的信息,然后直接进入某个公司的网址。像 Virtual Vineyards这样的公司业已开始采用类似的技术将有关特价商品、产品推销或其他活动的信息“推”向用户。但这种“推”销技术遭到许多网上用户的鄙视。网上文化推崇这样一个概念,即流动到屏幕上的信息应是在专门的请求之后才出现的。一旦商业促销不请自来地充斥电脑屏幕,那么网络和电视就没多大差别了。这种前景让网络净化者感到不安。

  网上公司并不是非得依靠“推销”策略方能挣钱。像Virtual Vineyards和Amazon.com及其他开拓者的例子说明:一个销售适类商品的网站,如果将交互性、热情服务、安全性合理结合,肯定会吸引网上用户的。计算能力的成本持续自由下降,这对任何建立了网上销售的企业来说都是个好的征兆。回顾过去的5到10年的历史,人们很可能会感到奇怪:尝试网上销售的公司为何如此之少呢?

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