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中国常驻联合国代表王光亚大使在美国普林斯顿大学的演讲

2006-07-07 17:35

  Good evening.

  It is an honor for me to be invited to your seminar tonight. For me, for my colleagues and many other Chinese, Princeton has long been a familiar name. With a history longer than the country, it has produced many outstanding people, Woodrow Wilson, the 28th US President, Albert Einstein, the great scientist, and T. S. Eliot, the famous poet, to name but a few. As the former President Bill Clinton said in 1996 in celebration of the 250 anniversary of Princeton: “At every pivotal moment in American history, Princeton, its leadership, its students have played a crucial role.”

  I am more pleased to learn that all of you have a keen interest in China. Though our two countries are geographically far apart, we have lots in common. While many Chinese enjoy Hollywood movies and McDonald's fast food, many Americans find that their clothes and daily necessities are made in China. I hope that today's seminar will help you gain a better understanding of China and its foreign policy, thus further deepening our friendship and cooperation.

  Ladies and Gentlemen,

  Let me begin by briefly talking about China's current situation. As you all know, China introduced the policy of reform and opening up 25 years ago. In the short span of a quarter century, China has achieved unprecedented progress in its development. 25 years ago, China's GDP was only 147.3 billion US dollars. Last year, it exceeded 1,400 billion, an increase of almost 10 times. 25 years ago, China foreign trade was merely 20.6 billion USD. Last year, the volume climbed to 851.2 billion. 25 years ago, more than 250 million people were living below the poverty line. Last year, the figure was reduced to less than 30 million. It is certainly not an overstatement to say that the past 25 years constitute a most glorious chapter in the annals of the Chinese history.

  The most fundamental reason for such remarkable achievements is that we have found a development model, which fits our own conditions. That is socialism with Chinese characteristics. Needless to say, we still have a long way to go, as China still faces many challenges including, among others, a huge population, problems left over from the past, low productivity and lack of balance in its development.

  China is slightly larger than the United States in size, but its population is 1.3 billion and it is still increasing. It will reach its peak of 1.5 billion around 2040 and will only then begin to decrease. With such a huge population, no matter how enormous the total volume of financial and material resources is, once being divided by 1.3 billion, it becomes a small per capita figure. Last year, China's GDP ranked sixth in the world, but in per capita GDP terms, it was only a little over 1,000 USD, which was behind more than 100 countries. The huge development gap between the coastal areas and the interior of China is another problem confronting the country.

  The more immediate objective of the Chinese government is to enable all the Chinese people to lead a fairly well off life. This requires consistent and tireless efforts. The Chinese government has made development its top priority. By development, we do not simply mean economic growth, but an all round, balanced and coordinated development, with the focus only on the people. The development strategy will seek to maintain a balance between the rural and urban areas, and between the economic development and social progress. All in all, it is aimed at achieving material, cultural and political progress, and harmonious coexistence between man and nature.

  To revitalize the Chinese nation is the common aspiration of all the Chinese people. We now embrace a wonderful opportunity for development. By what has been achieved, the rise of China sounds no longer a dream. This, however, has caused concerns and worries of some people. They argue that modern history shows that the rise of a big power would often lead to disturbances of international relations and world order and even war. While I understand such concerns, I must say however that they are really unnecessary. It is because:

  First, China as a nation has always believed in the philosophy of “peace is priceless”。 To pursue a world of “Great Harmony” is not just a teaching from our ancestors. It is a “gene” deeply rooted in the Chinese nation. Never seeking hegemony is our solemn commitment.

  Second, while proud of its long and splendid ancient civilization, China also remembers the bitter and humiliating experiences in its modern history. We keenly feel the pain inflicted by outside aggressors. “Do not do unto others as you would not have them do unto you”。 This is the will of the Chinese people and no one can go against the will of the people.

  Third, as mankind has entered the 21st century, no country can retreat to “zero sum” games. China will not be an exception. Our only choice is to develop in a peaceful environment, which in turn will enhance peace.

  Fourth, for a country with over a billion people, China can rely on nobody but itself for development. We will mainly take advantage of our vast market potentials, abundant labor resources and capital accumulation, while working hard to improve education and develop science and technology.

  Finally, the peaceful rise of China with its 1.3 billion people will be neither a hindrance nor a threat to any country. Quite the contrary, it can only greatly contribute to maintaining world peace and stability.

  To achieve peace and development is the ardent aspiration of the entire mankind. China will continue to pursue an independent foreign policy of peace. We wish to see a multi-polar world where international relations are conducted on the basis of democracy and rule of law, disputes are settled through dialogue and cooperation, and the world affairs are managed by all countries on an equal footing. We are in favor of diversified modes of development, more extensive dialogue and exchanges among civilizations, poverty elimination and environmental protection so as to attain common and harmonious development of all countries. We are against all forms of terrorism and proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. We advocate a new security concept of mutual trust, mutual benefit, equality and coordination.

  Ladies and Gentlemen,

  Sino-US relations are one of the most important bilateral relations for China. Since the establishment of diplomatic relations 25 years ago, they have enjoyed continued progress, despite twists and turns. Before the establishment of diplomatic ties, Sino-US trade volume was less than 2.5 billion USD. Now, the volume is over 100 billion. The two countries have become each other's major trade partners. People-to-people contacts used to be virtually nonexistent. Today, our annual two way exchanges amount to several million persons. Over 60,000 Chinese students are studying in your country, and more than 3,000 Americans are taking courses in China.

  The United Sates is the largest developed country, while China is the largest developing country. The two countries are having more and more common interests, and the areas of cooperation are expanding. In our bilateral relations and in multilateral fora such as the United Nations, one can find many examples of cooperation. From economic relations and trade to environmental protection and AIDS prevention, and to anti-terrorism, Korean nuclear issue and nonproliferation. All this has helped broaden the scope and consolidate the foundation of our strategic interests.

  It is unthinkable that China and the United States should see eye to eye on everything. After all, the two countries have different historical traditions, cultures and values. However, as was described by Secretary of State Colin Powell, “the United States sees an even greater need to shape a relationship with China that is defined by our mutual interests, not by those of disagreement. ? And we know that China shares that goal.”

  I fully concur with this view. As an ancient Chinese saying goes, “true friendship between gentlemen allows for differences”。 When we have differences, we should discuss them frankly, and not let them obstruct the development of our relations. A sound and stable friendly relationship and cooperation is in the common interests of our two peoples and is conducive to world peace and development.

  Mankind is faced with numerous challenges in its endeavor for peace and development. The future of the world is full of variables. While the traditional security issues such as border conflicts, ethnic disputes, and religious grievances still exist; new security problems are cropping up in the form of terrorism, transnational crimes, environmental degradation and drug trafficking.

  I have noticed that basketball, baseball and football are the most favorite sports for American youth. All these sports manifest and require a strong team spirit. Maintaining world peace and security also requires that spirit. With the fast development of globalization and transnational challenges and threats, no country can develop itself in seclusion, even it is in possession of unparalleled military and economic might. The international community can only choose cooperation to realize true peace and security.

  About 60 years ago, drawing on the lessons of WWII, President Franklin Roosevelt and his colleagues blueprinted and founded the United Nations. Its major objective was to jointly safeguard security and promote development through collective action. As the most broadly representative and authoritative international organization in the world today, the United Nations still serves as an important forum for countries to strengthen cooperation and respond to common challenges. A powerful United Nations is what the future of the world lies.

  The war in Iraq a year ago has caused repercussions on the collective security mechanism, putting multilateral approach and the United Nations under severe test. Developments in Iraq over the past year show that unilateral approach cannot bring peace and security. Rather, It undermines mutual trust and cooperation among states. It is gratifying to see that more and more countries have realized that collective security and multilateralism offer the effective way to tackle global issues. The United Nations should play a substantive role in seeking a solution to the Iraqi issue.

  Undoubtedly, to better respond to the wide spectrum of challenges confronting the world today, we need a more effective and efficient United Nations. There have been thought-provoking discussions and studies in this regard. In order to adapt to new changes and meet emerging challenges, it is necessary to reform the United Nations in an appropriate manner with a view to strengthening its authority and functions and enhancing people's confidence and trust.

  Ladies and Gentlemen,

  108 years ago, Woodrow Wilson, the 13th president of Princeton, called on students to work hard and be ready to serve their country in his famous oration entitled “Princeton in the Nation's Service”。 This coincides with the tradition of the Chinese intellectuals ? “to study and apply what you learn, to serve the country with unreserved loyalty”。

  I am also delighted to hear that thanks to the proposal of President Harold Shapiro, the famous phrase has now become “Princeton in the Nation's Service, and in the Service of All Nations”。 This has given full expression to the spirit of multilateralism and represents the trend of the world today.

  Thank you.

  女士们、先生们:

  晚上好。

  很荣幸应邀到普林斯顿大学参加你们的研讨会。对我本人、我的同事及许多中国人来讲,普林斯顿大学的名字早已是耳熟能详。她的历史比这个国家还长,从这个校园里走出了美国第28任总统伍德罗·威尔逊、伟大科学家爱因斯坦、著名诗人T.S.艾略特等众多杰出人物。正如前总统克林顿先生在1996年普大建校 250周年时所说:“在美国历史上的每一个紧要关头,普林斯顿大学及其师生都发挥了关键作用。”

  令人高兴的是,在座诸位对中国事务都抱有研究兴趣。虽然我们两国地理上相距万里,但在日常生活中却非常相近。好莱坞影片、麦当劳快餐成了许多中国人生活中的内容。而中国加工的服装、日用品也天天伴随着美国人民。我希望通过今天的交流,能增进在座诸位对中国和中国外交政策的了解,为未来彼此的友谊与合作锦上添花。

  女士们、先生们,

  我想首先扼要说一下中国的现状。大家知道,中国实行改革开放已走过了25年。在短短的四分之一个世纪里,中国取得了前所未有的重大进步和发展。25年前,中国的GDP只有1473亿美元,而去年已达14000多亿美元,增长近10倍;25年前,中国外贸总额仅为206亿美元,去年则达到了8512亿美元;25年前,中国的贫困人口有2亿5千万,目前已下降到3000万人左右。毫不夸张地说,这25年是中国历史上最辉煌的一页。

  之所以能取得如此成就,最根本的一条就是我们找到了适合中国国情的发展道路,即具有中国特色的社会主义道路。当然,我们还有很长的路要走,因为中国人口众多、包袱沉重,生产力不发达、发展不平衡。

  中国的面积比美国稍大,但有13亿人口,而且还在增长,到2040年前后将超过15亿,其后才会逐渐下降。有如此大的人口基数,无论财力、物力总量多么可观,只要除以13亿,就成为相当低的人均水平。去年中国的GDP总量排名世界第六位,但人均刚过1000美元,排在世界100位以后。中国东部与中西部、沿海与内地存在巨大的发展差距,也是困扰中国的难题。

  中国政府的近期目标就是要让全体中国人都过上小康生活。这需要我们继续作出不懈的努力。因此,中国政府的第一要务就是发展,不仅是经济发展,而且是全面、平衡、协调发展。注重以人为本,统筹城乡之间和区域之间的发展,保持经济发展与社会发展的平衡,实现人与自然和谐共存,实现物质文明、精神文明和政治文明的共同发展。

  实现中华民族的复兴,是全体中国人的夙愿。当前,我们正面临千载难逢的良好发展机遇,中国的崛起不再是遥不可及的梦想。当然,国际上也有一些人士对此感到担忧与不安。他们认为,从近代历史看,一个大国的崛起,往往会导致国际格局和世界秩序的急剧变动,甚至引发战争。我认为,从某种意义上讲,这种担忧是可以理解的,但同时也是不必要的。因为:

  首先,中华民族历来尊崇“和为贵”的哲学思想,追寻“大同世界”不仅是简单的千年祖训,而且是植根于中华民族血液里的“基因”。不称霸是我们郑重的承诺。

  第二,中国有古代的辉煌与骄傲,更有近代的惨痛和屈辱。我们对外来侵略有切肤之感,“已所不欲,勿施与人”。这是中国的民意,民意不可违。

  第三,人类已进入21世纪,中国不会,也不可能再重复走“零和”道路。我们唯一的选择只能是和平崛起,就是利用世界和平努力发展自己,同时又以自身发展维护世界和平。

  第四,像中国这样十几亿人口的大国,要发展起来,不应当、也不可能依赖任何别的国家,只能靠自己努力,依靠广阔的国内市场、充足的劳动力资源和资金积累,并依靠提高国民素质和科技进步解决资源和环境问题,实现可持续发展。

  最后,中国的和平崛起不会妨碍任何国家,也不会威胁任何国家。相反,具有13亿人口的中国的和平崛起、和平发展,本身就是对世界和平与稳定的巨大贡献。

  实现和平与发展是全人类最大的福祉和愿望。中国将继续奉行独立自主的和平外交政策,主张促进世界多极化,倡导国际关系民主化与法制化,通过对话与合作解决争端。我们认为,世界上的事情应由各国平等协商,赞同发展模式多样化,推动文明对话与交流,消除贫困,保护环境,实现各国人民的共同和谐发展。我们反对一切形式的恐怖主义和大规模杀伤性武器扩散,提倡互信、互利、平等、协作的新安全观。

  女士们、先生们,

  中美关系是中国最重要的双边关系之一。建交25年来,两国关系走过了一条很不平坦的道路,但总的方向是不断向前发展。建交前,中美贸易额不足25亿美元。今天已超过1000亿美元,两国已互为重要的贸易伙伴。建交前,中美两国民间交往几乎为零。目前,两国人员往来每年超过百万人次。中国有6万多名青年人在美国学习,美国也有3000多人在中国学习。

  作为世界上最大发展中国家和最大的发达国家,中美两国近年来的共同利益不断增加,合作的领域在不断扩大和深化。不论在经贸、金融、环保、防治艾滋病方面,还是在反恐、朝核、防扩散领域,或是在联合国等多边机制中,我们都可以轻易列举出许许多多生动事例。这些都为进一步拓宽双方的战略利益提供了更好的空间与基础。

  诚然,中美作为两个大国,由于历史、文化和价值观的差异,彼此之间没有分歧也是不可想象的。但正如鲍威尔国务卿所说:“美国认为更有必要同中国建立一种以共同利益为主,而不是以分歧为主的关系。……我们知道中国也抱有相同的目标。”

  我完全赞同鲍卿的上述观点。中国有句古语:君子和而不同。意思是说,真正的好朋友也可以有不同的观点。中美两国在某些问题上存在分歧是正常的,我们完全可以就有分歧的问题坦诚交换意见,但分歧不应当成为阻碍两国进一步发展关系的藩篱。中美只有发展健康的、稳定的友好合作关系,才符合两国人民的共同利益,也符合全球和平与发展的利益。

  当前,人类和平与发展面临诸多挑战,世界的未来充满了变数。各种传统安全问题,如边界冲突、民族矛盾、宗教恩怨等依然存在。恐怖主义、跨国犯罪、环境污染、毒品走私等非传统安全威胁又在迅速蔓延。

  我注意到一个现象:美国年青人最喜欢的体育运动,如篮球、棒球、橄榄球等,都是最讲求团队精神的运动。维护国际和平与安全也需要团队与合作精神。在全球化日益发展的今天,面对跨国性挑战和威胁,任何单个国家都无法独善其身,即使它拥有无与伦比军事和经济力量。国际社会只有携手合作,才能实现彼此真正的和平与安全。

  约60年前,基于对二战惨烈后果的反思,罗斯福总统与其同事设计并创立了联合国,其核心目的就是通过集体合作共同维护安全,促进发展。作为最具普遍性和权威性的国际组织,联合国今天仍然是各国加强国际合作、应对共同挑战的重要场所。一个强有力的联合国是世界希望之所在。

  一年前的伊拉克战争曾给集体安全机制造成冲击,将多边主义及联合国推向了一个十字路口。一年来的伊拉克局势说明,单边行为不能带来和平与安全,还会损害各国信任与合作。令人欣慰的是,越来越多的国家认识到,集体安全与多边主义才是解决国际问题的有效手段,联合国已实质性参与解决伊拉克问题。

  无庸置疑,为了更好应对当今世界面临的诸多共同挑战,我们需要一个更加有效的联合国。各方对此也在深刻反思。为适应新变化、迎接新挑战,联合国必须进行合理和必要的改革,增强其权威与作用,提高人们对其的依赖与信心。

  女士们,先生们,

  108年前,普林斯顿大学第13任校长威尔逊先生在那篇著名的《普林斯顿-为了给国家服务》的演讲中号召学生应为国家建设尽心服务。这种思想与中国文人素有的“学以致用、精忠报国”的传统不谋而合。

  我也很高兴地听说,在Harold Shapiro校长的倡导下,普林斯顿大学的校训已由“普林斯顿——为了给国家服务”扩展为“普林斯顿——不仅服务于国家,而且服务于天下”。我认为,这无疑也体现了多边主义精神,符合当今世界的潮流。

  谢谢大家。

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