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70天攻克考研英语阅读 DAY28

2006-7-28 01:04  

  Increasing reading speed

  Direction:Do the word recognition drills below.Note the words on the left then underline it every time it appears in the same form to the right.No regression,no vocalization.Try to finish in 15 seconds or less.

  Starting Time:

  1. advanceadvent adverse advert advice advance

  2. future               urther futile furnish future fusion

  3. differ               different difference diffuse differ direct

  4. welfare              welcome warfare wealth wealthy welfare

  5. demand         demanding demandable demand denote command

  6. gather               gander grinder gather together gathering

  7. growth               greenish growing grower growth grown

  8. increase       increased increasing decrease increase creative

  9. desire               desired desirable design dessert desire

  10. identify            identic identical identity identify ideally

  Finishing Time: Total Reading Time:

  Errors: Cheek each line carefully for mistakes.

  Science Education for a New AgeThe very great advances in science just before and after the midpoint of the twentieth century have caused education in the United States to realize that science teaching in the future must differ from science teaching in the past. During the past twenty years science has played an important part in shaping the character of our civilization. The welfare,stability,and security of our nation are closely related to the discoveries of science and the applications of these discoveries. The scientific revolution which we are beginning to experience together with the trend toward world industrialization,demands a program of science education with new emphasis,purpose and content. Simply knowing about the existence of the scientific enterprise is not enough for effective citizenship.

  Needs for Good Science TeachingGovernors, lawyers and business leaders have to deal with scientists,and every educated person has his views influenced by science. Yet our science teaching of nonscientists in school and college,has built up mistaken ideas,dislikes,and the common boast,"I never did understand science." Even those students who arrive at college with plans to become scientists usually bring a mistaken picture of science, some have a collection of unorganized facts about science,and some regard the study of science as a game which involves getting the right answer.

  The first of these attitudes seems to come from a kind of course which provides bits of miscellaneous information;the second,from a training course on how to pass examinations that do not ask about the student's understanding but simply require him to put the numbers in the right formulas. Neither type of course (in school or college) seems to give students an understanding of science as we find it among scientists. Neither shows students how real scientists work and think, how the facts are gathered,how discoveries are made,and what they mean.

  Young people need good teaching of science;not so much a great wealth of knowledge as a healthy understanding of the nature of science. They need an understanding of knowledge leading to a sympathy with science and a keen awareness of the way scientists work. Given these,it is easy to encourage later reading and learning.

  Balance in EducationIf it were only necessary to decide whether to teach elementary science to everyone on a mass basis or to find the gifted few and take them as far as they can go,our task would be fairly simple. The public school system, however,has no such choice,for the two jobs must be carried on at the same time. Because we depend so heavily upon science and technology for our existence and progress,we must produce specialists in many fields. The public school must educate both producers and users of scientific services.

  In education there should be a good balance among the branches of knowledge that contribute to effective thinking and wise judgment. Such balance is defeated by too much emphasis on any one field. This question of balance involves not only the relation of the natural sciences,the humanities,and the arts but also relative emphases among the natural sciences themselves.

  Similarly,we must have a balance between current and classical knowledge. The attention of the public is continually drawn to new possibilities in scientific fields and the discovery of new knowledge;these should not be allowed to turn our attention away from the sound,established materials that form the basis of courses for beginners.Knowledge and EnterpriseScience teaching must deal with the knowledge and methods of science;both are necessary. From science courses students should acquire a useful command of science concepts and principles. Science is more than a collection of unrelated facts;to be meaningful and valuable,they must be arranged to show generalized concepts. A student should learn something about the character of scientific knowledge,how it has been developed,and how it is used. He must see that knowledge is subject to growth and change and that it is likely to shift in meaning and status with time.

  At each grade level in school the student needs to increase his knowledge in an organized way,to acquire sufficient vocabulary in science for effective communication,and to learn some facts because they are important in everyday living, such as knowledge that is useful for his health,for his safety,and for an understanding of his surroundings.

  Science and SocietyYoung people need to understand how our society depends upon scientific and technological advancement and to realize that science is a basic part of modern living. The scientific process and the knowledge produced cannot be considered to be ends in themselves,except for the classical scientist. A student should understand the relationship of basic research to applied research,and the connection between technological developments and human affairs.

  The knowledge and methods of science are of little importance if there is no inclination to use them properly. An open mind,a desire for accurate knowledge,confidence in the procedures for seeking knowledge,and the expectation that the solution of problems will come from the use of tested and proven knowledge - these are among the "scientific attitudes."

  Science instruction should acquaint students with career possibilities in technical fields and in science teaching. A continuous effort should be made to identify and encourage those who develop special interests. They should be given opportunities for some direct experience of a professional nature;they should also learn about the extent of the various science fields and how these fields are related to each other. But it is even more important for young people to acquire those skills and abilities that will enable them to take the responsibilities for expanding their own learning.

  ——from Science Readings

  Time: 963words =  wpm

  Minutes

  EXERCISESⅠ。READING COMPREHENSION

  Select the answer which is most accurate according to the information given in the passage.

  1. As can be learned from paragraph 1,the welfare,stability,and security of the United States  the scientific discoveries and the applications of them.

  A. can safeguardB. are attributed to

  C. create favorable conditions for              D. can accelerate

  2. In American colleges and schools, the kind of course which provides a variety of unrelated information seems to result in .

  A. a mistaken belief which takes the study of science as an answer filling game

  B. a dislike for science

  C. students' gathering of unorganized facts about science

  D. a healthy understanding of the nature of science

  3. In the author's opinion,the best approach to science teaching is a good study of .

  A. knowledge available in all spheres of science

  B. elementary science to everyone on a mass basis

  C. advanced science a few gifted persons understand

  D. knowledge which leads to great enthusiasm in science as well as keen awareness of how scientists work

  4. Which of the following phenomena exists in America's science education today?

  A. A good balance is maintained among the branches of knowledge.

  B. The academic hours distributed among the branches of knowledge are equal in length.

  C. Too much emphasis is laid upon new possibilities in scientific fields and the discoveries of new knowledge,and classical knowledge is overlooked.

  D. Both A and B.

  5. "Acquire a useful command of science concepts and principles"(paragraph 8)means  .

  A. take effective control over science concepts and principles

  B. instruct scientists to formulate useful concepts and principles in science

  C. obtain a useful knowledge of science concepts and principles

  D. manipulate the fulfillment of science concepts and principles

  6. The author believes that the scientific process and the knowledge obtained .

  A. are closely linked with modern life

  B. have no influence upon modern life

  C. are greatly influenced by modern life

  D. can be considered to be ends in themselves

  7. The knowledge and methods of science are not very important unless .

  A. students have understood them well           B. they are applied properly

  C. they are known to the general public         D. they are tested in labs

  8. As it is used in the passage, the phrase "an open mind"(paragraph 11)refers to                 .

  A. an open minded person B. an absentminded person

  C. a generous person D. a modest attitude

  Ⅱ。 CONTEXTUAL REFERENCE

  Read the following article and figure out the meaning of the words in italics using the context given and wordbuilding skills.

  Science and the Future

  In preceding (previous)units,we have examined briefly some of the characteristics,methods,effects and problems of present day science. At this stage it may be worth considering a few of the ways in which it may develop in the near future,i.e. the next decade or so.

  To begin with,we can expect applied science to produce a vast (huge, enormous) increase in entirely new synthetic products of all kinds. These will range from light weight,high strength materials for use in the many specialized branches of engineering,to drugs and chemicals with a greatly increased selectivity which can be used in medicine and agriculture. However,in this latter case in particular,it may be predicted that the widespread application and combination of new and more complex products will give rise to unexpected inter reactions or side effects. For this reason,greatly intensified programmes of research will be required in order to discover and eliminate the harmful results of such combinations.

  Another point is that the rapid expansion of industrialization throughout the world must inevitably lead to a progressive exhaustion of natural resources. If we wish to counter balance these losses to some extent,we shall have to follow two main courses of action:(a) much greater efforts will have to be applied to conservation,particularly of such items as soil, water,fuels and minerals;(b) more efficient methods of exploitation and utilization will have to be developed.

  In the more developed countries,the automatization of industry(automation) will lead to a high degree of efficiency in the production of manufactured goods,and is likely to have far reaching social effects. For instance,workers will need to be more highly trained and more flexible - they will probably have to be capable of changing (shifting) from one skilled job to another - and they will also have more free time,as they will work fewer hours per day. This in turn will necessitate a considerable expansion and reorientation of education. Another result of automation should be to accelerate (speed up) the accumulation of surplus capital,which could then be made available for the purpose of assisting the emerging countries to solve some of the problems of underdevelopment. It should,however,be borne in mind that this process itself might involve a chain of difficulties,in this case of a political nature.

  ——from A Course in Basic Scientific English,Longman Group Ltd,London,1969 p.69

  Ⅲ。 CLOZE

  Complete the following passage by filling in the  blanks with appropriate words.

  Scientific Knowledge

  For me,scientific knowledge is divided into mathematical sciences,natural sciences or sciences dealing with the natural world (physical and biological sciences),and sciences dealing with mankind (psychology,sociology,all the sciences of cultural achievements,every kind of historical knowledge)。   1  from these sciences is philosophy,      2     which we will talk later. In the first     3,  all this is pure,     4     theoretical, knowledge, sought only     5     the purpose of understanding, in     6     to fulfill the need to understand     7     is intrinsic and consubstantial     8 man. What distinguishes man     9     animal is that he knows and   10   to know. If man did not 11     that the world existed, and that the   12   was of a certain kind, that he was   13   the world and that he himself was   14   a certain kind, he wouldnt    15   man. The technical   16     or applications of knowledge are   17   necessary for man and are of   18   importance, because they also cont

  ribute  19  defining him     20     man and permit him to pursue a life increasingly more truly human.

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