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GRE最新练习题第4部分

2006-07-06 22:27

  (20)ness and fitness. What would be the shape of the com-

  bustion chamber? Where should the valves be placed?

  Should it have a long or short piston? Such questions

  have a range of answers that are supplied by experience,

  by physical requirements, by limitations of available

  (25)space, and not least by a sense of form. Some decisions,

  such as wall thickness and pin diameter, may depend on

  scientific calculations, but the nonscientific component

  of design remains primary.

  Design courses, then, should be an essential element

  (30)in engineering curricula. Nonverbal thinking, a central

  mechanism in engineering design, involves perceptions,

  the stock-in-trade of the artist, not the scientist. Because

  perceptive processes are not assumed to entail “hard

  thinking,“ nonverbal thought is sometimes seen as a prim-

  (35)itive stage in the development of cognitive processes and

  inferior to verbal or mathematical thought. But it is para-

  doxical that when the staff of the Historic American

  Engineering Record wished to have drawings made of

  machines and isometric views of industrial processes for

  (40)its historical record of American engineering, the only

  college students with the requisite abilities were not engi-

  neering students, but rather students attending architec-

  tural schools.

  It courses in design, which in a strongly analytical

  (45)engineering curriculum provide the background required

  for practical problem- solving, are not provided, we can

  expect to encounter silly but costly errors occurring in

  advanced engineering systems. For example, early models

  of high-speed railroad cars loaded with sophisticated

  (50)controls were unable to operate in a snowstorm because

  a fan sucked snow into the electrical system. Absurd ran-

  dom failures that plague automatic control systems are

  not merely trivial aberrations; they are a reflection of the

  chaos that results when design is assumed to be primarily

  a problem in mathematics.

  21.In the passage, the author is primarily concerned

  with

  (A) identifying the kinds of thinking that are used

  by technologists

  (B) stressing the importance of nonverbal thinking

  in engineering design

  (C) proposing a new role for nonscientific thinking

  in the development of technology

  (D) contrasting the goals of engineers with those of

  technologists

  (E) criticizing engineering schools for emphasizing

  science in engineering curricula

  22.It can be inferred that the author thinks engineering

  curricula are

  (A) strengthened when they include courses in

  design

  (B) weakened by the substitution of physical

  science courses for courses designed to

  develop mathematical skills

  (C) strong because nonverbal thinking is still

  emphasized by most of the courses

  (D) strong despite the errors that graduates of such

  curricula have made in the development of

  automatic control systems

  (E) strong despite the absence of nonscientific

  modes of thinking

  23.Which of the following statements best illustrates

  the main point of lines 1-28 of the passage?

  (A) When a machine like a rotary engine mal-

  functions, it is the technologist who is best

  equipped to repair it.

  (B) Each component of an automobile-for

  example, the engine or the fuel tank-has a

  shape that has been scientifically determined

  to be best suited to that component's function

  (C) A telephone is a complex instrument designed

  by technologists using only nonverbal thought

  (D) The designer of a new refrigerator should

  consider the designs of other refrigerators

  before deciding on its final form.

  (E) The distinctive features of a suspension bridge

  reflect its designer's conceptualization as well

  as the physical requirements of its site.

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