外语教育网
您的位置:外语教育网 > 英语文化视窗 > 文学与艺术 > 散文 正文
  • 站内搜索:

瓦尔登湖:House-Warming2

2006-07-29 16:59

  Like the wasps, before I finally went into winter quarters in November, I used to resort to the northeast side of Walden, which the sun, reflected from the pitch pine woods and the stony shore,made the fireside of the pond; it is so much pleasanter and wholesomer to be warmed by the sun while you can be, than by an artificial fire.  I thus warmed myself by the still glowing embers which the summer, like a departed hunter, had left. When I came to build my chimney I studied masonry.  My bricks,being second-hand ones, required to be cleaned with a trowel, so that I learned more than usual of the qualities of bricks and trowels.  The mortar on them was fifty years old, and was said to be still growing harder; but this is one of those sayings which men love to repeat whether they are true or not.  Such sayings themselves grow harder and adhere more firmly with age, and it would take many blows with a trowel to clean an old wiseacre of them. Many of the villages of Mesopotamia are built of second-hand bricks of a very good quality, obtained from the ruins of Babylon, and the cement on them is older and probably harder still.  However that may be, I was struck by the peculiar toughness of the steel which bore so many violent blows without being worn out.  As my bricks had been in a chimney before, though I did not read the name of Nebuchadnezzar on them, I picked out its many fireplace bricks as I could find, to save work and waste, and I filled the spaces between the bricks about the fireplace with stones from the pond shore, and also made my mortar with the white sand from the same place.  I lingered most about the fireplace, as the most vital part of the house.  Indeed, I worked so deliberately, that though I commenced at the ground in the morning, a course of bricks raised a few inches above the floor served for my pillow at night; yet I did not get a stiff neck for it that I remember; my stiff neck is of older date. I took a poet to board for a fortnight about those times, which caused me to be put to it for room.  He brought his own knife,though I had two, and we used to scour them by thrusting them into the earth.  He shared with me the labors of cooking.  I was pleased to see my work rising so square and solid by degrees, and reflected,that, if it proceeded slowly, it was calculated to endure a long time.  The chimney is to some extent an independent structure,standing on the ground, and rising through the house to the heavens;even after the house is burned it still stands sometimes, and its importance and independence are apparent.  This was toward the end of summer.  It was now November.

  The north wind had already begun to cool the pond, though it took many weeks of steady blowing to accomplish it, it is so deep. When I began to have a fire at evening, before I plastered my house,the chimney carried smoke particularly well, because of the numerous chinks between the boards.  Yet I passed some cheerful evenings in that cool and airy apartment, surrounded by the rough brown boards full of knots, and rafters with the bark on high overhead.  My house never pleased my eye so much after it was plastered, though I was obliged to confess that it was more comfortable.  Should not every apartment in which man dwells be lofty enough to create some obscurity overhead, where flickering shadows may play at evening about the rafters?  These forms are more agreeable to the fancy and imagination than fresco paintings or other the most expensive furniture.  I now first began to inhabit my house, I may say, when I began to use it for warmth as well as shelter.  I had got a couple of old fire-dogs to keep the wood from the hearth, and it did me good to see the soot form on the back of the chimney which I had built, and I poked the fire with more right and more satisfaction than usual.  My dwelling was small, and I could hardly entertain an echo in it; but it seemed larger for being a single apartment and remote from neighbors.  All the attractions of a house were concentrated in one room; it was kitchen, chamber, parlor, and keeping-room; and whatever satisfaction parent or child, master or servant, derive from living in a house, I enjoyed it all.  Cato says, the master of a family (patremfamilias) must have in his rustic villa "cellam oleariam, vinariam, dolia multa, uti lubeat caritatem expectare, et rei, et virtuti, et gloriae erit," that is,"an oil and wine cellar, many casks, so that it may be pleasant to expect hard times; it will be for his advantage, and virtue, and glory."  I had in my cellar a firkin of potatoes, about two quarts of peas with the weevil in them, and on my shelf a little rice, a jug of molasses, and of rye and Indian meal a peck each.

  到十一月,就像那些黄蜂一样,在我躲避冬天之前,我也先到瓦尔登的东北岸去,在那里,太阳从苍松林和石岸上反映过来,成了湖上的炉火;趁你还能做到的时候,曝日取暖,这样做比生火取暖更加愉快,也更加卫生。夏天像猎人一样已经走掉了,我就这样烤着它所留下来的还在发光的余火。

  当我造烟囱的时候,我研究了泥水工的手艺。我的砖头都是旧货,必须用瓦刀刮干净,这样我对砖头和瓦刀的性质有了超出一般的了解。上面的灰浆已经有五十年历史,据说它愈经久愈牢固;就是这一种话,人们最爱反复他说,不管它们对不对。这种话的本身也愈经久而愈牢固了,必需用瓦刀一再猛击之,才能粉碎它,使一个自作聪明的老人不再说这种话。美索不达米亚的许多村子都是用从巴比伦废墟里拣来的质地很好的旧砖头造的,它们上面的水泥也许更老,也该更牢啦。不管怎么样,那瓦刀真厉害,用力猛击,丝毫无损于钢刃,简直叫我吃惊。我砌壁炉用的砖,都是以前一个烟囱里面的砖头,虽然并未刻上尼布甲尼撒的名字,我尽量拣。有多少就拣多少,以便减少工作和浪费,我在壁炉周围的砖头之间填塞了湖岸上的圆石,并且就用湖中的白沙来做我的灰浆。

  我为炉灶花了很多时间,把它作为寒舍最紧要的一部分。真的,我工作得很精细,虽然我是一清早就从地上开始工作的,到晚上却只叠起了离地不过数英寸高,我睡地板刚好用它代替枕头;然而我记得我并没有睡成了硬头颈;我的硬头颈倒是从前睡出来的。大约是这时候,我招待一个诗人来住了半个月,这使我腾不出地方来。他带来了他自己的刀子,我却有两柄呢,我们常常把刀子插进地里,这样来把它们擦干净。他帮我做饭。

  看到我的炉灶,方方正正、结结实实,渐渐升高起来,真是高兴,我想,虽说进展很慢,但据说这就可以更坚固些。在某种程度上,烟囱是一个独立体,站在地上,穿过屋子,升上天空;就是房子烧掉了,它有时候还站着,它的独立性和重要性是显而易见的。当时还是快近夏末。现在却是十一月了。

  北风已经开始把湖水吹凉,虽然还要不断地再吹几个星期才能结冰,湖太深了。当我第一天晚上生了火,烟在烟囱里通行无阻,异常美妙,因为墙壁有很多漏风的缝,那时我还没有给板壁涂上灰浆。然而,我在这寒冷通风的房间内过了几个愉快的晚上,四周尽是些有节疤的棕色木板,而椽木是连树皮的,高高的在头顶上页。后来涂上了灰浆,我就格外喜欢我的房子。我不能不承认这样格外舒服。人住的每一所房子难道不应该顶上很高,高得有些隐晦的感觉吗?到了晚上,火光投射的影子就可以在椽木之上跳跃了。

  这种影子的形态,比起壁画或最值钱的家具来,应该是更适合于幻觉与想象的。现在我可以说,我是第一次住在我自己的房子里了,第一次用以蔽风雨,并且取暖了。我还用了两个旧的薪架以使木柴脱空,当我看到我亲手造的烟囱的背后积起了烟怠,我很欣慰,我比平常更加有权威、更加满意地拨火。固然我的房子很小,无法引起回声;但作为一个单独的房间,和邻居又离得很远,这就显得大一点了。一幢房屋内应有的一切都集中在这一个房间内;它是厨房,寝室,客厅兼储藏室;无论是父母或孩子,主人或仆役,他们住在一个房子里所得到的一切,我统统享受到了。卡托说,一个家庭的主人(patr emfa-milias)必须在他的乡居别墅中,具有“cellam oleariam,vinariam ,dolia m ulta,uti lubeat caritatem expectare,etrei,et virtuti,et gloriae erit,”

  也就是说,“一个放油放酒的地窖,放进许多桶去预防艰难的日子,这是于他有利的,有价值的,光荣的。”在我的地窖中,我有一小桶的土豆,大约两夸脱的豌豆,连带它们的象鼻虫,在我的架上,还有一点儿米,一缸糖浆,还有黑麦和印第安玉米粉,各一配克。

相关热词:英语 文学 散文
栏目相关课程表
科目名称 主讲老师 课时 免费试听 优惠价 购买课程
英语零起点 郭俊霞 30课时 试听 150元/门 购买
综艺乐园 ------ 15课时 试听 100元/门 购买
边玩边学 ------ 10课时 试听 60元/门 购买
情景喜剧 ------ 15课时 试听 100元/门 购买
欢乐课堂 ------ 35课时 试听 150元/门 购买
趣味英语速成 钟 平 18课时 试听 179元/门 购买
剑桥少儿英语预备级 (Pre-Starters) ------ ------ 试听 200元/门 购买
剑桥少儿英语一级 (Starters) ------ ------ 试听 200元/门 购买
剑桥少儿英语二级 (Movers) ------ ------ 试听 200元/门 购买
剑桥少儿英语三级 (Flyers) ------ ------ 试听 200元/门 购买
初级英语口语 ------ 55课时 ------ 350元/门 购买
中级英语口语 ------ 83课时 ------ 350元/门 购买
高级英语口语 ------ 122课时 ------ 350元/门 购买
基础英语辅导课程
郭俊霞 北京语言大学毕业,国内某知名中学英语教研组长,教学标兵……详情>>
郭俊霞:零基础英语网上辅导名师
钟平 北大才俊,英语辅导专家,累计从事英语教学八年,机械化翻译公式发明人……详情>>
钟平:趣味英语速成网上辅导名师

  1、凡本网注明 “来源:外语教育网”的所有作品,版权均属外语教育网所有,未经本网授权不得转载、链接、转贴或以其他方式使用;已经本网授权的,应在授权范围内使用,且必须注明“来源:外语教育网”。违反上述声明者,本网将追究其法律责任。
  2、本网部分资料为网上搜集转载,均尽力标明作者和出处。对于本网刊载作品涉及版权等问题的,请作者与本网站联系,本网站核实确认后会尽快予以处理。本网转载之作品,并不意味着认同该作品的观点或真实性。如其他媒体、网站或个人转载使用,请与著作权人联系,并自负法律责任。
  3、联系方式
  编辑信箱:for68@chinaacc.com
  电话:010-82319999-2371