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瓦尔登湖:种豆5

2006-07-29 00:50

  But to be more particular, for it is complained that Mr. Coleman has reported chiefly the expensive experiments of gentlemen farmers,my outgoes were,——For a hoe …… $ 0.54 Plowing, harrowing, and furrowing ……  7.50  Too much. Beans for seed ……  3.12+ Potatoes for seed ……  1.33 Peas for seed ……  0.40 Turnip seed ……  0.06 White line for crow fence ……  0.02 Horse cultivator and boy three hours ……  1.00 Horse and cart to get crop ……  0.75

  In all …… $14.72+ My income was (patrem familias vendacem, non emacem esse oportet), from Nine bushels and twelve quarts of beans sold …… $16.94 Five    "    large potatoes …… 2.50 Nine    "    small …… 2.25 Grass …… 1.00 Stalks ……

  In all …… $23.44 Leaving a pecuniary profit,as I have elsewhere said, of …… $ 8.71+ This is the result of my experience in raising beans:  Plant the common small white bush bean about the first of June, in rows three feet by eighteen inches apart, being careful to select fresh round and unmixed seed.  First look out for worms, and supply vacancies by planting anew.  Then look out for woodchucks, if it is an exposed place, for they will nibble off the earliest tender leaves almost clean as they go; and again, when the young tendrils make their appearance, they have notice of it, and will shear them off with both buds and young pods, sitting erect like a squirrel.  But above all harvest as early as possible, if you would escape frosts and have a fair and salable crop; you may save much loss by this means. This further experience also I gained:  I said to myself, I will not plant beans and corn with so much industry another summer, but such seeds, if the seed is not lost, as sincerity, truth,simplicity, faith, innocence, and the like, and see if they will not grow in this soil, even with less toil and manurance, and sustain me, for surely it has not been exhausted for these crops.  Alas!  I said this to myself; but now another summer is gone, and another,and another, and I am obliged to say to you, Reader, that the seeds which I planted, if indeed they were the seeds of those virtues,were wormeaten or had lost their vitality, and so did not come up. Commonly men will only be brave as their fathers were brave, or timid.  This generation is very sure to plant corn and beans each new year precisely as the Indians did centuries ago and taught the first settlers to do, as if there were a fate in it.  I saw an old man the other day, to my astonishment, making the holes with a hoe for the seventieth time at least, and not for himself to lie down in!  But why should not the New Englander try new adventures, and not lay so much stress on his grain, his potato and grass crop, and his orchards —— raise other crops than these?  Why concern ourselves so much about our beans for seed, and not be concerned at all about a new generation of men?  We should really be fed and cheered if when we met a man we were sure to see that some of the qualities which I have named, which we all prize more than those other productions, but which are for the most part broadcast and floating in the air, had taken root and grown in him.  Here comes such a subtile and ineffable quality, for instance, as truth or justice,though the slightest amount or new variety of it, along the road. Our ambassadors should be instructed to send home such seeds as these, and Congress help to distribute them over all the land.  We should never stand upon ceremony with sincerity.  We should never cheat and insult and banish one another by our meanness, if there were present the kernel of worth and friendliness.  We should not meet thus in haste.  Most men I do not meet at all, for they seem not to have time; they are busy about their beans.  We would not deal with a man thus plodding ever, leaning on a hoe or a spade as a staff between his work, not as a mushroom, but partially risen out of the earth, something more than erect, like swallows alighted and walking on the ground:——"And as he spake, his wings would now and then Spread, as he meant to fly, then close again ——" y, truth,simplicity, faith, innocence, and the like, and see if they will not grow in this soil, even with less toil and manurance, and sustain me, for surely it has not been exhausted for these crops.  Alas!  I said this to myself; but now another summer is gone, and another,and another, and I am obliged to say to you, Reader, that the seeds which I planted, if indeed they were the seeds of those virtues,were wormeaten or had lost their vitality, and so did not come up. Commonly men will only be brave as their fathers were brave, or timid.  This generation is very sure to plant corn and beans each new year precisely as the Indians did centuries ago and taught the first settlers to do, as if there were a fate in it.  I saw an old man the other day, to my astonishment, making the holes with a hoe for the seventieth time at least, and not for himself to lie down in!  But why should not the New Englander try new adventures, and not lay so much stress on his grain, his potato and grass crop, and his orchards —— raise other crops than these?  Why concern ourselves so much about our beans for seed, and not be concerned at all about a new generation of men?  We should really be fed and cheered if when we met a man we were sure to see that some of the qualities which I have named, which we all prize more than those other productions, but which are for the most part broadcast and floating in the air, had taken root and grown in him.  Here comes such a subtile and ineffable quality, for instance, as truth or justice,though the slightest amount or new variety of it, along the road. Our ambassadors should be instructed to send home such seeds as these, and Congress help to distribute them over all the land.  We should never stand upon ceremony with sincerity.  We should never cheat and insult and banish one another by our meanness, if there were present the kernel of worth and friendliness.  We should not meet thus in haste.  Most men I do not meet at all, for they seem not to have time; they are busy about their beans.  We would not deal with a man thus plodding ever, leaning on a hoe or a spade as a staff between his work, not as a mushroom, but partially risen out of the earth, something more than erect, like swallows alighted and walking on the ground:——"And as he spake, his wings would now and then Spread, as he meant to fly, then close again ——"

  为了更仔细起见,也因为柯尔门先生所报告的主要是有身份的农夫的豪华的试验,曾有人表示不满,现将我的收入支出列表如下:一柄锄头……O.五四耕耘挖沟……七。五0——过昂了豆种子……三。一二五土豆种子……一。三三豌豆种子……O.四0萝卜种子……O.O六篱笆白线……O.o二耕马及三小时雇工……一。OO收获时用马及车……0.七五共计……一四。七二五元我的收入(patremfamillias vendacem,non emacem ess eoportet),来自卖出九蒲式耳十二夸特之豆……一六。九四五蒲式耳大土豆……二。五0九蒲式耳小土豆……二。二五草……一。OO茎……O.七五共计……二三。四四元赢余(正如我在别处所说……八。七一五元这就是我种豆经验的结果:约在六月一日,播下那小小的白色的豆种,三英尺长十八英寸的间距,种成行列,挑选的是那新鲜的、圆的、没有掺杂的种子。要注意虫子,再在没有出苗的位置上补种苗。然后提防土拨鼠,那片田地如果曝露在外,它们会把刚刚生长出来的嫩叶子一口气都啃光的;而且,在嫩卷须延展出来之后,它们还是会注意到的,它们会直坐着,像松鼠一样,把蓓蕾和初生的豆荚一起啃掉。尤其要紧的是,如果你要它避免霜冻,并且容易把豆子卖掉,那你就尽可能早点收获;这样便可以使你免掉许多损失。

  我还获得了下面的更丰富的经验:我对我自己说,下一个夏天,我不要花那么大的劳力来种豆子和玉米了,我将种这样一些种子,像诚实,真理,纯朴,信心,天真等等,如果这些种子并没有失落,看看它们能否在这片土地上生长,能否以较少劳力和肥料,来维持我的生活,因为,地力一定还没有消耗到不能种这些东西。唉!我对自己说过这些话,可是,现在又一个夏季过去了,而且又一个又一个地都过去了,我不得不告诉你们,读者啊,我所种下的种子,如果是这些美德的种子,那就都给虫子吃掉了,或者是已失去了生机,都没有长出苗来呢。人通常只能像他们的祖先一样勇敢或怯懦。这一代人每一年所种的玉米和豆子,必然和印第安人在几个世纪之前所种的一样,那是他们教给最初来到的移民的,仿佛命该如此,难以改变了。有一天,我还看见过一个老头子,使我惊讶不已,他用一把锄头挖洞至少挖了第七十次了,但他自己却不预备躺在里面。

  为什么新英格兰人不应该尝试尝试新的事业,不要过分地看重他的玉米,他的土豆、草料和他的果园,——而种植一些别的东西呢?为什么偏要这样关心豆子的种子而一点也不关心新一代的人类呢?我前面说起的那些品德,我们认为它们高于其他产物,如果我们遇到一个人,看到他具有我说到过的那些品德,那些飘荡四散于空中的品德已经在他那里扎根而且生长了,那时我们真应该感到满意和高兴。这里来了这样一种难以捉摸而且不可言喻的品德,例如真理或公正,虽然量极少,虽然还是一个新的品种,然而它是沿着大路而来了。我们的大使应该接到一些训令,去选择好品种,寄回国内来,然后我们的国会把它们分发到全国各地去种植。我们不应该虚伪地对待真诚。如果高贵与友情的精华已为我们所有,我们绝对不应该再让我们的卑鄙来互相欺骗、互相侮辱、排斥彼此。我们也不应该匆忙相见。大多数人我根本没有见过,似乎他们没有时间,他们忙着他们的豆子呢。我们不要跟这样的忙人往来,他在工作间歇时倚身在锄头上或铲子上,仿佛倚身在手杖上,不像一只香菌,却只有一部分是从土地中升起来的,不完全是笔直的,像燕子停落下来,在大地上行走着,——“说话时,他的翅膀不时张开,像要飞动,却又垂下了,——”

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