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2006-07-29 17:02

  At length the winter set in good earnest, just as I had finished plastering, and the wind began to howl around the house as if it had not had permission to do so till then.  Night after night the geese came lumbering in the dark with a clangor and a whistling of wings,even after the ground was covered with snow, some to alight in Walden, and some flying low over the woods toward Fair Haven, bound for Mexico.  Several times, when returning from the village at ten or eleven o'clock at night, I heard the tread of a flock of geese,or else ducks, on the dry leaves in the woods by a pond-hole behind my dwelling, where they had come up to feed, and the faint honk or quack of their leader as they hurried off.  In 1845 Walden froze entirely over for the first time on the night of the 22d of December, Flint's and other shallower ponds and the river having been frozen ten days or more; in '46, the 16th; in '49, about the 31st; and in '50, about the 27th of December; in '52, the 5th of January; in '53, the 31st of December.  The snow had already covered the ground since the 25th of November, and surrounded me suddenly with the scenery of winter.  I withdrew yet farther into my shell,and endeavored to keep a bright fire both within my house and within my breast.  My employment out of doors now was to collect the dead wood in the forest, bringing it in my hands or on my shoulders, or sometimes trailing a dead pine tree under each arm to my shed.  An old forest fence which had seen its best days was a great haul for me.  I sacrificed it to Vulcan, for it was past serving the god Terminus.  How much more interesting an event is that man's supper who has just been forth in the snow to hunt, nay, you might say,steal, the fuel to cook it with!  His bread and meat are sweet. There are enough fagots and waste wood of all kinds in the forests of most of our towns to support many fires, but which at present warm none, and, some think, hinder the growth of the young wood. There was also the driftwood of the pond.  In the course of the summer I had discovered a raft of pitch pine logs with the bark on,pinned together by the Irish when the railroad was built.  This I hauled up partly on the shore.  After soaking two years and then lying high six months it was perfectly sound, though waterlogged past drying.  I amused myself one winter day with sliding this piecemeal across the pond, nearly half a mile, skating behind with one end of a log fifteen feet long on my shoulder, and the other on the ice; or I tied several logs together with a birch withe, and then, with a longer birch or alder which had a book at the end,dragged them across.  Though completely waterlogged and almost as heavy as lead, they not only burned long, but made a very hot fire;nay, I thought that they burned better for the soaking, as if the pitch, being confined by the water, burned longer, as in a lamp.

  Gilpin, in his account of the forest borderers of England, says that "the encroachments of trespassers, and the houses and fences thus raised on the borders of the forest," were "considered as great nuisances by the old forest law, and were severely punished under the name of purprestures, as tending ad terrorem ferarum —— ad nocumentum forestae, etc.," to the frightening of the game and the detriment of the forest.  But I was interested in the preservation of the venison and the vert more than the hunters or woodchoppers,and as much as though I had been the Lord Warden himself; and if any part was burned, though I burned it myself by accident, I grieved with a grief that lasted longer and was more inconsolable than that of the proprietors; nay, I grieved when it was cut down by the proprietors themselves.  I would that our farmers when they cut down a forest felt some of that awe which the old Romans did when they came to thin, or let in the light to, a consecrated grove (lucum conlucare), that is, would believe that it is sacred to some god. The Roman made an expiatory offering, and prayed, Whatever god or goddess thou art to whom this grove is sacred, be propitious to me,my family, and children, etc.

  It is remarkable what a value is still put upon wood even in this age and in this new country, a value more permanent and universal than that of gold.  After all our discoveries and inventions no man will go by a pile of wood.  It is as precious to us as it was to our Saxon and Norman ancestors.  If they made their bows of it, we make our gun-stocks of it.  Michaux, more than thirty years ago, says that the price of wood for fuel in New York and Philadelphia "nearly equals, and sometimes exceeds, that of the best wood in Paris, though this immense capital annually requires more than three hundred thousand cords, and is surrounded to the distance of three hundred miles by cultivated plains."  In this town the price of wood rises almost steadily, and the only question is, how much higher it is to be this year than it was the last.  Mechanics and tradesmen who come in person to the forest on no other errand,are sure to attend the wood auction, and even pay a high price for the privilege of gleaning after the woodchopper.  It is now many years that men have resorted to the forest for fuel and the materials of the arts: the New Englander and the New Hollander, the Parisian and the Celt, the farmer and Robin Hood, Goody Blake and Harry Gill; in most parts of the world the prince and the peasant,the scholar and the savage, equally require still a few sticks from the forest to warm them and cook their food.  Neither could I do without them.

  Every man looks at his wood-pile with a kind of affection.  I love to have mine before my window, and the more chips the better to remind me of my pleasing work.  I had an old axe which nobody claimed, with which by spells in winter days, on the sunny side of the house, I played about the stumps which I had got out of my bean-field.  As my driver prophesied when I was plowing, they warmed me twice —— once while I was splitting them, and again when they were on the fire, so that no fuel could give out more heat.  As for the axe, I was advised to get the village blacksmith to "jump" it;but I jumped him, and, putting a hickory helve from the woods into it, made it do.  If it was dull, it was at least hung true.

  A few pieces of fat pine were a great treasure.  It is interesting to remember how much of this food for fire is still concealed in the bowels of the earth.  In previous years I had often gone prospecting over some bare hillside, where a pitch pine wood had formerly stood, and got out the fat pine roots.  They are almost indestructible.  Stumps thirty or forty years old, at least, will still be sound at the core, though the sapwood has all become vegetable mould, as appears by the scales of the thick bark forming a ring level with the earth four or five inches distant from the heart.  With axe and shovel you explore this mine, and follow the marrowy store, yellow as beef tallow, or as if you had struck on a vein of gold, deep into the earth.  But commonly I kindled my fire with the dry leaves of the forest, which I had stored up in my shed before the snow came.  Green hickory finely split makes the woodchopper's kindlings, when he has a camp in the woods.  Once in a while I got a little of this.  When the villagers were lighting their fires beyond the horizon, I too gave notice to the various wild inhabitants of Walden vale, by a smoky streamer from my chimney, that I was awake.——

  Light-winged Smoke, Icarian bird,Melting thy pinions in thy upward flight,Lark without song, and messenger of dawn,Circling above the hamlets as thy nest;Or else, departing dream, and shadowy form Of midnight vision, gathering up thy skirts;By night star-veiling, and by day Darkening the light and blotting out the sun;Go thou my incense upward from this hearth,And ask the gods to pardon this clear flame.

  Hard green wood just cut, though I used but little of that,answered my purpose better than any other.  I sometimes left a good fire when I went to take a walk in a winter afternoon; and when I returned, three or four hours afterward, it would be still alive and glowing.  My house was not empty though I was gone.  It was as if I had left a cheerful housekeeper behind.  It was I and Fire that lived there; and commonly my housekeeper proved trustworthy.  One day, however, as I was splitting wood, I thought that I would just look in at the window and see if the house was not on fire; it was the only time I remember to have been particularly anxious on this score; so I looked and saw that a spark had caught my bed, and I went in and extinguished it when it had burned a place as big as my hand.  But my house occupied so sunny and sheltered a position, and its roof was so low, that I could afford to let the fire go out in the middle of almost any winter day. The moles nested in my cellar, nibbling every third potato, and making a snug bed even there of some hair left after plastering and of brown paper; for even the wildest animals love comfort and warmth as well as man, and they survive the winter only because they are so careful to secure them.  Some of my friends spoke as if I was coming to the woods on purpose to freeze myself.  The animal merely makes a bed, which he warms with his body, in a sheltered place; but man,having discovered fire, boxes up some air in a spacious apartment,and warms that, instead of robbing himself, makes that his bed, in which he can move about divested of more cumbrous clothing, maintain a kind of summer in the midst of winter, and by means of windows even admit the light, and with a lamp lengthen out the day.  Thus he goes a step or two beyond instinct, and saves a little time for the fine arts.  Though, when I had been exposed to the rudest blasts a long time, my whole body began to grow torpid, when I reached the genial atmosphere of my house I soon recovered my faculties and prolonged my life.  But the most luxuriously housed has little to boast of in this respect, nor need we trouble ourselves to speculate how the human race may be at last destroyed.  It would be easy to cut their threads any time with a little sharper blast from the north.  We go on dating from Cold Fridays and Great Snows; but a little colder Friday, or greater snow would put a period to man's existence on the globe. The next winter I used a small cooking-stove for economy, since I did not own the forest; but it did not keep fire so well as the open fireplace.  Cooking was then, for the most part, no longer a poetic, but merely a chemic process.  It will soon be forgotten, in these days of stoves, that we used to roast potatoes in the ashes,after the Indian fashion.  The stove not only took up room and scented the house, but it concealed the fire, and I felt as if I had lost a companion.  You can always see a face in the fire.  The laborer, looking into it at evening, purifies his thoughts of the dross and earthiness which they have accumulated during the day. But I could no longer sit and look into the fire, and the pertinent words of a poet recurred to me with new force.——

  "Never, bright flame, may be denied to me Thy dear, life imaging, close sympathy. What but my hopes shot upward e'er so bright?

  What but my fortunes sunk so low in night?

  Why art thou banished from our hearth and hall,Thou who art welcomed and beloved by all?

  Was thy existence then too fanciful For our life's common light, who are so dull?

  Did thy bright gleam mysterious converse hold With our congenial souls? secrets too bold?

  Well, we are safe and strong, for now we sit Beside a hearth where no dim shadows flit,Where nothing cheers nor saddens, but a fire Warms feet and hands —— nor does to more aspire;By whose compact utilitarian heap The present may sit down and go to sleep,Nor fear the ghosts who from the dim past walked,And with us by the unequal light of the old wood fire talked."



  吉尔平在他的英格兰森林中的居民记录里面,写着:“一些人侵占了土地,在森林中就这样筑了篱笆,造了屋子,”在“古老的森林法规中,这是被认为很有害的而要以强占土地的罪名重罚的,因为ad terrorem ferarum——ad nocumentum fore-stae等等”

  使飞禽恐惧,使森林受损。可是我比猎者或伐木者更关心野味和森林保护,仿佛我自己便是护林官一样;假若它有一部分给烧掉了,即便是我自己不小心烧掉的,我也要大为悲伤,比任何一个森林主本人都要哀痛得更长久,而且更无法安慰。我希望我们的农夫在砍伐一个森林的时候,能够感觉到那种恐惧,好像古罗马人士在使一个神圣森林(lu cum conlucare)里的树木更稀些,以便放阳光进来的时候所感觉到的恐惧一样,因为他们觉得这个森林是属于一些天神的。罗马人先赎罪,后析祷,无论你是男神或女神,这森林是因你而神圣的,愿你赐福给我,给我的家庭和我的孩子们,等等。



















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