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瓦尔登湖:村子2

2006-07-29 00:54

  One afternoon, near the end of the first summer, when I went to the village to get a shoe from the cobbler's, I was seized and put into jail, because, as I have elsewhere related, I did not pay a tax to, or recognize the authority of, the State which buys and sells men, women, and children, like cattle, at the door of its senate-house.  I had gone down to the woods for other purposes. But, wherever a man goes, men will pursue and paw him with their dirty institutions, and, if they can, constrain him to belong to their desperate odd-fellow society.  It is true, I might have resisted forcibly with more or less effect, might have run "amok" against society; but I preferred that society should run "amok" against me, it being the desperate party.  However, I was released the next day, obtained my mended shoe, and returned to the woods in season to get my dinner of huckleberries on Fair Haven Hill.  I was never molested by any person but those who represented the State.  I had no lock nor bolt but for the desk which held my papers, not even a nail to put over my latch or windows.  I never fastened my door night or day, though I was to be absent several days; not even when the next fall I spent a fortnight in the woods of Maine.  And yet my house was more respected than if it had been surrounded by a file of soldiers.  The tired rambler could rest and warm himself by my fire,the literary amuse himself with the few books on my table, or the curious, by opening my closet door, see what was left of my dinner,and what prospect I had of a supper.  Yet, though many people of every class came this way to the pond, I suffered no serious inconvenience from these sources, and I never missed anything but one small book, a volume of Homer, which perhaps was improperly gilded, and this I trust a soldier of our camp has found by this time.  I am convinced, that if all men were to live as simply as I then did, thieving and robbery would be unknown.  These take place only in communities where some have got more than is sufficient while others have not enough.  The Pope's Homers would soon get properly distributed.

  "Nec bella fuerunt,

  Faginus astabat dum scyphus ante dapes."

  "Nor wars did men molest,

  When only beechen bowls were in request."

  "You who govern public affairs, what need have you to employ punishments?  Love virtue, and the people will be virtuous.  The virtues of a superior man are like the wind; the virtues of a common man are like the grass —— I the grass, when the wind passes over it,bends."

  有一天下午,在我的第一个夏天将要结束的时候,我进村子里去,找鞋匠拿一只鞋子,我被捕了,给关进了监狱里去,因为正如我在另外一篇文章里面说明了的,我拒绝付税给国家,甚至不承认这个国家的权力,这个国家在议会门口把男人、女人和孩子当牛马一样地买卖。我本来是为了别的事到森林中去的。但是,不管一个人走到哪里,人间的肮脏的机关总要跟他到哪里,伸出于来攫取他,如果他们能够办到,总要强迫他回到属于他那共济会式的社会中。真的,我本可以强悍地抵抗一下,多少可以有点结果的,我本可以疯狂地反对社会,但是我宁可让社会疯狂地来反对我,因为它才是那绝望的一方。然而第二天我被释放出来了,还是拿到了那只修补过的鞋子,回到林中正好赶上在美港山上大嚼一顿越橘。除了那些代表这国的人物之外,我没有受到过任何人的骚扰。

  除了放我的稿件的桌子之外,我没有用锁,没有闩门,在我的窗子上,梢子上,也没有一只钉子。我日夜都不锁门,尽管我要出门好几天;在接下来的那个秋天,我到缅因的林中去住了半个月,我也没有锁门。然而我的房屋比周围驻扎着大兵还要受到尊敬。疲劳的闲游者可以在我的火炉边休息,并且取暖,我桌上的几本书可以供文学爱好者来翻阅,或者那些好奇的人,打开了我的橱门,也可以看我还剩下什么饭菜,更可以知道我晚餐将吃些什么。虽然各个阶级都有不少人跑到湖边来,我却没有因此而有多大的不便,我什么也没有丢,只少了一部小书,那是一卷荷马,大概因为封面镀金镀坏了,我想这是兵营中的一个士兵拿走的。我确实相信,如果所有的人都生活得跟我一样简单,愉窃和抢劫便不会发生了。发生这样的事,原因是社会上有的人得到的多于足够,而另一些人得到的却又少于足够。蒲伯译的荷马应该立刻适当地传播……

  “Nec bella fuerunt,Faginus astabat dum scyphus ante dapes.”

  “世人不会战争,在所需只是山毛榉的碗碟时。”“子为政。焉用杀。子欲善。而民善矣。君子之德风。小人之德草。草上之风。必偃。”

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