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考研英语完形填空的做题思路及方法

2006-8-11 05:20  

  考研英语完形填空的解题原则是以上下文的内容为衡量标准。有不少题目在设计上非常注重干扰项在语法结构上的合理性,使四个选项在语法上均无懈可击。还有的干扰项从局部角度讲可以被认可,例如在短语或单句层面上符合习惯搭配或逻辑表达。但当这些词置于全文大背景中便显出破绽:要么前后矛盾,要么与主题不相关。由此可见,短文本身是一个语篇整体,在解题中千万不能脱离上下文去“就事论事”。相反,小圈子里的疑团解不开时,放眼“外围”语境,或许能得到意外的惊喜,甚至是现成的答案。

  从某种意义上讲,完形填空与阅读理解之间的关系最密切。实际上,完形填空的第一关便是阅读理解,或者说阅读理解是完形填空测试的一部分内容,所检测的阅读理解能力渗透在每一小题的解题过程中。完形填空解题的首要步骤是将短文的大意理解清楚。

  完形填空是将语法和词汇题放在语篇中考,所以与单纯的语法题和词汇题不同。考生在备考时不但要花力气去背记语法要点和积累词汇,还要注意单词在使用中的搭配习惯和用法上各自不同的特点及同义词之间的差别等。另外,还要学会通过语境暗示推断词义和连词的用法,及词与词、句与句、段与段之间的关系(到底是并列、选择、转折还是递进、让步、因果等)。

  一、根据语法进行选择1. As soon as the children were ______, their mother got them out of bed and into the bathroom. A. woke B. awoke C. awake D. waken

  2. People who live in a small village are bond to see a good ______ of each other. A. sum B. quantity C. deal D. amount

  3. Mr. John cooks the food _______ as the best cooks in Europe. A. as good B. as better C. better D. as well

  4. ______ the danger from enemy action, people had to cope with a severe shortage of food, clothing, fuel, and almost everything. A. As far as B. As long as C. As well as D. As soon as

  5. A good many proposals were raised by the delegates, ______ was to be expected. A. that B. what C. so D. as

  6. When the work is well done, a climate of accident-free operations is established _____ time lost due to injuries is kept at a minimum. (99)

  A. where B. how C. what D. unless

  7. Companies ______ low accident rates plan their safety programs, …。 (99)

  A. at B. in C. on D. with

  8. There are thirteen or more of them (维生素), and if ______ is missing a deficiency disease becomes apparent. (96)

  A. any B. some C. anything D. something

  9. of the two books holds the opinion that the danger of nuclear war is increasing. A. None B. Either C. Both D. Any

  二、根据词汇的固定搭配选定答案 (此类所占比例较大):1. I'd like to take ______ of this opportunity to thank you all for your co-operation. A. profit B. benefit C. advantage D. occasion

  2. His natural intelligence and his experience enabled him to ______ with the problem. A. find B. deal C. solve D. finish

  3. Housewives who do not go out to work feel they are not working to their full ______. A. capacity B. strength C. length D. possibility

  4. Jack had difficulty in swimming across the Yangtze River but he finally succeeded at his fifth _______. A. process B. display C. trial D. attempt

  5. It would be ______ a risk to let the child cross the street by himself. A. passing B. carrying C. following D. running

  6. Vitamins are needed for _____ foods into energy and body maintenance. (96)

  A. shifting B. transferring C. altering D. transforming

  7. …… and each vitamin _______ one or more specific functions in the body. (96)

  A. undertakes B. holds C. plays D. performs

  8. In mobile American society, interclass marriages are neither 1 nor shocking. Interfaith marriages are 2 the rise particularly between Protestants and Catholics. On the other hand, interracial marriage is still very uncommon. It can be difficult for interracial couples to find a place to live, maintain friendships, and 3 a family. 1. A. scarceB. rareC. scaredD. relieved 2. A. inB. atC. onD. for 3. A. raiseB. obtainC. growD. unite

  三、根据句子及上下文的意思选定答案:1. _______ there is a snowstorm or some other bad weather, the mail always comes on time. A. Because B. Unless C. As D. So

  2. Because of the poor harvest, wheat prices have _______ in the last six months. A. added B. worked C. jumped D. amounted

  3. Tom wants to learn more about the British political system, but he doesn't know where to get the _______. A. situation B. information C. conversation D. association

  4. Purchasing the new production line will be a _______ deal for the company. A. profitable B. tremendous C. forceful D. favorite

  5. Nowadays buildings must get _______ from the Planning Authority before putting up new houses. A. allowance B. permission C. liberty D. notice

  四、区别选项中的同义词或近义词:1. Social ______ vary greatly from country to country. A. customs B. traditions C. habit D. practice

  2. The strong storm did a lot of damage to the coastal villages: several fishing boats were ______ and many houses collapsed. A. wrecked B. spoiled C. torn D. injured

  3. On New Year's Eve, New York City holds an outdoor ______ which attracts a crowd of a million or more people. A. incident B. event C. case D. affair

  4. Arriving home, the boy told his parents about all the ______ which occurred in his dormitory. A. occasions B. matters C. incidents D. issues

  5. You shouldn't have written in the ______ since the book belongs to the library. A. interval B. border C. margin D. edge

  五、区分选项中的形似词或同音词:1. When you play a game, the guy with whom you are playing against is your _______. A. opposition B. opposite C. opposing D. opponent

  2. Our hopes _______ and fell in the same instant. A. aroused B. arose C. raised D. rose

  3. I hate people who ______ the end of a film that you haven't seen before. A. reveal B. rewrite C. revise D. reverse

  4. We should concentrate on sharply reducing interest rates to pull the economy out of ____. A. rejection B. restriction C. retreat D. recession

  5. They are trying to ______ the waste discharged by the factory for profit. A. expose B. exhaust C. exhibit D. exploit

  六、根据句子的逻辑关系选定答案(理解句子意思,注意句中一正一反的表达):1. Before I noticed some slight difference, I had thought the recorders were _______. A. equivalent B. identical C. artificial D. occasional

  2. Some of the suggestions have been accepted but others have been ______. A. projected B. rejected C. objected D. subjected

  3. A culture in which the citizens share similar religious beliefs and values is more likely to have laws that represent the wishes of its people than is a culture where citizens come from _____ backgrounds. A. extensive B. influential C. diverse D identical

  4. ______ I admire David as a poet, I do not like him as a man. A. Much as B. Only if C. If only D. As much

  5. When I go out in the evening I use the bike ______ the car if I can. A. rather than B. regardless of C. in spite of D. other than

  7. Some place great emphasis on mechanical guarding. Others stress safe work practices by observing rules or regulations. _ __ others depend on an emotional appeal to the worker. A. Some B. Many C. Even D. Still

  6. (1) industrial giants like General Motors and IBM struggle to survive by reducing the number of employees, Manpower, based in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, is booming. (2) its economy continues to recover, the US is increasingly becoming a nation of part-timers and temporary workers. (97年)

  (1)。 A. For B. Because C. As D. Since(2)。 A. Even though B. Now that C. If only D. Provided that

  9. Most worthwhile careers require some kind of specialized training. Ideally, therefore, the choice of an 1 should be made even before the choice of a curriculum in high school. Actually, 2 , most people make several job choices during their working lives, 3 because of economic and industrial changes and partly to improve 4 positions. The “one perfect job” does not exist. Young people should 5 enter into a broad flexible training program that will 6 them for a field of work rather than for a single 7 . 1) A. identificationB. entertainmentC. occupationD. accommodation 2) A. thereforeB. howeverC. thoughD. thereby 3) A. entirelyB. mainlyC. largelyD. partly 4) A. itsB. hisC. theirD. our 5) A. thereforeB. sinceC. furthermoreD. forever 6) A. fitB. makeC. takeD. leave 7) A. wayB. job C. means D. company

  8. There can be no question about the value of a safety program. From a financial standpoint alone, safety 1 . The fewer the injury 2 , the better the workman's insurance rate. This may mean the difference between operating at 3 or at a loss. 1. A. comes offB. turns upC. pays offD. holds up 2. A. claimsB. reportsC. declarationsD. proclamations 3. A. an advantageB. a benefitC. an interestD. a profit

  七、根据句意并辨析短语进行选择:1. She ______ her trip to New York because she was ill. A. called off B. closed down C. put up D. went off

  2. Whenever a big company ______ a small one, the product almost always gets worse. A. gets on with B. cuts down C. takes over D. puts up with

  3. The continuous rain ______ the harvesting of the wheat crop by two weeks. A. set back B. set off C. set out D. set aside

  4. Computer technology will ______ a revolution in business administration. A. bring around B. bring about C. bring out D. bring up

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