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Perusing the Parthenon 走访帕得嫩神庙

2006-08-19 09:36

    An immense, columned temple built almost entirely of marble, Athens's ancient Parthenon is the consummate example of classical Greek architecture. Its legendary balance was achieved through a number of devices employed to counteract certain peculiarities of human vision. Lines that appear straight in the Parthenon are found on measurement to be curved. Distances and widths that appear equal are in fact expertly varied. Columns taper and tilt inward, lending a certain lightness to the massive stone structure.

    Built on Athens's historic acropolis in the fifth century b.c., the Parthenon was partly a tribute to the goddess Athena, patron of Athens and protector of all Greek cities, to thank her for helping Athens and its allies defeat the Persians. However, it was also a monument to the power of Athens itself; the Parthenon combines the Doric architecture of the Greek mainland with the Ionic style of outlying areas to symbolize a strong, panhellenic league with Athens at its political and cultural forefront.

    The ideals of democracy and intellectual and artistic freedom had reached a zenith in ancient Athens. Intertwined with these were rivalry, power brokering, and patronage.

    Construction of the Parthenon was championed by Pericles, Athens's most popular elected politician. Pericles's good friend and master sculptor, Pheidias, built the gigantic statue of Athena that stands inside. For alleged embezzlement of resources, and perhaps as a shot at Pericles's power, Pheidias was later run out of town.

    走访帕得嫩神庙

    座落于雅典的古帕台农神庙,是座几乎全是大理石结构的雄伟精妙的圆柱型巨殿。它是古典希腊式建筑完美之典范。它运用了多种设计来抵消人类特殊的视觉偏差,从而达到令人惊叹的均衡。帕台农神庙上看似笔直的线条,经测定证实为曲线。距离和宽度看似相等的格局,实则千变万化,巧夺天工。圆柱逐渐变细,向内倾斜,给这巨石结构带来几分轻巧的感觉。

    帕台农神庙于公元前五世纪建在雅典有历史意义的卫城之上,在一定程度上是供奉女神雅典娜的,是为了感谢这位雅典的守护神暨希腊诸城的捍卫者帮助雅典人及其同盟邦打败波斯人的入侵。同时,它也是雅典全盛时期的纪念碑;帕台农融合了希腊本土的多利安式建筑及周边区域的爱奥尼亚式建筑风格,象征一个由雅典政治文化主导的强大泛希腊联盟。

    民主理想和艺术解放的理想在古雅典时代达到巅峰。然而也不乏有抗争、强权操纵与任命特权交织其中。帕台农神庙正是由古雅典公推最孚众望的政治家培里克利斯一手促成的。殿内巨型雅典娜雕像则是由他的好友──雕塑名家费迪亚斯铸建。或许是对培里克利斯政权的打击,费迪亚斯因为被指控挪用公款仓皇逃出城外。

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