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风笛的结构(双语)

2006-09-29 16:45British Council

The structure of bagpipe

A bagpipe minimally consists of an air supply, a bag, and a chanter. Optionally, further chanters and/or drones can be added.

Air supply

The most common method of supplying air to the bag is by a blowpipe, or blowstick, into which the player blows. A more recent innovation, dating from the 16th or 17th centuries, is the use of a bellows to supply air. This has the advantage that the supplied air has not been heated and moistened by the player's breathing.

Bag

The bag is simply an airtight (or near airtight) reservoir which can hold air while the player breathes. Materials for the bag vary widely: most common are skins of local animals, for example, goat, sheep, cow, pig, and so on. In modern times, players have experimented with modern materials such as rubber, Gore-Tex, and other airtight fabrics.

Chanter

The chanter is the melody pipe, played by one or both hands. The chanter is usually open-ended; thus, there is no easy way for the player to stop the pipe from sounding. So, embellishments are used to break up notes and to create the illusion of dynamic effect.

Drone

Most bagpipes have at least one drone. A drone is most commonly a cylindrical tube with a single reed, although drones with double reeds do exist. The drone is generally designed in two or more parts, with a sliding joint so that the pitch of the drone can be manipulated.

完整的苏格兰风笛至少是由一根吹管、一个风袋和一根调旋律管组成。有的风笛上会额外添加调旋律管和单音管。

吹管:

最常见的向风袋输送空气的方法便是用导管或者棍子。而在16或17世纪也有人发明了用风箱代替吹管来输送空气,这样做的好处是保证封地在演奏过程中不会因为空气被演奏者的呼吸加热或濡湿而出现问题。

风袋:

风袋,简单说来就是一个密闭或近乎密闭的气囊,在演奏者呼吸时可以用来暂时储存空气,以保证演奏的连续性。很多材料都可以用来制作风袋,最常见的是用当地的兽皮来做,如山羊皮、绵羊皮、牛皮、猪皮等。而现在,人们也已经尝试用很多现代材料来制作风袋,如橡胶、戈尔特斯面料以及其它种类的密封材质。

调旋律管:

调旋律管可以用单手或者双手操作。一般风笛的调旋律管的两端都不是封闭的,所以演奏者往往很难使它停止发出声音。因此,一些额外的装饰物就是用来标示节拍和制造强有力的演奏效果的。

单音管:

大部分的风笛至少都有一根单音管。它是一种带有一个簧片的圆柱形的管子,当然,也有带两个簧片的单音管,但是并不常见。单音管往往分好几部分,由可滑动的接缝,这样就可以调节单音管的音高了。

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