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Alcibiades I(3)

2006-09-07 20:36

  Alcibiades I

  PERSONS OF THE DIALOGUE: Alcibiades, Socrates.

  SOCRATES: I dare say that you may be surprised to find, O son of Cleinias, that I, who am your first lover, not having spoken to you for many years, when the rest of the world were wearying you with their attentions, am the last of your lovers who still speaks to you. The cause of my silence has been that I was hindered by a power more than human, of which I will some day explain to you the nature; this impediment has now been removed; I therefore here present myself before you, and I greatly hope that no similar hindrance will again occur. Meanwhile, I have observed that your pride has been too much for the pride of your admirers; they were numerous and high-spirited, but they have all run away, overpowered by your superior force of character; not one of them remains. And I want you to understand the reason why you have been too much for them. You think that you have no need of them or of any other man, for you have great possessions and lack nothing, beginning with the body, and ending with the soul. In the first place, you say to yourself that you are the fairest and tallest of the citizens, and this every one who has eyes may see to be true; in the second place, that you are among the noblest of them, highly connected both on the father's and the mother's side, and sprung from one of the most distinguished families in your own state, which is the greatest in Hellas, and having many friends and kinsmen of the best sort, who can assist you when in need; and there is one potent relative, who is more to you than all the rest, Pericles the son of Xanthippus, whom your father left guardian of you, and of your brother, and who can do as he pleases not only in this city, but in all Hellas, and among many and mighty barbarous nations. Moreover, you are rich; but I must say that you value yourself least of all upon your possessions. And all these things have lifted you up; you have overcome your lovers, and they have acknowledged that you were too much for them. Have you not remarked their absence? And now I know that you wonder why I, unlike the rest of them, have not gone away, and what can be my motive in remaining.

  ALCIBIADES: Perhaps, Socrates, you are not aware that I was just going to ask you the very same question——What do you want? And what is your motive in annoying me, and always, wherever I am, making a point of coming? (Compare Symp.) I do really wonder what you mean, and should greatly like to know.

  SOCRATES: Then if, as you say, you desire to know, I suppose that you will be willing to hear, and I may consider myself to be speaking to an auditor who will remain, and will not run away?

  ALCIBIADES: Certainly, let me hear.

  SOCRATES: You had better be careful, for I may very likely be as unwilling to end as I have hitherto been to begin.

  ALCIBIADES: Proceed, my good man, and I will listen.

  SOCRATES: I will proceed; and, although no lover likes to speak with one who has no feeling of love in him (compare Symp.), I will make an effort, and tell you what I meant: My love, Alcibiades, which I hardly like to confess, would long ago have passed away, as I flatter myself, if I saw you loving your good things, or thinking that you ought to pass life in the enjoyment of them. But I shall reveal other thoughts of yours, which you keep to yourself; whereby you will know that I have always had my eye on you. Suppose that at this moment some God came to you and said: Alcibiades, will you live as you are, or die in an instant if you are forbidden to make any further acquisition?——I verily believe that you would choose death. And I will tell you the hope in which you are at present living: Before many days have elapsed, you think that you will come before the Athenian assembly, and will prove to them that you are more worthy of honour than Pericles, or any other man that ever lived, and having proved this, you will have the greatest power in the state. When you have gained the greatest power among us, you will go on to other Hellenic states, and not only to Hellenes, but to all the barbarians who inhabit the same continent with us. And if the God were then to say to you again: Here in Europe is to be your seat of empire, and you must not cross over into Asia or meddle with Asiatic affairs, I do not believe that you would choose to live upon these terms; but the world, as I may say, must be filled with your power and name——no man less than Cyrus and Xerxes is of any account with you. Such I know to be your hopes——I am not guessing only——and very likely you, who know that I am speaking the truth, will reply, Well, Socrates, but what have my hopes to do with the explanation which you promised of your unwillingness to leave me? And that is what I am now going to tell you, sweet son of Cleinias and Dinomache. The explanation is, that all these designs of yours cannot be accomplished by you without my help; so great is the power which I believe myself to have over you and your concerns; and this I conceive to be the reason why the God has hitherto forbidden me to converse with you, and I have been long expecting his permission. For, as you hope to prove your own great value to the state, and having proved it, to attain at once to absolute power, so do I indulge a hope that I shall be the supreme power over you, if I am able to prove my own great value to you, and to show you that neither guardian, nor kinsman, nor any one is able to deliver into your hands the power which you desire, but I only, God being my helper. When you were young (compare Symp.) and your hopes were not yet matured, I should have wasted my time, and therefore, as I conceive, the God forbade me to converse with you; but now, having his permission, I will speak, for now you will listen to me.

  ALCIBIADES: Your silence, Socrates, was always a surprise to me. I never could understand why you followed me about, and now that you have begun to speak again, I am still more amazed. Whether I think all this or not, is a matter about which you seem to have already made up your mind, and therefore my denial will have no effect upon you. But granting, if I must, that you have perfectly divined my purposes, why is your assistance necessary to the attainment of them? Can you tell me why?

  SOCRATES: You want to know whether I can make a long speech, such as you are in the habit of hearing; but that is not my way. I think, however, that I can prove to you the truth of what I am saying, if you will grant me one little favour.

  ALCIBIADES: Yes, if the favour which you mean be not a troublesome one.

  SOCRATES: Will you be troubled at having questions to answer?

  ALCIBIADES: Not at all.

  SOCRATES: Then please to answer.

  ALCIBIADES: Ask me.

  SOCRATES: Have you not the intention which I attribute to you?

  ALCIBIADES: I will grant anything you like, in the hope of hearing what more you have to say.

  SOCRATES: You do, then, mean, as I was saying, to come forward in a little while in the character of an adviser of the Athenians? And suppose that when you are ascending the bema, I pull you by the sleeve and say, Alcibiades, you are getting up to advise the Athenians——do you know the matter about which they are going to deliberate, better than they?——How would you answer?

  ALCIBIADES: I should reply, that I was going to advise them about a matter which I do know better than they.

  SOCRATES: Then you are a good adviser about the things which you know?

  ALCIBIADES: Certainly.

  SOCRATES: And do you know anything but what you have learned of others, or found out yourself?

  ALCIBIADES: That is all.

  SOCRATES: And would you have ever learned or discovered anything, if you had not been willing either to learn of others or to examine yourself?

  ALCIBIADES: I should not.

  SOCRATES: And would you have been willing to learn or to examine what you supposed that you knew?

  ALCIBIADES: Certainly not.

  SOCRATES: Then there was a time when you thought that you did not know what you are now supposed to know?

  ALCIBIADES: Certainly.

  SOCRATES: I think that I know tolerably well the extent of your acquirements; and you must tell me if I forget any of them: according to my recollection, you learned the arts of writing, of playing on the lyre, and of wrestling; the flute you never would learn; this is the sum of your accomplishments, unless there were some which you acquired in secret; and I think that secrecy was hardly possible, as you could not have come out of your door, either by day or night, without my seeing you.

  ALCIBIADES: Yes, that was the whole of my schooling.

  SOCRATES: And are you going to get up in the Athenian assembly, and give them advice about writing?

  ALCIBIADES: No, indeed.

  SOCRATES: Or about the touch of the lyre?

  ALCIBIADES: Certainly not.

  SOCRATES: And they are not in the habit of deliberating about wrestling, in the assembly?

  ALCIBIADES: Hardly.

  SOCRATES: Then what are the deliberations in which you propose to advise them? Surely not about building?

  ALCIBIADES: No.

  SOCRATES: For the builder will advise better than you will about that?

  ALCIBIADES: He will.

  SOCRATES: Nor about divination?

  ALCIBIADES: No.

  SOCRATES: About that again the diviner will advise better than you will?

  ALCIBIADES: True.

  SOCRATES: Whether he be little or great, good or ill-looking, noble or ignoble——makes no difference.

  ALCIBIADES: Certainly not.

  SOCRATES: A man is a good adviser about anything, not because he has riches, but because he has knowledge?

  ALCIBIADES: Assuredly.

  SOCRATES: Whether their counsellor is rich or poor, is not a matter which will make any difference to the Athenians when they are deliberating about the health of the citizens; they only require that he should be a physician.

  ALCIBIADES: Of course.

  SOCRATES: Then what will be the subject of deliberation about which you will be justified in getting up and advising them?

  ALCIBIADES: About their own concerns, Socrates.

  SOCRATES: You mean about shipbuilding, for example, when the question is what sort of ships they ought to build?

  ALCIBIADES: No, I should not advise them about that.

  SOCRATES: I suppose, because you do not understand shipbuilding:——is that the reason?

  ALCIBIADES: It is.

  SOCRATES: Then about what concerns of theirs will you advise them?

  ALCIBIADES: About war, Socrates, or about peace, or about any other concerns of the state.

  SOCRATES: You mean, when they deliberate with whom they ought to make peace, and with whom they ought to go to war, and in what manner?

  ALCIBIADES: Yes.

  SOCRATES: And they ought to go to war with those against whom it is better to go to war?

  ALCIBIADES: Yes.

  SOCRATES: And when it is better?

  ALCIBIADES: Certainly.

  SOCRATES: And for as long a time as is better?

  ALCIBIADES: Yes.

  SOCRATES: But suppose the Athenians to deliberate with whom they ought to close in wrestling, and whom they should grasp by the hand, would you, or the master of gymnastics, be a better adviser of them?

  ALCIBIADES: Clearly, the master of gymnastics.

  SOCRATES: And can you tell me on what grounds the master of gymnastics would decide, with whom they ought or ought not to close, and when and how? To take an instance: Would he not say that they should wrestle with those against whom it is best to wrestle?

  ALCIBIADES: Yes.

  SOCRATES: And as much as is best?

  ALCIBIADES: Certainly.

  SOCRATES: And at such times as are best?

  ALCIBIADES: Yes.

  SOCRATES: Again; you sometimes accompany the lyre with the song and dance?

  ALCIBIADES: Yes.

  SOCRATES: When it is well to do so?

  ALCIBIADES: Yes.

  SOCRATES: And as much as is well?

  ALCIBIADES: Just so.

  SOCRATES: And as you speak of an excellence or art of the best in wrestling, and of an excellence in playing the lyre, I wish you would tell me what this latter is;——the excellence of wrestling I call gymnastic, and I want to know what you call the other.

  ALCIBIADES: I do not understand you.

  SOCRATES: Then try to do as I do; for the answer which I gave is universally right, and when I say right, I mean according to rule.

  ALCIBIADES: Yes.

  SOCRATES: And was not the art of which I spoke gymnastic?

  ALCIBIADES: Certainly.

  SOCRATES: And I called the excellence in wrestling gymnastic?

  ALCIBIADES: You did.

  SOCRATES: And I was right?

  ALCIBIADES: I think that you were.

  SOCRATES: Well, now,——for you should learn to argue prettily——let me ask you in return to tell me, first, what is that art of which playing and singing, and stepping properly in the dance, are parts,——what is the name of the whole? I think that by this time you must be able to tell.

  ALCIBIADES: Indeed I cannot.

  SOCRATES: Then let me put the matter in another way: what do you call the Goddesses who are the patronesses of art?

  ALCIBIADES: The Muses do you mean, Socrates?

  SOCRATES: Yes, I do; and what is the name of the art which is called after them?

  ALCIBIADES: I suppose that you mean music.

  SOCRATES: Yes, that is my meaning; and what is the excellence of the art of music, as I told you truly that the excellence of wrestling was gymnastic——what is the excellence of music——to be what?

  ALCIBIADES: To be musical, I suppose.

  SOCRATES: Very good; and now please to tell me what is the excellence of war and peace; as the more musical was the more excellent, or the more gymnastical was the more excellent, tell me, what name do you give to the more excellent in war and peace?

  ALCIBIADES: But I really cannot tell you.

  SOCRATES: But if you were offering advice to another and said to him——This food is better than that, at this time and in this quantity, and he said to you——What do you mean, Alcibiades, by the word 'better'? you would have no difficulty in replying that you meant 'more wholesome,' although you do not profess to be a physician: and when the subject is one of which you profess to have knowledge, and about which you are ready to get up and advise as if you knew, are you not ashamed, when you are asked, not to be able to answer the question? Is it not disgraceful?

  ALCIBIADES: Very.

  SOCRATES: Well, then, consider and try to explain what is the meaning of 'better,' in the matter of making peace and going to war with those against whom you ought to go to war? To what does the word refer?

  ALCIBIADES: I am thinking, and I cannot tell.

  SOCRATES: But you surely know what are the charges which we bring against one another, when we arrive at the point of making war, and what name we give them?

  ALCIBIADES: Yes, certainly; we say that deceit or violence has been employed, or that we have been defrauded.

  SOCRATES: And how does this happen? Will you tell me how? For there may be a difference in the manner.

  ALCIBIADES: Do you mean by 'how,' Socrates, whether we suffered these things justly or unjustly?

  SOCRATES: Exactly.

  ALCIBIADES: There can be no greater difference than between just and unjust.

  SOCRATES: And would you advise the Athenians to go to war with the just or with the unjust?

  ALCIBIADES: That is an awkward question; for certainly, even if a person did intend to go to war with the just, he would not admit that they were just.

  SOCRATES: He would not go to war, because it would be unlawful?

  ALCIBIADES: Neither lawful nor honourable.

  SOCRATES: Then you, too, would address them on principles of justice?

  ALCIBIADES: Certainly.

  SOCRATES: What, then, is justice but that better, of which I spoke, in going to war or not going to war with those against whom we ought or ought not, and when we ought or ought not to go to war?

  ALCIBIADES: Clearly.

  SOCRATES: But how is this, friend Alcibiades? Have you forgotten that you do not know this, or have you been to the schoolmaster without my knowledge, and has he taught you to discern the just from the unjust? Who is he? I wish you would tell me, that I may go and learn of him——you shall introduce me.

  ALCIBIADES: You are mocking, Socrates.

  SOCRATES: No, indeed; I most solemnly declare to you by Zeus, who is the God of our common friendship, and whom I never will forswear, that I am not; tell me, then, who this instructor is, if he exists.

  ALCIBIADES: But, perhaps, he does not exist; may I not have acquired the knowledge of just and unjust in some other way?

  SOCRATES: Yes; if you have discovered them.

  ALCIBIADES: But do you not think that I could discover them?

  SOCRATES: I am sure that you might, if you enquired about them.

  ALCIBIADES: And do you not think that I would enquire?

  SOCRATES: Yes; if you thought that you did not know them.

  ALCIBIADES: And was there not a time when I did so think?

  SOCRATES: Very good; and can you tell me how long it is since you thought that you did not know the nature of the just and the unjust? What do you say to a year ago? Were you then in a state of conscious ignorance and enquiry? Or did you think that you knew? And please to answer truly, that our discussion may not be in vain.

  ALCIBIADES: Well, I thought that I knew.

  SOCRATES: And two years ago, and three years ago, and four years ago, you knew all the same?

  ALCIBIADES: I did.

  SOCRATES: And more than four years ago you were a child——were you not?

  ALCIBIADES: Yes.

  SOCRATES: And then I am quite sure that you thought you knew.

  ALCIBIADES: Why are you so sure?

  SOCRATES: Because I often heard you when a child, in your teacher's house, or elsewhere, playing at dice or some other game with the boys, not hesitating at all about the nature of the just and unjust; but very confident——crying and shouting that one of the boys was a rogue and a cheat, and had been cheating. Is it not true?

  ALCIBIADES: But what was I to do, Socrates, when anybody cheated me?

  SOCRATES: And how can you say, 'What was I to do'? if at the time you did not know whether you were wronged or not?

  ALCIBIADES: To be sure I knew; I was quite aware that I was being cheated.

  SOCRATES: Then you suppose yourself even when a child to have known the nature of just and unjust?

  ALCIBIADES: Certainly; and I did know then.

  SOCRATES: And when did you discover them——not, surely, at the time when you thought that you knew them?

  ALCIBIADES: Certainly not.

  SOCRATES: And when did you think that you were ignorant——if you consider, you will find that there never was such a time?

  ALCIBIADES: Really, Socrates, I cannot say.

  SOCRATES: Then you did not learn them by discovering them?

  ALCIBIADES: Clearly not.

  SOCRATES: But just before you said that you did not know them by learning; now, if you have neither discovered nor learned them, how and whence do you come to know them?

  ALCIBIADES: I suppose that I was mistaken in saying that I knew them through my own discovery of them; whereas, in truth, I learned them in the same way that other people learn.

  SOCRATES: So you said before, and I must again ask, of whom? Do tell me.

  ALCIBIADES: Of the many.

  SOCRATES: Do you take refuge in them? I cannot say much for your teachers.

  ALCIBIADES: Why, are they not able to teach?

  SOCRATES: They could not teach you how to play at draughts, which you would acknowledge (would you not) to be a much smaller matter than justice?

  ALCIBIADES: Yes.

  SOCRATES: And can they teach the better who are unable to teach the worse?

  ALCIBIADES: I think that they can; at any rate, they can teach many far better things than to play at draughts.

  SOCRATES: What things?

  ALCIBIADES: Why, for example, I learned to speak Greek of them, and I cannot say who was my teacher, or to whom I am to attribute my knowledge of Greek, if not to those good-for-nothing teachers, as you call them.

  SOCRATES: Why, yes, my friend; and the many are good enough teachers of Greek, and some of their instructions in that line may be justly praised.

  ALCIBIADES: Why is that?

  SOCRATES: Why, because they have the qualities which good teachers ought to have.

  ALCIBIADES: What qualities?

  SOCRATES: Why, you know that knowledge is the first qualification of any teacher?

  ALCIBIADES: Certainly.

  SOCRATES: And if they know, they must agree together and not differ?

  ALCIBIADES: Yes.

  SOCRATES: And would you say that they knew the things about which they differ?

  ALCIBIADES: No.

  SOCRATES: Then how can they teach them?

  ALCIBIADES: They cannot.

  SOCRATES: Well, but do you imagine that the many would differ about the nature of wood and stone? are they not agreed if you ask them what they are? and do they not run to fetch the same thing, when they want a piece of wood or a stone? And so in similar cases, which I suspect to be pretty nearly all that you mean by speaking Greek.

  ALCIBIADES: True.

  SOCRATES: These, as we were saying, are matters about which they are agreed with one another and with themselves; both individuals and states use the same words about them; they do not use some one word and some another.

  ALCIBIADES: They do not.

  SOCRATES: Then they may be expected to be good teachers of these things?

  ALCIBIADES: Yes.

  SOCRATES: And if we want to instruct any one in them, we shall be right in sending him to be taught by our friends the many?

  ALCIBIADES: Very true.

  SOCRATES: But if we wanted further to know not only which are men and which are horses, but which men or horses have powers of running, would the many still be able to inform us?

  ALCIBIADES: Certainly not.

  SOCRATES: And you have a sufficient proof that they do not know these things and are not the best teachers of them, inasmuch as they are never agreed about them?

  ALCIBIADES: Yes.

  SOCRATES: And suppose that we wanted to know not only what men are like, but what healthy or diseased men are like——would the many be able to teach us?

  ALCIBIADES: They would not.

  SOCRATES: And you would have a proof that they were bad teachers of these matters, if you saw them at variance?

  ALCIBIADES: I should.

  SOCRATES: Well, but are the many agreed with themselves, or with one another, about the justice or injustice of men and things?

  ALCIBIADES: Assuredly not, Socrates.

  SOCRATES: There is no subject about which they are more at variance?

  ALCIBIADES: None.

  SOCRATES: I do not suppose that you ever saw or heard of men quarrelling over the principles of health and disease to such an extent as to go to war and kill one another for the sake of them?

  ALCIBIADES: No indeed.

  SOCRATES: But of the quarrels about justice and injustice, even if you have never seen them, you have certainly heard from many people, including Homer; for you have heard of the Iliad and Odyssey?

  ALCIBIADES: To be sure, Socrates.

  SOCRATES: A difference of just and unjust is the argument of those poems?

  ALCIBIADES: True.

  SOCRATES: Which difference caused all the wars and deaths of Trojans and Achaeans, and the deaths of the suitors of Penelope in their quarrel with Odysseus.

  ALCIBIADES: Very true.

  SOCRATES: And when the Athenians and Lacedaemonians and Boeotians fell at Tanagra, and afterwards in the battle of Coronea, at which your father Cleinias met his end, the question was one of justice——this was the sole cause of the battles, and of their deaths.

  ALCIBIADES: Very true.

  SOCRATES: But can they be said to understand that about which they are quarrelling to the death?

  ALCIBIADES: Clearly not.

  SOCRATES: And yet those whom you thus allow to be ignorant are the teachers to whom you are appealing.

  ALCIBIADES: Very true.

  SOCRATES: But how are you ever likely to know the nature of justice and injustice, about which you are so perplexed, if you have neither learned them of others nor discovered them yourself?

  ALCIBIADES: From what you say, I suppose not.

  SOCRATES: See, again, how inaccurately you speak, Alcibiades!

  ALCIBIADES: In what respect?

  SOCRATES: In saying that I say so.

  ALCIBIADES: Why, did you not say that I know nothing of the just and unjust?

  SOCRATES: No; I did not.

  ALCIBIADES: Did I, then?

  SOCRATES: Yes.

  ALCIBIADES: How was that?

  SOCRATES: Let me explain. Suppose I were to ask you which is the greater number, two or one; you would reply 'two'?

  ALCIBIADES: I should.

  SOCRATES: And by how much greater?

  ALCIBIADES: By one.

  SOCRATES: Which of us now says that two is more than one?

  ALCIBIADES: I do.

  SOCRATES: Did not I ask, and you answer the question?

  ALCIBIADES: Yes.

  SOCRATES: Then who is speaking? I who put the question, or you who answer me?

  ALCIBIADES: I am.

  SOCRATES: Or suppose that I ask and you tell me the letters which make up the name Socrates, which of us is the speaker?

  ALCIBIADES: I am.

  SOCRATES: Now let us put the case generally: whenever there is a question and answer, who is the speaker,——the questioner or the answerer?

  ALCIBIADES: I should say, Socrates, that the answerer was the speaker.

  SOCRATES: And have I not been the questioner all through?

  ALCIBIADES: Yes.

  SOCRATES: And you the answerer?

  ALCIBIADES: Just so.

  SOCRATES: Which of us, then, was the speaker?

  ALCIBIADES: The inference is, Socrates, that I was the speaker.

  SOCRATES: Did not some one say that Alcibiades, the fair son of Cleinias, not understanding about just and unjust, but thinking that he did understand, was going to the assembly to advise the Athenians about what he did not know? Was not that said?

  ALCIBIADES: Very true.

  SOCRATES: Then, Alcibiades, the result may be expressed in the language of Euripides. I think that you have heard all this 'from yourself, and not from me'; nor did I say this, which you erroneously attribute to me, but you yourself, and what you said was very true. For indeed, my dear fellow, the design which you meditate of teaching what you do not know, and have not taken any pains to learn, is downright insanity.

  ALCIBIADES: But, Socrates, I think that the Athenians and the rest of the Hellenes do not often advise as to the more just or unjust; for they see no difficulty in them, and therefore they leave them, and consider which course of action will be most expedient; for there is a difference between justice and expediency. Many persons have done great wrong and profited by their injustice; others have done rightly and come to no good.

  SOCRATES: Well, but granting that the just and the expedient are ever so much opposed, you surely do not imagine that you know what is expedient for mankind, or why a thing is expedient?

  ALCIBIADES: Why not, Socrates?——But I am not going to be asked again from whom I learned, or when I made the discovery.

  SOCRATES: What a way you have! When you make a mistake which might be refuted by a previous argument, you insist on having a new and different refutation; the old argument is a worn-our garment which you will no longer put on, but some one must produce another which is clean and new. Now I shall disregard this move of yours, and shall ask over again,——Where did you learn and how do you know the nature of the expedient, and who is your teacher? All this I comprehend in a single question, and now you will manifestly be in the old difficulty, and will not be able to show that you know the expedient, either because you learned or because you discovered it yourself. But, as I perceive that you are dainty, and dislike the taste of a stale argument, I will enquire no further into your knowledge of what is expedient or what is not expedient for the Athenian people, and simply request you to say why you do not explain whether justice and expediency are the same or different? And if you like you may examine me as I have examined you, or, if you would rather, you may carry on the discussion by yourself.

  ALCIBIADES: But I am not certain, Socrates, whether I shall be able to discuss the matter with you.

  SOCRATES: Then imagine, my dear fellow, that I am the demus and the ecclesia; for in the ecclesia, too, you will have to persuade men individually.

  ALCIBIADES: Yes.

  SOCRATES: And is not the same person able to persuade one individual singly and many individuals of the things which he knows? The grammarian, for example, can persuade one and he can persuade many about letters.

  ALCIBIADES: True.

  SOCRATES: And about number, will not the same person persuade one and persuade many?

  ALCIBIADES: Yes.

  SOCRATES: And this will be he who knows number, or the arithmetician?

  ALCIBIADES: Quite true.

  SOCRATES: And cannot you persuade one man about that of which you can persuade many?

  ALCIBIADES: I suppose so.

  SOCRATES: And that of which you can persuade either is clearly what you know?

  ALCIBIADES: Yes.

  SOCRATES: And the only difference between one who argues as we are doing, and the orator who is addressing an assembly, is that the one seeks to persuade a number, and the other an individual, of the same things.

  ALCIBIADES: I suppose so.

  SOCRATES: Well, then, since the same person who can persuade a multitude can persuade individuals, try conclusions upon me, and prove to me that the just is not always expedient.

  ALCIBIADES: You take liberties, Socrates.

  SOCRATES: I shall take the liberty of proving to you the opposite of that which you will not prove to me.

  ALCIBIADES: Proceed.

  SOCRATES: Answer my questions——that is all.

  ALCIBIADES: Nay, I should like you to be the speaker.

  SOCRATES: What, do you not wish to be persuaded?

  ALCIBIADES: Certainly I do.

  SOCRATES: And can you be persuaded better than out of your own mouth?

  ALCIBIADES: I think not.

  SOCRATES: Then you shall answer; and if you do not hear the words, that the just is the expedient, coming from your own lips, never believe another man again.

  ALCIBIADES: I won't; but answer I will, for I do not see how I can come to any harm.

  SOCRATES: A true prophecy! Let me begin then by enquiring of you whether you allow that the just is sometimes expedient and sometimes not?

  ALCIBIADES: Yes.

  SOCRATES: And sometimes honourable and sometimes not?

  ALCIBIADES: What do you mean?

  SOCRATES: I am asking if you ever knew any one who did what was dishonourable and yet just?

  ALCIBIADES: Never.

  SOCRATES: All just things are honourable?

  ALCIBIADES: Yes.

  SOCRATES: And are honourable things sometimes good and sometimes not good, or are they always good?

  ALCIBIADES: I rather think, Socrates, that some honourable things are evil.

  SOCRATES: And are some dishonourable things good?

  ALCIBIADES: Yes.

  SOCRATES: You mean in such a case as the following:——In time of war, men have been wounded or have died in rescuing a companion or kinsman, when others who have neglected the duty of rescuing them have escaped in safety?

  ALCIBIADES: True.

  SOCRATES: And to rescue another under such circumstances is honourable, in respect of the attempt to save those whom we ought to save; and this is courage?

  ALCIBIADES: True.

  SOCRATES: But evil in respect of death and wounds?

  ALCIBIADES: Yes.

  SOCRATES: And the courage which is shown in the rescue is one thing, and the death another?

  ALCIBIADES: Certainly.

  SOCRATES: Then the rescue of one's friends is honourable in one point of view, but evil in another?

  ALCIBIADES: True.

  SOCRATES: And if honourable, then also good: Will you consider now whether I may not be right, for you were acknowledging that the courage which is shown in the rescue is honourable? Now is this courage good or evil? Look at the matter thus: which would you rather choose, good or evil?

  ALCIBIADES: Good.

  SOCRATES: And the greatest goods you would be most ready to choose, and would least like to be deprived of them?

  ALCIBIADES: Certainly.

  SOCRATES: What would you say of courage? At what price would you be willing to be deprived of courage?

  ALCIBIADES: I would rather die than be a coward.

  SOCRATES: Then you think that cowardice is the worst of evils?

  ALCIBIADES: I do.

  SOCRATES: As bad as death, I suppose?

  ALCIBIADES: Yes.

  SOCRATES: And life and courage are the extreme opposites of death and cowardice?

  ALCIBIADES: Yes.

  SOCRATES: And they are what you would most desire to have, and their opposites you would least desire?

  ALCIBIADES: Yes.

  SOCRATES: Is this because you think life and courage the best, and death and cowardice the worst?

  ALCIBIADES: Yes.

  SOCRATES: And you would term the rescue of a friend in battle honourable, in as much as courage does a good work?

  ALCIBIADES: I should.

  SOCRATES: But evil because of the death which ensues?

  ALCIBIADES: Yes.

  SOCRATES: Might we not describe their different effects as follows:——You may call either of them evil in respect of the evil which is the result, and good in respect of the good which is the result of either of them?

  ALCIBIADES: Yes.

  SOCRATES: And they are honourable in so far as they are good, and dishonourable in so far as they are evil?

  ALCIBIADES: True.

  SOCRATES: Then when you say that the rescue of a friend in battle is honourable and yet evil, that is equivalent to saying that the rescue is good and yet evil?

  ALCIBIADES: I believe that you are right, Socrates.

  SOCRATES: Nothing honourable, regarded as honourable, is evil; nor anything base, regarded as base, good.

  ALCIBIADES: Clearly not.

  SOCRATES: Look at the matter yet once more in a further light: he who acts honourably acts well?

  ALCIBIADES: Yes.

  SOCRATES: And he who acts well is happy?

  ALCIBIADES: Of course.

  SOCRATES: And the happy are those who obtain good?

  ALCIBIADES: True.

  SOCRATES: And they obtain good by acting well and honourably?

  ALCIBIADES: Yes.

  SOCRATES: Then acting well is a good?

  ALCIBIADES: Certainly.

  SOCRATES: And happiness is a good?

  ALCIBIADES: Yes.

  SOCRATES: Then the good and the honourable are again identified.

  ALCIBIADES: Manifestly.

  SOCRATES: Then, if the argument holds, what we find to be honourable we shall also find to be good?

  ALCIBIADES: Certainly.

  SOCRATES: And is the good expedient or not?

  ALCIBIADES: Expedient.

  SOCRATES: Do you remember our admissions about the just?

  ALCIBIADES: Yes; if I am not mistaken, we said that those who acted justly must also act honourably.

  SOCRATES: And the honourable is the good?

  ALCIBIADES: Yes.

  SOCRATES: And the good is expedient?

  ALCIBIADES: Yes.

  SOCRATES: Then, Alcibiades, the just is expedient?

  ALCIBIADES: I should infer so.

  SOCRATES: And all this I prove out of your own mouth, for I ask and you answer?

  ALCIBIADES: I must acknowledge it to be true.

  SOCRATES: And having acknowledged that the just is the same as the expedient, are you not (let me ask) prepared to ridicule any one who, pretending to understand the principles of justice and injustice, gets up to advise the noble Athenians or the ignoble Peparethians, that the just may be the evil?

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