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英语翻译中的词汇辨析

2007-02-25 13:23

  “闪光”之说:

  1、shine: 照耀,指光稳定发射;

  2、glitter: 闪光,指光不稳定发射;

  3、glare: 耀眼,表示光的强度最大;

  4、sparkle:闪烁,指发射微细的光度。

  “打破”之说:

  1、break: 一般用语,经打击或施加压力而破碎;

  2、crack:出现了裂缝,但还没有变成碎片;

  3、crush: 指从外面用力向内或从上向下压而致碎;

  4、demolish: 破坏,铲平或削平(如土壤,建筑物,城堡等);

  5、destroy: 在肉体上、精神上或道义上彻底摧毁,使之无法复原;

  6、shatter:突然使一个物体粉碎;

  7、smash: 指由于突如其来的一阵暴力带一声响而彻底粉碎。

  有关“死”之说:

  1、去世,与世长辞:to pass away;

  2、寿终: to close (end) one's day;

  3、咽气,断气: to breathe one's last;

  4、归西: to go west;

  5、了解尘缘: to pay the debt of nature;

  6、命归黄泉: to depart to the world of shadows;

  7、见阎王: to give up the gost;

  8、翘辫子: to kick the bucket;

  9、蹬腿: to kick up one's heels;

  10、不吃饭: to lay down one's knife and fork.

  有关“怀孕”(pregnant)之说:

  1、she is having baby;

  2、she is expecting;

  3、she is in a family way;

  4、she is in a deliacate condition;

  5、she is in an interesting condition;

  6、she is knitting little booties.

  “broken”涵义种种:

  1、a broken man: 一个绝望的人;

  2、a broken soldier: 一个残废的军人;

  3、broken money: 零花钱;

  4、a broken promise: 背弃的诺言;

  5、broken English: 蹩脚的英语;

  6、a broken spirit: 消沉的意志;

  7、a broken heart: 破碎的心。

  准确理解“kill”(后面附词义):

  1、he killed the man.杀;

  2、he killed the dog,宰;

  3、he killed time down at the park,消磨;

  4、he killed his chance of success,断送;

  5、he killed the motion when it came from the committee,否决;

  6、he killed himself by overwork,致死;

  7、he killed the spirit of the group,抹杀;

  8、he killed three bottles of whiskey in a week,喝光;

  9、kill the peace,扼杀;

  10、kill the friendship,终止;

  11、kill a marriage,解除。

  “声誉”种种:

  1、fame:褒义,指关于一个人的人格、行为、才能等方面的优点;

  2、reputation和repute差不多,可褒义可贬义,指对人或物的评价、看法,词义较窄;

  3、distinction,褒义,指因职衔、地位或人格所造成的,通常包含“优越于人,与众不同”;

  4、renown,褒义,指显赫的声誉或应该得到的荣誉;

  5、notoriety,贬义,与fame相对应。

  “空空如也”:

  1、hollow,表示“空洞的,虚的,不实的,下陷的',可以和tree, voice, sound, cheeks等连用;

  2、vacant,表示“没人占用的,出缺的”,常和position, room, house, seat等连用;

  3、empty,表示“空的,一无所有的”,可以和house, room, cup, box, stomatch, head, words等连用.

  你能理解“or”吗?

  1、连接两个对等的事物或人,可译为“或”,“或者”;

  2、前后为同一个事物时,应译为“即”,“或称”,“或作”

  The exact mechanism of Yutin, or vitamin P as is sometimes called, on the capillary wall is not understood.

  附译文:路丁,即有时所称的维生素P,其对毛细血管壁的确切作用(机理)还不了解。

  3、连接两组数字,代表不同单位的同一数量时,一般译为“合”,“等于”;

  Normal temperature in man is 98.6F or 37C(遗憾的时表温度上标我不会)。

  4、从or中导致方面结果时,应译为“否则”;

  Hurry up, or you will be late.

  5、“or so ”左右;"or more"以上;"or rather"甚至

  "general"涵义种种:

  1、全身麻醉 general anesthesia

  2、普查,集体检查 general check-up

  3、一般健康情况 general health condition

  4、综合性医院 general hospital

  5、总路线 genegral line

  6、大纲 general outline

  7、弥漫性腹膜炎 general peritonitis

  8、普通医师 general practitioner

  9、总查(病)房 general purpose

  10、秘书长 general secretary

  你能“定”下来吗?

  1、set a date: 决定日期

  2、set an example:树立榜样

  3、set fruit:结果子

  4、set a fire: 点火

  5、set a severed limb:断肢再接

  6、set sail:开航,起航

  7、set the camera lens:调整(相机)镜头

  8、set a pen to paper::动笔,下笔

  9、set a new task:提出新任务

  10、set down all items:记下所有项目

  11、set oneself to learn from:决心向……学习

  你知道这有多“重”?

  1、heavy applause:热烈的鼓掌

  2、heavy gait:沉重的步态

  3、heavy chemicals大量生产的化学药品

  4、heavy sea 波涛汹涌的海面

  5、heavy sleep:熟睡

  6、heavy smoker:烟瘾大的人

  7、heavy current:强电流

  8、heavy eater:食量大的人

  9、heavy task:繁重的任务

  10、heavy food:油腻而难消化的食物

  11、heavy traffic:拥挤的交通

  12、heavy weather:恶劣的天气

  13、heavy road:泥泞的路

  14、heavy rain:大雨

  15、heavy clouds:厚云

  16、heavy crops:丰收

  17、heavy frost:浓霜

  18、heavy wine:烈酒

  19、heavy news:悲痛的消息

  20、heavy heart:忧愁的心

  21、heavy fire:猛烈的炮火

  22、heavy bread:没有发酵好的面包

  23、heavy wire:粗线

  24、heavy load:重载

  25、heavy storm:暴风雨

  26、heavy reader:沉闷冗长的读物

  “强度”怎么说?

  1、intensity:指强烈的程度,多用于磁、电、热、光、声、火、劳动等抽象或非(易于触摸到的)实体。

  例:colour intensity intensity of light

  2、strength:指坚强的程度,用于可触摸到的具体实物抗拒能力的大小。

  strength of cement(水泥标号) engine strength

  working strength

  你打牢“基础”了吗?

  1、base:指有形、具体的基础、基地。

  base line 基线 base plate 底座

  cotton base 产棉区 data base 数据库

  paint base 底漆 raw material base 原料基地

  2、basic:基本的,碱性的

  basic Bessemer steel 底吹碱性转炉钢

  basic hole 基孔 basic industry 基础工业

  basic material 碱性材料

  3、basis:无形、抽象的基础、根据

  econimic basis 经济基础

  hole basis 基孔制

  scientific basis 科学根据

  4、foundation:指大厦建筑物的地基,引申为“根据”

  foundation bolt 地脚螺栓

  material foundation of society社会物质基础

  reinforced concrete foundation钢筋混凝土基础

  The rumour has no foundation这传闻毫无根据

  你了解这些“组织”吗?

  1、construction:指“构造”(将零部件装配,组合在一起成为整体的方式):“结构”(各组成部分的搭配和排列,建筑物上承担重力部分的构造)

  aircraft construction飞机构造

  welded construction焊接结构

  This machine is simple in construction这种机器构造简单

  body construction车身(机身、弹体)构造

  capital construction基本建设

  physical construction机械构造

  prefabricated construction预制构造

  ships of similiar construction结构类似的船

  2、structure:“结构、组织”

  age structure年龄构成

  atomic structure原子结构

  steel stucture钢结构

  shell stucture薄层结构

  brick stucture砖建筑物

  geological stucture地质构造

  market stucture市场结构

  microscopic stucture显微组织

  The human body is a wonderful stucture人体是个奇妙的构造物

  the stucture of a plant一种植物的构造

  "charge"涵义知多少?

  1、费用:service charge服务费;

  2、责任:in charge of 负责;

  3、装料:furnace charge炉料;

  4、电荷:induced charge感应电荷;

  5、装药:shaped charge锥孔炸药

  再解“develop”

  1、发展:

  agriculture develpopment

  social development

  industrial develpopment

  development in foreign affairs

  2、开发

  water-power development

  oil-field development

  development of natural resouerces

  interllectual development

  3、研制

  advanced development远景产品研制,样机试制

  under development

  engineering development

  operatinal development产品改进性研制

  exploratory development探索性研制

  4、开拓

  ore development

  lateral development水平开拓

  5、展开(用于数学)

  series development级数展开

  development of function函数的展开

  6、显影

  chemical development化学显影

  over development显影过度

  time development定时显影

  The shade meaning of "power":

  「数学」乘方、幂

  The sixth power of two is sixty-four.

  「力学」

  力:horse power

  功率:rated power额定功率

  「电学」

  电力:power network

  电源:power switch

  功率:power export

  「化学」

  能:chemical power

  本领:catalytic power催化本领

  化合价:Aluminium has a conmbining power of three.

  「机械」

  动力:power shaft传动轴

  力:brake power

  「社会」

  力量:knowlege is power

  权力:politica power

  强国:superpower

  The shade meaning of "system":

  「机电」

  系统:electric light system电照明系统

  lubricating system润滑系统

  电力网:system fault电力网故障

  装置:tierod-crank system连杆曲柄装置

  top charging system炉顶装料装置

  设备:loading system转载设备

  制:basic hole(shaft) system基孔(轴)制

  「数学」组:system of equations

  「力学」系:system of forces

  「化学」法:acid system酸法

  「社会」

  体系:industrial system

  制度:social system

  方法:a new system of teaching foreign language

  The shade meaning of "work":

  工作:work experience

  工件:stamp work模锻工件

  工厂: NO.1 Motor Vehical Works

  工事:defence works

  著作:new works on acupuncture针刺疗法新书

  功:mechanical work

  运转:The machine works well.

  加工:The wood works easily.

  起作用:The medicine works.

  造成:work wonders(miracles)创造奇迹

  The shade meaning of "sound":

  「声音」sound wave

  「听起来」The plan sounds reasonable.

  「发音」sound every syllable!每个音节都要发音。

  The ship moved slowly forward sounding as she went.航船慢速前进,一路锤测水深。

  「完好的」sound metal优质金属

  「牢固的」sound casting 坚实的铸件

  The meaning of "sound":

  「圆的」round plate

  「整的」a round ton

  「环形」a round trip往还一次

  「圆角」fillet and round内圆角和外圆角

  「弹」guided round (missile)导弹

  「围绕」The moon moves round the earth.

  「到处」show sb round

  「使圆」round the corners

  「舍入」3.14159 rounded to four decimals becomes 3.1416

  "废物"之说:

  1、litter:并不是真正意义上的废物,而是用后散置的“杂物”,相当于odds and ends,或索性说是残余物(leavings)

  Always pick up your litter after a picnic.

  2、waste:真正的废物,美国人常用trash,此字还有“残屑”、或“垃圾”之意。

  垃圾篓美国人用trash can;英国用dustbin.美国人把南方的穷苦白人叫the (poor) white trash;可见,此词又可作“无价值的人或物”解释。

  That book is mere trash.

  3、rubbish:范围广,真正的废物。也可表惊叹“Rubbish(胡说!)”

  英国人常说:That book is all rubbish.

  4、厨房残屑:kitchen refuse或refuse:此词做废物或无用之物讲,但一般指固体废物,不指可排泄的垃圾。

  5、到垃圾的地方:a dumping ground; a dumping-place for rubbish; a rubbish dump.

  6、junk:垃圾、废物。原意是“破烂货”。

  His writing is all junk.

  7、废人、社会渣滓:human waste; debris; dregs of population; off-scourings of humanity; dross of mankind; hobo

  He is now a "has-been"(他现成了废物)=He outlived his usefulness.

  Commitment译法:

  动词commit在字典中涵义:

  1、 犯、行、作:commit a crime; commit a blunder; commit murder; commit suicide

  2、 委托、付诸:commit some funds to the care of trustees(委托资金与保管委员会);commit a bill(议会将议案交付委员审查);commit thoughts to writing(将想法写出来);commit something to memory(暗记某事);

  3、 承担:If you agreed to give a number of lectures, help to pay your brother's school expenses, and give $ 500 a year for clothes, you have quite a lot of commitments.

  4、 (束缚身体之意转为)牵累,陷入,献身:Do not commit yourself(勿自限累);commit oneself to a promise;

  例析:

  1、 In the last decade, however, we have sought to fulfill the goal with greater zeal, greater commitment, and greater success than at any period in our history.

  在过去十年中,我们比历史上任何时期都力求更加热心地、更加献身地、更加成功地来达到这个目标(献身)。

  2、(李光耀对新加坡人的定义)A Singaporean is a person who feels committed to upholding society as it is—multi-racial, tolerant, accommodating, forward-looking——and who is prepared to stake his life for the community.

  一个新加坡人就是一个对现存的多元种族、容忍互助而又高瞻远瞩的社会,以献身精神来支持它,并装备为它付出生命的人(献身的)。

  3、I believe that both candidates should make it absolutely clear that they share a basic commitment to the success of the negotiations now taking place in Paris.

  我相信两党的总统候选人,都应绝对明确地表示,他们对于促成现在巴黎举行的商谈成功,具有基本的言语约束(言约)。

  4、 he second imperative of our policy for peace is that we must meet our commitment and keep our promises to use our strength to oppose aggression.

  我们和平政策的第二条诫命,就是我们必须尽我们的义务,守住我们的诺言,竭尽所能,反抗侵略(诺言)。

  5、 Vietnam may be a bitter hoax or it may be a major commitment in the defense of freedom, but it will go away because we yell “foul”; it will not fade because we blow retreat.

  越南可能是一种痛苦的玩笑,也可能是在保卫自由中的一个大的牵累,它不会因为我们大叫讨厌而走开,也不会因为我们鸣金收兵而消失(牵累)

  6、 The report said that new commitments of US$50.7 million during fiscal year 1968 raised total investments of the International Finance Corporation in private enterprises in its member countries to US$271.8 million in 39 countries.

  1968年会计年度新的投资计有5070万美元,使得国际金融公司在其他会员国的私人企业总投资,39个国家共达27180万美元(投资)。

  7、 The Japanese have faithfully observed their commitments.日本人忠实地遵守了投降条件(条件)。

  其他:

  an all-around commitment(全面的约束)

  to give a precipitate commitment(给以轻率的

  保险种种:

  accident insurance

  意外保险

  accident death insurance

  意外死亡保险

  accounts receivable insurance

  应收帐款保险

  additional insurance

  加保

  agricultural insurance

  农业保险

  air transport insurance

  空运保险

  air transportation cargo insurance

  空运货物保险

  aircraft hull insurance

  飞机机身保险

  aircraft passenger insurance

  飞机乘客保险

  all risks insurance

  综合保险

  annuity insurance

  年金保险

  automobile insurance

  汽车保险

  aviation insurance

  航空保险

  aviation liability insurance

  航空责任保险

  aviation personal accident insurance

  航空人身意外保险

  bad debt insurance

  坏帐保险

  baggage insurance

  行李保险

  bailee's customers insurance

  受托人代客保险

  basic insurance

  基本保险

  blanket insurance

  总括保险

  block insurance

  船舶保险

  boiler explosion insurance

  锅炉爆炸保险

  bond insurance

  债券保险

  bonding insurance

  保证保险

  broker insurance

  保险掮客

  building insurance

  建筑物保险

  burglary insurance

  盗窃保险

  business interruption insurance

  业务中断保险

  business liability insurance

  营业责任保险

  capital insurance

  资本保险

  cargo insurance

  货物保险

  cargo marine insurance

  海洋货运保险

  cargo transportation insurance

  货物运输保险

  carrier's liability insurance

  承运人责任保险

  cash messenger insurance

  现金运送保险

  casualty insurance

  不幸事故保险, 灾害保险

  cattle insurance

  家畜保险

  cede insurance

  分保

  child's insurance

  儿童保险

  civilliability insurance

  民事责任保险

  civil responsibility insurance

  责任保险

  collective insurance

  集体保险

  collective accident insurance

  集体灾害保险

  collision insurance

  碰撞保险

  commercial credit insurance

  商业信用保险

  commission insurance

  佣金保险

  compensation insurance

  职工赔偿保险

  comprehensive insurance

  综合保险, 全程保险

  compulsory insurance

  强制保险

  concurrent insurance

  同时保险

  consequential damage insurance

  间接损害保险

  consequential loss insurance

  间接损失保险

  consignment export insurance

  寄售输出保险

  consignment sale export insurance

  寄销出口保险

  consignment stock insurance

  寄销货物保险

  continued insurance

  继续保险

  convertible insurance

  转换保险

  cost and insurance

  成本加 保险价

  credit insurance

  信用保险

  credit life insurance

  信用人寿保险(借款人死亡时, 应将赔偿金付给放款人)

  crop insurance

  作物保险

  damage insurance

  损失保险

  death insurance

  死亡保险

  deferred insurance

  搁置保险

  deposit insurance

  存款保险

  disability insurance

  残废保险

  disbursements insurance

  船舶费用保险

  domestic insurance

  家计保险

  domestic animal transportation insurance

  家畜运输保险

  double insurance

  双重保险

  duty insurance

  关税保险

  earthquake insurance

  地震保险

  economic policy insurance

  经济政策保险

  education insurance

  教育保险

  elevator liability insurance

  电梯责任保险

  employee's pension insurance

  职工退休养老保险

  employer's liability insurance

  雇主责任保险; 职工伤害保险

  employment insurance

  就业保险

  endowment insurance

  人寿定期保险, 养老保险, 储蓄保险

  endowment life insurance

  人寿定期保险

  engineering insurance

  工程保险

  erection insurance

  机器安装保险

  excess insurance

  超额保险

  exchange risk insurance

  外汇风险保险

  exhibition insurance

  展览保险

  expected profit insurance

  预期利润保险

  explosion insurance

  爆炸保险

  export insurance

  出口保险, 输出保险

  extended terms insurance

  延期保险

  external investment principal insurance

  国外投资本金保险

  facultative insurance

  临时保险

  family income insurance

  家庭收入保险

  farm insurance

  农业保险

  fermentation insurance

  发酵保险

  fidelity insurance

  职工忠诚保险

  fire insurance

  火灾保险, 火险

  fiscal insurance

  租税保险

  fixed term insurance

  定期保险

  flood insurance

  洪水保险

  forced insurance

  强制保险

  foreign exchange fluctuation insurance

  外汇波动保险

  fraternal insurance

  互助救济保险

  freight insurance

  运费保险

  frost insurance

  霜害保险

  full value insurance

  全值保险

  general average disbursement insurance

  共同海损费用保险

  general export insurance

  普通输出保险

  government employee insurance

  公务人员保险

  group insurance

  团体保险

  group life insurance

  团体人身保险

  guarantee insurance

  保证保险, 盗窃意外保险

  hail insurance

  雹害保险

  harvest insurance

  收获保险

  hazardous insurance

  危险物品保险

  health insurance

  健康保险

  hire purchase credit insurance

  租赁信用保险

  homeowner's insurance

  房主保险

  hospitalization insurance

  医疗保险

  hull insurance

  船舶保险, 运输工具保险

  hypothecation insurance

  抵押保险

  imaginary profit insurance

  预期利益保险

  immovable insurance

  不动产保险

  inconvertibility insurance

  国外投资本利不能兑换汇回保险

  long life insurance

  长寿保险

  straight life insurance

  终身保险

  strike expenses insurance

  罢工追加费用保险

  subsidiary insurance

  附属保险

  supplementary insurance

  追加保险

  survivorship insurance

  共有财产中归后死者所得的联合保险

  term insurance

  定期保险

  theft insurance

  盗窃保险

  time insurance

  定期保险

  time hull insurance

  船舶定期保险

  title insurance

  产权保证保险

  insurance for adult

  成人保险

  insurance for medical care

  医疗保险

  insurance of export-import goods

  进出口货物保险

  insurance of valuables

  贵重物品保险

  insurance or guarantee of private loans

  私人贷款保险或担保

  “群”的表达

  观众a crowd of spectators

  一群人a crowd of people

  一群人a throng of people

  一群影迷a throng of film fans

  一群女学生a group of girl students

  一群旁观者a group of onlookers

  一群欢迎者a troop of welcomers

  一群示威者a troop of demonstrators

  注:

  CROWD:无组织或者无秩序的人群;

  THRONG: 为数众多的挤在一处或向前涌去的群;

  GROUP:有一定组织的;

  TROOP:正常行进中的群

  一群才子a galaxy of talents

  一群美女a galaxy of beauties

  一群匪徒a band of gangsters

  一群劫匪a gang of robbers

  一群建筑物a cluster of buildings

  一群海岛a cluster of islands

  注:

  GALAXY:出色或著名的人物群;

  BAND/GANG:有明显在轻蔑色彩,强盗、匪徒等的群(帮、伙);

  CLUSTER:集结物体的群(簇、堆)。

  一群羊a flock of sheep

  一群鸭a flock of ducks

  一群牛a herd of cattle

  一群马a herd of horses

  一群豺狼a pack of wolves

  一群猎犬a pack of hounds

  一群猴子a host of monkeys

  一群蜜蜂a swarm of bees

  注:

  FLOCK: 飞鸟家禽、牲畜等的群,尤指羊群;

  HERD:大动物的群;

  PACK:野兽、猎犬等的群

相关热词:英语 翻译 词汇
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