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2007年考研英语参考答案和争议题解析(2)

2007-3-16 05:08 点点英语论坛 

  17.[A] controlling   [B] former   [C] remaining   [D] original

  18.[A] slower   [B] faster   [C] easier   [D] tougher

  17、我选 remaining,其它答案选former.本句的意思为到1854年,奴隶制在所有(被解放的)地方都废除了,除了西班牙剩下的殖民地以外。

  怎么可能选前殖民地呢?

  18、我选slower,其它答案选 tougher.但联系上面的句子,并注意到By 1854, early, still 这些时间暗示词,最佳答案是选也与时间相关的slower.废除奴隶制的承诺很早就完成了,但是因为新国家需要收入,所以有的承诺取消纳税的承诺实现的就晚的多。tougher 与上文联系不够紧密。

  阅读23

  阅读三道争议题解析:

  Text 1

  This success, coupled with later research showing that memory itself is not genetically determined, led Ericsson to conclude that the act of memorizing is more of a cognitive exercise than an intuitive one. In other words, whatever inborn differences two people may exhibit in their abilities to memorize, those differences are swamped by how well each person “encodes” the information. And the best way to learn how to encode information meaningfully, Ericsson determined, was a process known as deliberate practice. Deliberate practice entails more than simply repeating a task. Rather, it involves setting specific goals, obtaining immediate feedback and concentrating as much on technique as on outcome.

  23. According to Ericsson, good memory

  [A] depends on meaningful processing of information.

  [B] results from intuitive rather than cognitive exercises.

  [C] is determined by genetic rather than psychological factors.

  [D] requires immediate feedback and a high degree of concentration.

  我选A), 有的答案选D)。A整合了本段话的意思。D貌似答案,但错在a high degree 与原文信息concentrating as much on technique as on outcome不一致。

  阅读30

  Text 2

  For the past several years, the Sunday newspaper supplement Parade has featured a column called “Ask Marilyn.” People are invited to query Marilyn vos Savant, who at age 10 had tested at a mental level of someone about 23 years old; that gave her an IQ of 228-the highest score ever recorded. IQ tests ask you to complete verbal and visual analogies, to envision paper after it has been folded and cut, and to deduce numerical sequences, among other similar tasks. So it is a bit confusing when vos Savant fields such queries from the average Joe (whose IQ is 100) as. What's the difference between love and fondness? Or what is the nature of luck and coincidence? It's not obvious how the capacity to visualize objects and to figure out numerical patterns suits one to answer questions that have eluded some of the best poets and philosophers.

  Clearly, intelligence encompasses more than a score on a test. Just what does it mean to be smart? How much of intelligence can be specified, and how much can we learn about it from neurology, genetics, computer science and other fields?

  The defining term of intelligence in humans still seems to be the IQ score, even though IQ tests are not given as often as they used to be. The test comes primarily in two forms: the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale and the Wechsler Intelligence Scales (both come in adult and children's version).Generally costing several hundred dollars, they are usually given only by psychologists, although variations of them populate bookstores and the World Wide Web. Superhigh scores like vos Savant's are no longer possible, because scoring is now based on a statistical population distribution among age peers, rather than simply dividing the mental age by the chronological age and multiplying by 100. Other standardized tests, such as the Scholastic Assessment Test (SAT) and the Graduate Record Exam (GRE), capture the main aspects of IQ tests.

  Such standardized tests may not assess all the important elements necessary to succeed in school and in life, argues Robert J. Sternberg. In his article “How Intelligent Is Intelligence Testing?”, Sternberg notes that traditional tests best assess analytical and verbal skills but fail to measure creativity and practical knowledge, components also critical to problem solving and life success. Moreover, IQ tests do not necessarily predict so well once populations or situations change. Research has found that IQ predicted leadership skills when the tests were given under low-stress conditions, but under high-stress conditions. IQ was negatively correlated with leadership—that is, it predicted the opposite. Anyone who has toiled through SAT will testify that test-taking skill also matters, whether it's knowing when to guess or what questions to skip.

  30. What is the author's attitude towards IQ tests?

  [A] Supportive.

  [B] Skeptical.

  [C] Impartial.

  [D] Biased.

  我选B),有的答案选C)。 第二段内容和最后一段从moreover开始的内容,提示答案为skeptical.

  阅读35

  Text 3

  During the past generation, the American middle-class family that once could count on hard work and fair play to keep itself financially secure has been transformed by economic risk and new realities. Now a pink slip, a bad diagnosis, or a disappearing spouse can reduce a family from solidly middle class to newly poor in a few months.

  In just one generation, millions of mothers have gone to work, transforming basic family economics. Scholars, policymakers, and critics of all stripes have debated the social implications of these changes, but few have looked at the side effect: family risk has risen as well. Today's families have budgeted to the limits of their new two-paycheck status. As a result, they have lost the parachute they once had in times of financial setback-a back-up earner (usually Mom) who could go into the workforce if the primary earner got laid off on fell sick. This “added-worker effect” could support the safety net offered by unemployment insurance or disability insurance to help families weather bad times. But today, a disruption to family fortunes can no longer be made up with extra income from an otherwise-stay-at-home partner.

  During the same period, families have been asked to absorb much more risk in their retirement income. Steelworkers, airline employees, and now those it the auto industry are joining millions of families who must worry about interest rates, stock market fluctuation, and the harsh reality that they may outlive their retirement money. For much of the past year, President Bush campaigned to move Social Security to a savings-account model, with retirees trading much or all of their guaranteed payments for payments depending on investment returns. For younger families, the picture is not any better. Both the absolute cost of healthcare and share of it borne by families have risen—and newly fashionable health-savings plans are spreading from legislative halls to Wal-Mart workers, with much higher deductibles and a large new does of investment risk for families' future healthcare. Even demographics are working against the middle class family, as the odds of having a weak elderly parent—and all the attendant need for physical and financial assistance—have jumped eightfold in just one generation.

  From the middle-class family perspective, much of this, understandably, looks far less like an opportunity to exercise more financial responsibility, and a good deal more like a frightening acceleration of the wholesale shift of financial risk onto their already overburdened shoulders. The financial fallout has begun, and the political fallout may not be far behind.

  35. Which of the following is the best title for this text?

  [A] The Middle Class on the Alert

  [B] The Middle Class on the Cliff

  [C] The Middle Class in Conflict

  [D]The Middle Class in Ruins

  我选B), 有的答案选A)。

  本文主要讲述美国中产阶级陷入了困境,并没有说他们保持警惕。On the cliff在这里是比喻。另外,原文标题为The Middle Class on the Precipice.Precipice 为超纲词,命题者将之替换为cliff.原文地址:http://www.harvardmagazine.com/on-line/010682.html

  The Middle Class on the Precipice

  Rising financial risks for American families

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