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2007-03-19 17:39沪江论坛

  SECTION 2: READING TEST (30 minutes)

  Directions: In this section you will read several passages. Each one is followed by several questions about it. You are to choose ONE best answer, (A), (B), (C) or (D), to each question. Answer all the questions following each passage on the basis of what is stated or implied in that passage and write the letter of the answer you have chosen in the corresponding space in your ANSWER BOOKLET.

  Questions 1-5

  Anyone who doubts that children are born with a healthy amount of ambition need spend only a few minutes with a baby eagerly learning to walk or a headstrong toddler starting to talk. No matter how many times the little ones stumble in their initial efforts, most keep on trying, determined to master their amazing new skill. It is only several years later, around the start of middle or junior high school, many psychologists and teachers agree, that a good number of kids seem to lose their natural drive to succeed and end up joining the ranks of underachievers. For the parents of such kids, whose own ambition is often inextricably tied to their children's success, it can be a bewildering, painful experience. So it's no wonder some parents find themselves hoping that, just maybe, ambition can be taught like any other subject at school.

  It's not quite that simple. "Kids can be given the opportunities to become passionate about a subject or activity, but they can't be forced," says Jacquelynne Eccles, a psychology professor at the University of Michigan, who led a landmark, 25-year study examining what motivated first-and seventh-grades in three school districts. Even so, a growing number of educators and psychologists do believe it is possible to unearth ambition in students who don't seem to have much. They say that by instilling confidence, encouraging some risk taking, being accepting of failure and expanding the areas in which children may be successful, both parents and teachers can reignite that innate desire to achieve.

  Figuring out why the fire went out is the first step. Assuming that a kid doesn't suffer from an emotional or learning disability, or isn't involved in some family crisis at home, many educators attribute a sudden lack of motivation to a fear of failure or peer pressure that conveys the message that doing well academically somehow isn't cool. "Kids get so caught up in the moment-to-moment issue of will they look smart or dumb, and it blocks them from thinking about the long term," says Carol Dweck, a psychology professor at Stanford. "You have to teach them that they are in charge of their intellectual growth." Over the past couple of years, Dweck has helped run an experimental workshop with New York City public school seventh-graders to do just that. Dubbed Brainology, the unorthodox approach uses basic neuroscience to teach kids how the brain works and how it can continue to develop throughout life. "The message is that everything is within the kids' control, that their intelligence is malleable," says Lisa Blackwell, a research scientist at Columbia University who has worked with Dweck to develop and run the program, which has helped increase the students' interest in school and turned around their declining math grades. More than any teacher or workshop, Blackwell says, "parents can play a critical role in conveying this message to their children by praising their effort, strategy and progress rather than emphasizing their 'smartness' or praising high performance alone. Most of all, parents should let their kids know that mistakes are a part of learning."

  Some experts say our education system, with its strong emphasis on testing and rigid separation of students into different levels of ability, also bears blame for the disappearance of drive in some kids. "These programs shut down the motivation of all kids who aren't considered gifted and talented. They destroy their confidence," says Jeff Howard, a social psychologist and president of the Efficacy Institute, a Boston-area organization that works with teachers and parents in school districts around the country to help improve children's academic performance. Howard and other educators say it's important to expose kids to a world beyond homework and tests, through volunteer work, sports, hobbies and other extracurricular activities. "The crux of the issue is that many students experience education as irrelevant to their life goals and ambitions," says Michael Nakkual, a Harvard education professor who runs a Boston-area mentoring program called Project IF (Inventing the Future), which works to get low-income underachievers in touch with their aspirations. The key to getting kids to aim higher at school is to disabuse them of the notion that classwork is irrelevant, to show them how doing well at school can actually help them fulfill their dreams beyond it. Like any ambitious toddler, they need to understand that you have to learn to walk before you can run.

  1. Which of the following best expresses the main idea of the first paragraph?

  (A) Children are born with a kind of healthy ambition.

  (B) How a baby learns to walk and talk.

  (C) Ambition can be taught like other subjects at school.

  (D) Some teenage children lose their drive to succeed.

  2. According to some educators and psychologists, all of the following would be helpful to cultivate students' ambition to succeed EXCEPT ________.

  (A) stimulating them to build up self-confidence

  (B) cultivating the attitude of risk taking

  (C) enlarging the areas for children to succeed

  (D) making them understand their family crisis

  3. What is the message that peer pressure conveys to children?

  (A) A sudden lack of motivation is attributed to the student's failure.

  (B) Book knowledge is not as important as practical experience.

  (C) Looking smart is more important for young people at school.

  (D) To achieve academic excellence should not be treated as the top priority.

  4. The word "malleable" in the clause "that their intelligence is malleable," (para.3) most probably means capable of being ________.

  (A) altered and developed

  (B) blocked and impaired

  (C) sharpened and advanced

  (D) replaced and transplanted

  5. The expression "to disabuse them of the notion" (para.4) can be paraphrased as ________.

  (A) to free them of the idea

  (B) to help them understand the idea

  (C) to imbue them with the notion

  (D) to inform them of the concept

  Questions 6-10

  Civil-liberties advocates reeling from the recent revelations on surveillance had something else to worry about last week: the privacy of the billions of search queries made on sites like Google, AOL, Yahoo and Microsoft. As part of a long-running court case, the government has asked those companies to turn over information on its users' search behavior. All but Google have handed over data, and now the Department of Justice has moved to compel the search giant to turn over the goods.

  What makes this case different is that the intended use of the information is not related to national security, but the government's continuing attempt to police Internet pornography. In 1998, Congress passed the Child Online Protection Act (COPA), but courts have blocked its implementation due to First Amendment concerns. In its appeal, the DOJ wants to prove how easy it is to inadvertently stumble upon pore. In order to conduct a controlled experiment-to be performed by a UC Berkeley professor of statistics-the DOJ wants to use a large sample of actual search terms from the different search engines. It would then use those terms to do its own searches, employing the different kinds of filters each search engine offers, in an attempt to quantify how often "material that is harmful to minors" might appear. Google contends that since it is not a party to the case, the government has not right to demand its proprietary information to perform its test. "We intend to resist their motion vigorously," said Google attorney Nicole Wong.

  DOJ spokesperson Charles Miller says that the government is requesting only the actual search terms, and not anything that would link the queries to those who made them. (The DOJ is also demanding a list of a million Web sites that Google indexes to determine the degree to which objectionable sites are searched.) Originally, the government asked for a treasure trove of all searches made in June and July 2005; the request has been scaled back to one week's worth of search queries.

  One oddity about the DOJ's strategy is that the experiment could conceivably sink its own case. If the built-in filters that each search engine provides are effective in blocking porn sites, the government will have wound up proving what the opposition has said all along-you don't need to suppress speech to protect minors on the Net. "We think that our filtering technology does a good job protecting minors from inadvertently seeing adult content," says Ramez Naam, group program manager of MSN Search.

  Though the government intends to use these data specifically for its COPA-related test, it's possible that the information could lead to further investigations and, perhaps, subpoenas to find out who was doing the searching. What if certain search terms indicated that people were contemplating terrorist actions or other criminal activities? Says the DOJ's Miller, "I'm assuming that if something raised alarms, we would hand it over to the proper authorities." Privacy advocates fear that if the government request is upheld, it will open the door to further government examination of search behavior. One solution would be for Google to stop storing the information, but the company hopes to eventually use the personal information of consenting customers to improve search performance. "Search is a window into people's personalities," says Kurt Opsahl, an Electronic Frontier Foundation attorney. "They should be able to take advantage of the Internet without worrying about Big Brother looking over their shoulders."

  6. When the American government asked Google, AOL, Yahoo and Microsoft to turn over information on its users' search behavior, the major intention is _________.

  (A) to protect national security

  (B) to help protect personal freedom

  (C) to monitor Internet pornography

  (D) to implement the Child Online Protection Act

  7. Google refused to turn over "its proprietary information"(para.2) required by DOJ as it believes that ________.

  (A) it is not involved in the court case

  (B) users' privacy is most important

  (C) the government has violated the First Amendment

  (D) search terms is the company's business secret

  8. The phrase "scaled back to" in the sentence "the request has been scaled back to one week's worth of search queries" (para.3) can be replaced by _________.

  (A) maximized to

  (B) minimized to

  (C) returned to

  (D) reduced to

  9. In the sentence "One oddity about the DOJ's strategy is that the experiment could conceivably sink its own case."(para.4), the expression "sink its own case" most probably means that _________.

  (A) counterattack the opposition

  (B) lead to blocking of porn sites

  (C) provide evidence to disprove the case

  (D) give full ground to support the case

  10. When Kurt Opsahl says that "They should be able to take advantage of the Internet without worrying about Big Brother looking over their shoulders." (para.5), the expression "Big Brother" is used to refer to _________.

  (A) a friend or relative showing much concern

  (B) a colleague who is much more experienced

  (C) a dominating and all-powerful ruling power

  (D) a benevolent and democratic organization

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