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2007-03-19 16:49沪江论坛

  Questions 11-15

  The Lake District in north-west England is an area remarkably little affected by industrialization. The principal activity is still sheep-farming, as it has been for a thousand years, and many ancient words like 'fell' for 'hill' and 'tam' for 'lake' are still in daily use. In spite of its heavy rainfall and relative inaccessibility, its special atmosphere and spectacular natural beauty combine to make this one of England's favourite holiday areas at all seasons of the year. But at Christmas 1968, still gripped by the fear that foot-and-mouth disease could spread to the hill flocks and sweep like wildfire right up to the Scottish border, it was quieter than ever before in this century. Luckily not a single farm had caught tile infection, the nearest case having been an isolated one at Kendal several weeks before. but every Lakeland farmer knows that one case among the unfenced hill flocks on the fells could lead to complete annihilation of hundreds of thousands of sheep and the virtual end of the district's principal industry; you cannot replace sheep, acclimatized to their own part of the fell for generations, in the same way that you can replace cattle in a field.

  Nobody could remember a Christmas like it, especially Boxing Dab, which is traditionally one of the big outdoor holidays of the Lakeland year. Normally this is a day spent following the mountain packs of hounds, felt-walking and, if the weather is propitious, skiing and skating, but this time there were none of these things. Visitors were actively discouraged, and those who did come were asked not to go on the fells, footpaths or bridleways or near farmland, while motorists were requested not to drive on minor roads and to shun the smaller valleys. The enterprising hotels which had earlier in the year decided to keep open during the winter were by the end of October having a desperate time. Hundreds of bookings had been cancelled and scores of dinner parties and young farmers' reunions eliminated. All youth hostels were closed. At least one climbing club, unable to climb, substituted a training programme of films and simulated climbs on the more substantial municipal buildings.

  The weather in the area was dry, crisp, windless and cold, in fact ideal for brisk outdoor activities. But nobody was able to enjoy it. Everything was stopped: hunting, walking, climbing, skiing, motor cycle trials, sporting events of every description. All the seasonal dances, festivals, conferences, shepherds' meets and a hundred and one other social occasions abandoned. The ice was bearing on some of the lakes but you could not go skating there. Meanwhile the foxes, emboldened by an unprecedented freedom from harassment, were stalking closer to the farms and the flocks of Christmas turkeys, while the hounds sulked miserably in their kennels.

  Farmers are apt to criticize some sections of the outdoor fraternity for their occasional thoughtless behaviour, but the way that walkers, climbers, skiers, fishermen, hunters and the rest went out of their way to help them at this time should never be forgotten. The general public, locals and visitors a like., tried to give the fell farmers a sporting chance, and this remarkable display of public spirit was the one bright note in a very sad time.

  11. The word "this" in line 5 refers to_______.

  (A) its special atmosphere
  (B) the Industrial Revolution
  (C) the spectacular natural beauty
  (D) the Lake District

  12. The district's principal industry is_______.

  (A) fell-walking
  (B) snow-skiing
  (C) sheep-farming
  (D) animal-hunting

  13. Because the sheep in the hills are unfenced toot-and-mouth disease might _______.

  (A) spread beyond the lakes
  (B) annihilate thousands of horses
  (C) lead to the virtual end of the tourist industry
  (D) destroy the flocks of sheep completely

  14. Why were some hotels described as "enterprising"?

  (A) Because hundreds of bookings had been cancelled.
  (B) Because they decided to keep open during the winter.
  (C) Because they still held dinner parties and young farmers reunions.
  (D) Because they substituted a training programme of films and simulated climbs.

  15. According to the passage, which of the following statements is NOT true during Christmas time in 1968?

  (A) The seasonal dances, festivals and other social occasions were abandoned.
  (B) The weather in the Lake District was ideal for brisk outdoor activities.
  (C) The foxes were stalking closer to the farms and the flocks of turkeys.
  (D) The ice was bearing on some of the lakes in the district.

  Questions 16-20

  Why Men Explode

  Although women get angry just as often as men, rage remains the prototypical male emotion. "My kids still talk about my 'freak-outs,'" says Kim Garretson, 54, a corporate strategist in Minneapolis, who once erupted into volcanic fur5; in a restaurant when served a still-frozen entre2e. "1 didn't express much of anything, but once in a while, I'd just blow."

  Why do so many men lose their tempers? "The rage comes because there's so much frustration when you cut off something that is you. Yet that's what men do, because they're afraid that if you give emotions an inch, they'll take a mile," says psychologist Kenneth W. Christian, PhD, author of Your Own Worst Enemy. "If you don't learn how to work with your emotions, you're a shadow figure, a small incomplete version of yourself. It's only a matter of time until the house of cards that you are falls apart."

  For Kim Garretson, that day came four years ago when he was diagnosed with prostate cancer. As often happens when illness strikes men, he realized he had nothing to lose, and everything to gain, by letting himself feel. "I'm no longer afraid of expressing almost any emotion," he says. "I get anger out with my quick, sharp tongue and move on. I use humor as an outlet, I've reconnected with old friends. I talk about the big questions of life. 1 search for spiritual meaning."

  Guys, Try These

  In his Dirty Harry days, Clint Eastwood never flinched. Now as a husband, father and Oscar-winning director of movies that explore the depths of men's souls, the tough guy has turned tender——but not talkative. "The men who hide their emotions the most may; in fact be the most sensitive," observes Christian. Yet men can become more emotionally expressive without tears or fears. Here are some ways to start:

    ●Develop a creative outlet. Hobbies like painting or playing a musical instrument can tap into a man's soul. Remember that much of the world's greatest art, music and literature was created by the allegedly emotionally challenged sex.

    ●Release stress and anger through exercise. "When you get to the breaking point where you just want to put your head through a wall, taking a ten-minute time-out isn't enough to calm down," says Westover, who in moments of extreme emotion finds a place to drop to the floor and do push-ups.

    ●Try' expressing "a little" emotion. "Start with feelings you can control, find a sympathetic ear and use the term 'a little,'" suggests Coleman, Saying you feel "a little" sad or "a little" scared feels safer than a full declaration of vulnerability.

  ●Lean into the discomfort. "Rather than avoiding a feeling that you're not sure how to handle, move toward it," says psychologist Travis Bradbury, PhD, co-author of The Emotional Intelligence Quick Book. "Learning to handle emotions takes time and practice, because you need to retrain your brain, but it does get easier."

  16. Kim Garretson, a 54-year-old corporate strategist, once got very angry when_______.

  (A) diagnosed with lung cancer
  (B) given a take musical instrument
  (C) dragged into a mountainous trip
  (D) served cold food in a restaurant

  17. "They'll take a mile." (para. 2), 'they' refers to_______.

  (A) psychologists
  (B) cards
  (C) emotions
  (D) friends

  18. If you fail to learn how to work with your emotions,_______.

  (A) you will sooner or later break down
  (B) you will be an active figure in shadow boxing
  (C) you will be afraid of expressing almost any emotion
  (D) you will spend more time searching for spiritual meaning

  19. Which of the following ways to control emotions is NOT recommended in the passage?

  (A) To talk as much as possible.
  (B) To lean into the discomfort.
  (C) To develop a creative outlet.
  (D) To try expressing "a little" emotion.

  20. What main idea is discussed in the passage?

  (A) How to develop your emotions.
  (B) How to check your emotions.
  (C) How to handle your emotions.
  (D) How to express your emotions.

  Questions 21-25

  "You're off to the World Economic Forum?" asked the Oxford economist, enviously. "How very impressive. They've never invited me."

  Three days later, t queued in the snow outside the conference center in Davos, standing behind mink coals and cashmere overcoats, watched over by' Swiss policemen with machineguns. "Reporting press? You can't come in here. Side entrance, please." I stood in line again, this time behind Puffa jackets and Newsweek journalists, waiting to collect my orange badge. Once inside. I found that the seminar I wanted to go to was being held ill a half-empty room. '"You can't sit here. All seats are reserved for white badges. Coloured badges have to stand."

  An acquaintance invited me to a dinner he was hosting: "There are people I'd like you to meet." The green-badged Forum employee stopped me at the door. "This is a participants' dinner. Orange badges are not allowed." Then, later, reluctantly: "If you're coming in. please can you turn your badge around? Diners may be upset if they see you're a colour."

  "Why does anyone put up with being treated like this?" t asked a Financial Times correspondent. "Because we all live in hope of becoming white badges," he said. "Then we'll know what's reall3 going on."

  A leading British businessman was wearing a white badge, but it bore a small logo on the top left-hand corner: GLT. "What's a GLT?" I asked.

  Ah, he said. "well, it's a Davos club. I'm a Global Leader for Tomorrow."

  "That sounds very important," I said. "Yes." He said, "t thought so myself until I bumped into the man &o d sponsored me. on the way to my first meeting. I asked him if he was coming: and he said, 'Oh no, dear boy, I don't bother with that any, longer. I'm not a GLT any, more, I'm an IGWEL.' What's an IGWEL?' I asked him. 'A member of tile Informal Group of World Economic Leaders of Today."

  The World Economic Forum has employed a simple psychological truth——that nothing is more desirable than that which excludes us——to brilliant effect. Year after Fear, its participants apply. to return, in the hope that this time they'll be a little closer to the real elite. Next year, they, too, might be invited to the private receptions for Bill Clinton, Kofi Annan or Bill Gates. instead of having to stand on the conference center's steps like teenage rock fans.

  It's the sheer concentration of individuals in possession of power, wealth or knowledge that makes the privately run Forum so desirable to its participants. The thousand chief executives who attend its annual meeting control, between them, more than 70 percent of international trade. Every year, they are joined by a couple of dozen presidents and prime ministers, by senior journalists, a changing selection of leading thinkers, academics and diplomats, and by rising stars of the business world. Access to the meeting is by invitation only, costs several thousand pounds a time for business participants,and is ruthlessly controlled.

  2l. "Mink" in line 4 refers to ____

  (A) colored badges
  (B) impressive artificial hide
  (C) expensive thick fur
  (D)jackets designed for GLT

  22. V,/e learn from the passage that orange badges represent

  (A) forum employees
  (B) conference correspondents
  (C) senior diplomats
  (D) leading thinkers

  23. "Because we all live in hope of becoming white badges." In this sentence 'white badges' refer to_______.

  (A) former presidents
  (B) senior journalists
  (C) leading academics
  (D) chief executives

  24. Which of the following does NOT suggest that the forum is ruthlessly controlled'?

  (A) Participants must hold letters of invitation.
  (B) Participants should queue in the snow outside.
  (C) Swiss policemen have to carry. machine-guns.
  (D) Forum employees could check anybody if they wish.

  25. According to the article, which of the following statements about badges is true?

  (A) The Forum employee wear green badges.
  (B) The participant wear colored badges.
  (C) The journalists wear white badges.
  (D) The executives wear orange badges.

  Questions 26-30

  Nutritional statements that depend on observation or anecdote should be given serious consideration, but consideration should also be given to the physical and psychological quirks of the observer. The significance attached to an experimental conclusion depends, in part, on the scientific credentials of the experimentalist; similarly, the significance of selected observations depends, again in part, on the preconceptions of the observer. Regimes that are proposed by people who do not look as if they enjoyed their food, and who do not themselves have a well-fed air, may not be ideal for normal people. Graham Lusk, who combined expert knowledge with a normal appreciation of good food. describes how he and Chittenden, who advocated a low-protein diet, spent some weeks in Britain eating the rations of the 1914-18 war and then got more ample rations on board ship. Lusk attributed his sense of well-being to the extra meat he was eating; Chittenden attributed it to the sea air.

  When young animals are reared for sale as meat, the desirable amount of protein in their food is a simple matter of economics. Protein is expensive, so the amount given is increased up to the level at which the increased rate of growth is offset by the increased cost of the diet. As already mentioned, the efficiency with which protein is used to build the body diminishes as the percentage of protein in the diet increases. In practice, the best diets seem to contain between 15 and 25 per cent protein. It is not certain that maximum growth rate is desirable in children; some experiments with rats suggest that rapid growth is associated with a shorter ultimate expectation of life. There are practical and ethical obstacles to human experiments of life. There are practical and ethical obstacles to human experiments in which the effect of protein can be measured. Children do not grow as fast as the young animals in which there is a commercial interest, their need for protein is therefore presumably smaller, but there is no evidence that the desirable protein level, after weaning, is less than 15 per cent. An argument against this percentage of protein is that in human milk only 13 per cent of the solid material is protein. That protein is, however, of better quality than any protein likely to be given to infants that are not weaned on cow's milk. Furthermore, milk, like other products of evolution, is a compromise. Mothers are not expendable. A species would not long survive if mothers depleted their own proteins so much in the course of feeding the first child that the prospects of later children were seriously jeopardized. Human milk is no doubt a good food, but the assumption that it is necessarily ideal is stretching belief in the beneficence and perfection of Nature too far.

  26. When considering nutritional statements, apart from statements that depend on observation, we should also consider_______.

  (A) the strange low-protein diet
  (B) the unusual character of the observer
  (C) the unexpected meals provided by the observer
  (D) the ample rations of the 1914-18 war

  27. "It" in line 12 refers to_______.

  (A) the scientific credential
  (B) the experimental conclusion
  (C) the expert knowledge
  (D) the sense of well-being

  28. What consideration is borne in mind when giving young animals protein?

  (A) The more, the better.
  (B) The less, the worse.
  (C) The minimum input, the maximum output.
  (D) The maximum input, the minimum output.

  29. According to the passage, the maximum growth rate many not be desirable in children, for rapid growth is associated with_______.

  (A) life expectancy
  (B) practical needs
  (C) scientific credentials
  (D) commercial interest

  30. According to the author, which of the following statements is NOT true?

  (A) Children do not grow as fast as the young animals.
  (B) The best diets seem to contain between 15 and 25 per cent protein.
  (C) A species would long survive if mothers were exhausted of their own proteins.
  (D) Human milk is definitely a good natural food.

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