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大学英语精读:第五册 UNIT 10

2007-03-02 15:53   来源:旺旺英语       我要纠错 | 打印 | 收藏 | | |

  In 1863 President Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation freeing all slaves in the United States. One hundred years after this decree was signed, however, the life of blacks was still "sadly crippled by the manacles of segregation and the chains of discrimination." On August 28, 1963, a quarter of a million people of all races came to Washington, D. C. to show their support for freedom and justice for all Americans, and for black people in particular. At that demonstration Martin Luther King, Jr. delivered this famous speech, widely regarded as the most eloquent statement of the black people's dreams and aspirations ever made. Dr. King told the world, "I have a dream" that equality would come "to all of God's children." He said he wanted everyone to be able to "join hands and sing in the words of the old Negro spiritual, 'Free at last! Free at last!…'"

I Have a Dream

by Martin Luther King, Jr.

  Five score years ago, a great American, in whose symbolic shadow we stand, signed the Emancipation Proclamation. This momentous decree came as a great beacon light of hope to millions of Negro salves who had been seared in the flames of withering injustice. It came as a joyous daybreak to end the long night of captivity.

  But one hundred years later, we must face the tragic fact that the Negro is still not free. One hundred tears later, the life of the Negro is still sadly crippled by the manacles of segregation and the chains of discrimination. One hundred years later, the Negro lives on a lonely island of poverty in the midst of a vast ocean of material prosperity. One hundred years later, the Negro is still languishing in the corners of American society and finds himself an exile in his own land. So we have come here today to dramatize an appalling condition.

  In a sense we have come to our nation's capital to cash a check. When the architects of our republic wrote the magnificent words of the Constitution and the Declaration of Independence, they were signing a promissory note to which every American was to fall heir. This note was a promise that all men would be guaranteed the inalienable rights of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.

  It is obvious today that America has defaulted on this promissory note insofar as her citizens of color are concerned. Instead of honoring this sacred obligation, America has given the Negro people a bad check; a check which has come back marked "insufficient funds." But we refuse to believe that the bank of justice is bankrupt. We refuse to believe that there are insufficient funds in the great vaults of opportunity of this nation. So we have come to cash this check —— a check that will give us upon demand the riches of freedom and the security of justice. We have also come to this hallowed spot to remind America of the fierce urgency of now. This is no time to engage in the luxury of cooling off or to take the tranquilizing drug of gradualism. Now is the time to make real the promises of Democracy. Now is the time to rise from the dark and desolate valley of segregation to the sunlit path of racial justice. Now is the time to open the doors of opportunity to all of God's children. Now is the time to lift our nation from the quicksands of racial injustice to the solid rock of brotherhood.

  It would be fatal for the nation to overlook the urgency of the moment and to underestimate the determination of the Negro. This sweltering summer of the Negro's legitimate discontent will not pass until there is an invigorating autumn of freedom and equality. 1963 is not an end, but a beginning. There will be neither rest nor tranquility in America until the Negro is granted his citizenship rights. The whirlwind of revolt will continue to shake the foundations of our nation until the bright day of justice emerges.

  But there is something I must say to my people who stand on the warm threshold which leads into the palace of justice. In the process of gaining our rightful place we must not be guilty of wrongful deeds. Let us not seek to satisfy our thirst for freedom by drinking from the cup of bitterness and hatred. We must forever conduct our struggle on the high plane of dignity and discipline. We must not allow our creative protest to degenerate into physical violence. Again and again we must rise to the majestic heights of meeting physical force with soul force. The marvelous new militancy which people, for many of our white brothers, as evidenced by their presence here presence here today, have come to realize that their destiny is tied up with our destiny and their freedom is inextricably bound to our freedom. We cannot walk alone.

  And as we walk, we must make the pledge that we shall always march ahead. We cannot turn back. There are those who are asking the devotees of civil rights, "When will you be satisfied?" We can never be satisfied as long as the Negro is the victim of the unspeakable horrors of police brutality. We can never be satisfied as long as our bodies, heavy with the fatigue of travel, cannot gain lodging in the motels of the highways and the hotels of the cities. We can never be satisfied as long as our children are stripped of their selfhood and robbed of their dignity by signs stating "For Whites Only," We cannot be satisfied as long as the Negro's basic mobility is from a smaller ghetto to a larger one. We can never be satisfied as long as a Negro in Mississippi cannot vote and a Negro in New York believes he has nothing for which to vote. No, no, we are not satisfied, and we will not be satisfied until justice rolls down like waters and righteousness like a mighty stream.

  I say to you today, my friends, that in spite of the difficulties and frustrations of the moment I still have a dream. It is a dream deeply rooted in the American dream.

  I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: "We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal."

  I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slaveowners will be able to sit down together at the table of brotherhood.

  I have a dream that even the state of Mississippi, a desert state sweltering with the heat of injustice and oppression, will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice.

  I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character.

  I have a dream today.

  I have a dream that the state of Alabama will be transformed into a situation where little black boys and black girls will be able to join hands with little white boys and white girls and walk together as sisters and brothers.

  I have a dream today.

  I have a dream that one day every valley shall be exalted, every hill and mountain shall be made low, the rough place will be made plain, and the crooked places will be made straight, and the glory of the Lord shall be revealed, and all flesh shall see it together.

  This is our hope. This is the faith with which I return to the South. With this faith we will be able to hew out of the mountain of despair a stone of hope. With this faith we will be able to transform the jangling discords of our nation into a beautiful symphony of brotherhood. With this faith we will be able to work together, to pray together, to struggle together, to go to jail together, to stand up for freedom together, knowing that we will be free one day.

  This will be the day when all of God's children will be able to sing with new meaning:

  My country, its of thee

  Sweet land of liberty

  Of thee I sing:

  Land where my fathers died,

  Land of the pilgrims' pride,

  From every mountainside

  Let freedom ring.

  And if America is to be a great nation this must become true. So let freedom ring from the prodigious hilltops of New Hampshire! Let freedom ring from the heightening Alleghenies of Pennsylvania!

  Let freedom ring from the snowcapped Rockies of Colorado!

  Let freedom ring from the curvaceous slopes of California!

  But not only that; let freedom ring from Stone Mountain of Georgia!

  Let freedom ring from Lookout Mountain of Tennessee.

  Let freedom ring from every hill and molehill of Mississippi. From every mountainside, let freedom ring.

  When we let freedom ring, when we let it ring from every village and every hamlet, from every state and every city, we will be able to speed up that day when all of God's children, black men and white men, Jews and Gentiles, Protestants and Catholics, will be able to join hands and sing in the words of the old Negro spiritual, "Free at last! Free at last! Thank God Almighty, we are free at last!"

  NEW WORDS

  Jr.

  abbr. Junior, a term used with name of a son who has the same name as his father

  symbolic

  a.  of, having to do with, or using symbols 象征(性)的

  emancipation

  n.  the act or process of setting free from slavery

  proclamation

  n.  an official public announcement 宣言,声明

  proclaim

  vt. announce publicly

  momentous

  n.  very important or significant 重大的

  momentum

  n.  the force or speed of a moving object 动量

  decree

  n.  an official order; law 法令

  beacon

  n.  a light used to guide or warn  灯塔;灯标

  Negro

  n.  a person belonging to the black race

  sear

  vt. burn with a powerful heat 烧焦灼伤

  flame

  n.  a glowing mass of light given off by a burning substance  火焰

  wither

  v.  (cause to) dry up (使)枯萎

  joyous

  a.  full of joy; joyful

  daybreak

  n.  the time each morning when light first shows;

  captivity

  n.  the state of being in prison or held against one's will 监禁;束缚

  captive

  vt. (a person) confined or held against his will

  cripple

  vt. injure so as to make useless 使伤残

  manacle

  n.  (usu. pl.) either of a pair of iron rings joined by a chain, used for fastening the hands or feet of a prisoner 手铐;脚镣

  segregation

  vt. the separate of one racial group from the rest of society 种族隔离

  segregate

  vt. separate or keep apart from others

  discrimination

  n.  behavior marked by unfairness or injustice toward others because of color, religion, sex, or age 歧视

  poverty

  n.  the condition of being poor

  prosperity

  n.  success or good fortune

  languish

  vi. experience long suffering 受苦,受折磨

  exile

  n.  forced removal from one's country or home; a person who has been forced to leave his country (被)流放(者)

  appalling

  a.  shocking; extremely bad 骇人听闻的,极恶劣的

  architect

  n.  a person who designs buildings and supervises their construction; a maker; creator 建筑师;设计师;缔造者;创造者

  independence

  n.  the condition or quality of being independent

  promissory

  a.  containing or implying a promise

  promissory note

  a.  written promise to pay a stated sum of money to a certain person at a certain time 期票

  heir

  n.  a person who inherits or has the right to inherit the money or property of another 继承人

  inalienable

  a.  cannot be taken away 不可剥夺的

  liberty

  n.  freedom from the control or rule of another

  pursuit

  n.  the act of pursuing; an occupation

  default

  vi. fail to do what is required

  insofar

  ad. to such an extent or degree

  sacred

  a.  holy 神圣的

  obligation

  n.  a duty one must carry out 义务,责任

  insufficient

  a.  not enough

  justice

  n.  the quality of being just or fair; fair treatment according to law or honor

  bankrupt

  a.  unable to pay one's debts 破产的

  vault

  n.  a room with strong walls, used for keeping valuables safe 金库,保管库

  riches

  n.  great wealth

  hallow

  vt. make or treat as holy 使成神圣;把……视为神圣

  urgency

  n.  need for immediate action or attention

  tranquilize

  vt. make or treat as holy

  gradualism

  n.  the principle or method of gradual, as opposed to immediate, change

  desolate

  a.  without people; lonely and sad 荒凉的;孤寂的

  racial

  a.  of or having to do with race

  quicksand

  n.  a naturally occurring mixture of sand and water into which anything resting on its surface sinks 流沙

  brotherhood

  n.  close feeling or friendship among a group; fellowship

  fatal

  a.  causing death; bringing danger or ruin

  underestimate

  vt. guess too low a value for; have too low an opinion of

  determination

  n.  a strong and firm purpose 决心

  sweltering

  n.  unpleasantly hot

  swelter

  v.  oppress with, or suffer from, heat

  legitimate

  a.  being or acting in agreement with the law; reasonable, fair 合法的;合理的

  discontent

  n.  lack of satisfaction; restless unhappiness

  invigorate

  vt. to give a feeling of freshness and healthy strength to 使精力充沛;使健壮

  equality

  n.  the condition of being equal

  tranquility

  n.  calmness; peacefulness

  citizenship

  n.  the state being a citizen

  whirlwind

  n.  a strong wind that turns round and round 旋风

  threshold

  n.  a piece of wood, or stone placed beneath a door; the place or point of beginning 门槛;开端

  rightful

  a.  in accordance with is just or legally correct

  wrongful

  a.  unjust; illegal

  thirst

  n.  a desire for drink, knowledge, freedom, etc.

  hatred

  n.  extremely strong dislike

  discipline

  n.  orderly behavior resulting from training and obedience to rules

  degenerate

  vi. decline in physical, mental, or moral qualities 蜕化;堕落

  majestic

  a.  dignified and noble 庄严的,壮丽的

  majesty

  n.  a stately, grand appearance; splendor 威严;壮丽

  militancy

  n.  warlike behavior or tendency; militant spirit or policy

  militant

  a.  aggressive; warlike

  engulf

  vt. flow over and swallow up; overwhelm 吞没;席卷

  destiny

  n.  the fate or fortune of a person or thing

  inextricably

  ad. beyond disentanglement; inseparably 解不开地;不可分(割)地

  devotee

  n.  a person who is strongly devoted to sth.

  unspeakable

  a.  that can not be expressed in words; had or objectionable beyond description

  horror

  a strong feeling of dread, shock, or fear; sb. or sth. that causes horror (引起)恐怖(的人或物)

  brutality

  n.  brutal conduct; cruelty 暴行,残忍

  brutal

  a.  cruel and harsh; savage 残暴的,野蛮的

  fatigue

  n.  a feeling of being tired

  highway

  n.  a main public road

  strip

  vt. remove the clothing or a covering of (sb.); take away the title rights, office, or self-respect of (sb.)

  selfhood

  n.  personal individuality; one's personality  个性,人格

  mobility

  n.  the ability to move or be moved; the movement of people from one social group or status to another

  ghetto

  n.  a section of a city, often a slum, in which members of a minority group live 少数民族聚居区;贫民区

  righteousness

  n.  upright conduct; justice 正直;正义

  mighty

  a.  having or showing great strength or size 强大的;浩大的

  frustration

  n.  the act of frustrating or the condition of being frustrated 挫折

  slaveowner

  n.  an owner of slaves

  oppression

  n.  the act or fact of oppressing; cruel or unjust treatment 压迫

  oppress

  vt. control or rule in an unjust or harsh way

  transform

  vt. change in form, nature, function, or appearance

  oasis

  vt. an area in a desert where there is water and plant life 绿洲

  exalt

  vt. raise to a higher level; elevate 提升

  crooked

  a.  not straight; bent or curved 弯的,扭曲的

  flesh

  n.  the human race; mankind

  hew

  vt. cut with an ax 砍,劈

  despair

  n.  complete loss of hope or confidence 绝望

  jangle

  v.  (cause to) sound harshly (使)发出嗓音

  discord

  n.  lack of harmony in notes sounded at the same time; harsh, clashing sounds 不(谐)和;嘈杂声

  symphony

  n.  a long musical composition written to be played by an orchestra; a large orchestra made up of string, wind, and percussion instruments 交响乐(团)

  thee

  pron. (old use) (object form of thou) you

  pilgrim

  n.  a person who travels to a religious shrine or other sacred places; one of the English settlers who founded Plymouth, Massachusetts, in 1962 朝圣者;清教徒前辈移民

  mountainside

  n.  the side or slope of a mountain

  prodigious

  a.  wonderfully large, powerful, etc. 巨大的;惊人的;奇妙的

  hilltop

  n.  the top of hill

  heighten

  v.  make or become higher or greater

  snowcapped

  a.  covered by snow at the top

  curvaceous

  a.  rounded; attractively or well proportioned

  slope

  n.  a surface that is not flat; a piece of ground going up or down

  molehill

  n.  a small mound of earth thrown up by a mole digging underground 鼹鼠丘

  hamlet

  n.  a small village

  Jew

  n.  a person who is descended from the Hebrew people or whose religion is Judaism 犹太人

  Gentile

  n.  a person who is not a Jew非犹太人;非犹太教徒

  protestant

  n.  a Christian belonging to a church that broke away from the Roman Catholic Church in the 16th century  新教徒

  Catholic

  n.  a member of the Roman Catholic Church  天主教徒

  spiritual

  n., a. a religious folk song sung originally by the black people; of the spirit rather than the body 黑人圣歌;精神(上)的

  almighty

  a.  able to do everything; omnipotent全能的

  PHEASES & EXPRESSIONS

  in a sense

  in some ways but not in all; somewhat

  fall heir to

  inherit (money, title, property, etc.)

  default on

  fail to pay or do when due

  remind of

  cause (sb.) to remember, recall to sb.'s mind

  cool off

  make or become less warm, excited, ardent, or interested

  on the threshold (of)

  about to experience

  guilty of

  responsible for (violation of law, morally unacceptable behavior, etc.)

  tie up with

  connect to; relate to

  strip of

  take (sth. of value) away from

  live out

  live through; experience; do the things one has thought about

  stand up for

  fight for

  speed up

  (cause to) go faster

  PROPER NAMES

  Martin Luther King, Jr.

  小马丁.路德.金

  Mississippi

  密西西比(州)

  Georgia

  佐治亚(州)

  Alabama

  歪拄巴马(州)

  New Hampshire

  新罕布什尔(州)

  Alleghenies, the

  阿勒格尼山脉

  Pennsylvania

  宾夕法尼亚(州)

  Rockies, the

  落矶山脉

  Colorado

  科罗拉多(州)

  Stone Mountain

  斯通山

  Lookout Mountain

  卢考特山

  Tennessee

  田纳西(州)

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