移动课堂
您的位置:外语教育网 > 英语四六级 > 备考指导 > 四级备考指导 > 正文

大学英语精读:第六册 UNIT 1

2007-03-02 15:56   来源:旺旺英语       我要纠错 | 打印 | 收藏 | | |

  Writing research reports for college or work is often found far more difficult than it need so be. The following article offers some excellent advice on how to make the task easier and the report more impressive and effective. Whether you write a research report for a college professor or for a demanding boss in your profession, the author's advice will put you well on your way to becoming a skillful report writer.

RESEARCH REPORTS FOR BUSINESS AND THECNICAL WRITING

Wayne Losano

  A surprising amount of one's time as a student and professional is spent reporting the results of one's research projects for presentation to teachers, managers, and clients. Indeed, without basic research skills and the ability to present research results clearly and completely, an individual will encounter many obstacles in school and on the job. The need for some research-writing ability is felt nearly equally by college students in all fields, engineering and science as well as business and the humanities. Graduate study often makes great demands on the student's research-writing skills, and most professions continue the demand; education, advertising and marketing, economics and accounting, science and engineering, psychology, anthropology, the arts, and agriculture may all require regular reporting of research data.

  ELEMENTS OF THE RESEARCH PAPER

  The standard research report, regardless of the field or the intended reader, contains four major sections. These sections may be broken down into a variety of subsections, and they may be arranged in a variety of ways, but they regularly make up the core of the report.

  Problem Section. The first required section of a research report is the statement of the problem with which the research project is concerned. This section requires a precise statement of the underlying question which the researcher has set out to answer. In this same section there should be an explanation of the significance —— social, economic, medical, psychological, educational, etc. —— of the question; in other words, why the investigation was worth conducting. Thus, if we set out, for example, to answer the question "What is the effect of regular consumption of fast foods on the health of the American teenager?" we must explain that the question is thought to have significant relevance to the health of this segment of the population and might lead to some sort of regulations on such foods.

  A frequent subsection of this problem section is a review of past research on the topic being investigated. This would consist of summaries of the contributions of previous researcher to the question under consideration with some assessment of the value of these contributions. This subsection has rhetorical usefulness in that it enhances the credibility of the researcher by indicating that the data presented is based on a thorough knowledge of what has been done in the field and, possibly, grows out of some investigative tradition.

  Procedures Section. The second major section of the research report details, with as much data as possible, exactly how the study was carried out. This section includes description of any necessary equipment, how the subjects were selected if subjects were used, what statistical technique was used to evaluate the significance of the findings, how many observations were made and when, etc. An investigation of the relative effectiveness of various swim-strokes would have to detail the number of swimmers tested, the nature of the tests conducted, the experience of the swimmers, the weather conditions at the time of the test, and any other factors that contributed to the overall experiment. The goal of the procedures section is to allow the reader to duplicate the experiment if such were desired to confirm, or refute, your findings.

  Results Section. The third, and perhaps most important, section of the research report is the presentation of the results obtained from the investigation. The basic rule in this section is to give all data relevant to the research question initially asked. Although, of course, one's natural tendency might be to suppress any findings which do not in some way support one's hypothesis, such dishonesty is antithetical to good research reporting in any field. If the experiments undertaken fail to prove anything, if the data was inadequate or contrary to expectations, the report should be honestly written and as complete as possible, just as it would be if the hypothesis were totally proven by the research.

  Discussion Section. The final required section of a research report is a discussion of the results obtained and a statement of any conclusions which may be drawn from those results. Of primary interest in business and technical research reports is the validity of the results as the bases for company decisions: Will our planned construction project meet federal environmental guidelines and be approved for building? Will this new program attract skilled personnel to our company? Will this new oil recovery technique be financially feasible? Thus, the discussion section of the research report must evaluate the research results fully: were they validly obtained, are they complete or limited, are they applicable over a wide range of circumstances? The discussion section should also point out what question remain unanswered and perhaps suggest directions for further research.

  STYLE OF RESEARCH REPORTS

  Research reports are considered formal professional communication. As such, there is little emphasis on a lively style, although, of course, there is no objection to writing that is pleasing and interesting. The primary goals of professional communication are accuracy, clarity, and completeness. The rough draft of any research report should be edited to ensure that all data is correctly presented, that all equipment is listed, that all results are properly detailed. As an aid to the reader, headings indicating at least the major section of the report should be used, and all data should be presented under the proper headings. In addition to their function of suggesting to the reader the contents of each section, headings enhance the formal appearance and professional quality of the report, increase to some degree the writer's credibility by reflecting a logical and methodical approach to the reporting process, and eliminate the need for wordy transitional devices between sections.

  Research data should be presented in a way that places proper emphasis on major aspect of the project. For different readers different aspects will take on different degrees of importance, and some consideration should be given to structuring research reports differently for different audiences. Management, for example, will be most concerned with the results of a research project, and thus the results section should be emphasized, probably by presenting it immediately after the problem section and before the procedures section. Other researchers would be most interested in the procedures section, and this should be highlighted in writing up research projects for publication in professional journals or for presentation at professional conferences. For non-technical readers and federal agencies, the implications of the results might be the most important consideration, and emphasis should be placed on the discussion of the report for this readership.

  For additional clarity and emphasis, major results should be presented in a visual format —— tables, charts, graphs, diagrams —— as well as in a verbal one.

  Beyond checking the report for clarity and accuracy in the presentation of technical data, the author of a research report should review for basic grammatical and mechanical accuracy. Short sentences are preferable to long in the presentation of complex information. Listings should be used to break up long passages of prose and to emphasize information. The research writer should try to use the simplest possible language without sacrificing the professional quality of the report. Although specialized terms can be used, pretentious jargon should be avoided. A finished research report should be readable and useful document prepared with the reader in mind.

  CONCLUSION

  Although we struggle with research reports in high school, dread them in college, and are often burdened by them in our professional live, learning to live comfortably with them is a relatively easy task. A positive attitude (i.e. one that seem the oral or written presentation of research results as of equal importance to the data-gathering process); an orderly approach which includes prewriting (i.e., before any actual research is done, the researcher should try to get down on paper as much about the subject under investigation as possible) and a formal research report structure as the framework for the investigation; and a reasonable approach to the actual writing process including editing for accuracy and clarity, will help one to produce effective research reports efficiently.

  NEW WORDS

  presentation

  n.  the act of presenting; a talk, usu. to a group of people 提出,呈递;介绍,报告

  client

  n.  a person who gets help or advice from a professional, e.g. a lawyer, an accountant, an architect, etc.; a person who buys goods or services 委托人,当事人,顾客

  obstacle

  n.  sth. which prevents action, movement or success

  marketing

  n.  the branch of business concerned with advertising, publicity, etc. 营销

  economics

  n.  the science that deals with money, goods and services and how they are related to each other 经济学

  accounting

  n.  the art, practice or system of keeping, analyzing and interpreting business accounts 会计学

  anthropology

  n.  the scientific study of man, including his physical characteristics, the origin and development of races, and the cultures, customs and beliefs of mankind 人类学

  data

  n.  facts; information

  element

  n.  a basic part of which sth. is made up

  intend

  vt. have in mind as a goal; plan

  precise

  a.  clearly expressed; exact; accurate

  significance

  n.  importance; meaning

  economic

  a. connected with trade, industry and the management of money; of economics

  consumption

  n.  the act of consuming or an amount consumed 消费(量)

  teenager

  n.  a young person of between 13 and 19 year old

  relevance

  n.  importance or significance to the matter at hand

  relevant

  a.

  segment

  n.  a part into which a whole is or can be divided; section

  regulation

  n.  a law or a set of rules by which sth. is regulated

  investigate

  v.  examine carefully in a search for facts, knowledge, or information

  investigative

  a.

  summary

  n.  a short statement of the main points of a report, etc.

  consideration

  n.  careful thought

  assessment

  n.  the act of calculating or deciding the value or amount; the value or amount at which sth. is calculated

  rhetorical

  a.  in using a style designed to impress or persuade 修辞(学)的

  enhance

  vt. make greater; improve 增加,提高

  thorough

  a.  complete in all respects

  tradition

  n.  ideas, customs, beliefs that have been passed down from generation to generation

  description

  n.  the act of describing sth.; an account in words describing sth.

  subject

  n.  a person or thing that is an object of study or experiment 实验对象,试验品

  evaluate

  vt. judge the value of

  stroke

  n.  a single complete movement that is repeated often, as in swimming

  factor

  n.  sth. that helps bring about a result 因素

  overall

  a.  including everything; containing all

  duplicate

  vt. make an exact copy of

  tendency

  n.  an inclination to think or behave in a certain way

  hypothesis

  n.  idea or suggestion put forward as a staring point for reasoning or explanation 假设

  antithetical

  a.  opposite to and unable to exist together with 对立(面)的

  expectation

  n.  the act of expecting sth. or sth. that is expected

  validity

  n.  truth or soundness; state of legally acceptable 正确(性);合法(性),有效

  valid

  a.

  construction

  n.  the act of constructing sth. or sth. that is constructed

  federal

  a.  of the central government of the USA(美国)联邦政府的

  guideline

  n.  (pl.) informal rules or instruction on how sth. should be done

  approve

  v.  have a favorable opinion (of); give permission or consent (to)

  skilled

  a.  having skill; requiring training and skill

  personnel

  n.  all the people who work for a company or organization

  applicable

  a.  that can be applied (to)

  formal

  a.  (of words or style of writing or speaking) suitable for official occasions, serious writing, etc.

  emphasis

  n.  special importance given to sth. 强调

  objection

  n.  disapproval or opposition; a reason for being against sth.

  pleasing

  a.  likable; giving delight or enjoyment

  accuracy

  n.  the condition of being correct and exact.

  clarity

  n.  clearness

  draft

  n.  a rough sketch, plan or outline 草稿,草图, 草案

  edit

  vt. prepare for publication by checking, correcting and revising 编辑

  ensure

  vt. make sure or certain; guarantee

  aid

  n.  help; assistance

  heading

  n.  a title at the top of a page, chapter, or letter

  methodical

  a.  arranged or done according to a clear plan or method; orderly and systematic

  eliminate

  vt. get rid of; remove

  wordy

  a.  using too many words

  transitional

  a.  of change from one condition, activity or topic to another

  transition  n.

  publication

  n.  (the printing and selling of) books, newspapers and magazines

  agency

  n.  (esp. AmE) department of a government or an international body

  readership

  n.  the particular number or type of people who read a book, newspaper or magazine

  visual

  a.  of, relating to, or used in seeing

  format

  n.  the way or order in which sth. is arranged or presented

  graph

  n.  a mathematical diagram which shows the relationship between two or more sets of numbers or measurement (曲线)图

  diagram

  n.  a simple drawing consisting mainly of lines used, for example, to explain how a machine works 简图,图表

  mechanical

  a.  concerned with small technical detail 技巧上的,细节上的

  preferable

  a.  more desirable or suitable

  listing

  n.  an act or instance of making a list

  prose

  n.  ordinary written language, in contrast to poetry

  sacrifice

  vt. give up, usu. for obtaining sth. for oneself or for others

  specialized

  a.  suitable or developed for one particular use

  specialize

  v.  adapt for a particular purpose

  pretentious

  a.  claming (in an unpleasant way) to have importance, artistic value or social rank that one does not really possess 矫饰的,做作的

  jargon

  n.  technical words expert use to discuss their subjects 行话

  readable

  a.  easy and enjoyable to read

  orderly

  a.  arranged in good order, in a well organized and controlled way

  framework

  n.  a structure that shapes or supports sth. 框架

  Phrase & Expressions

  on the job

  while working; at work

  break down into

  separate into different kinds; divide into types

  a variety (of)

  a number or collection of different sorts of the same general type

  make up

  form as a whole; constitute

  under consideration

  being discussed; begin given thoughtful attention

  as such

  as being what is indicated or suggested; in itself or in themselves

  take on

  begin to have; assume

  write up

  rewrite in a fuller, better organized way; give a full written account of

  get down

  write, record (usu. quickly or with difficulty)

  Proper Names

  Wayne Losano

  韦恩.洛桑诺

相关资讯:
网站导航:
 学位英语 指南 动态 经验 试题 资料  托福 指南 动态 考情 留学 复习
 雅思 指南 动态 机经 经验 辅导  公共英语 指南 动态 备考 试题 辅导
 日语 指南 资讯 辅导 留学 考试  法语 发音 词汇 语法 听说 阅读
 韩语 入门 口语 阅读 留学 文化  西语 口语 词汇 阅读 留学 风采

学位英语免费试听

更多>>
  • 四级辅导
  • 六级辅导
全科套餐
280元/门
超值优惠套餐=写作+词汇+听力+阅读+翻译+真题精讲班 70课时
词汇串讲 精讲大纲词汇,轻松记忆单词
课时数:10课时
阅读串讲 紧扣大纲要求,直达阅读高分
课时数:10课时
听力串讲 剖析解题秘笈,提升听力水平
课时数:10课时
写作串讲 解读命题规律,揭秘高分技巧
课时数:10课时
翻译串讲 梳理重要考点,提高应试能力
课时数:约6课时
真题精讲 讲授历年真题,直击命题精髓
课时数:24课时

学员心声

更多>>
学员 kxiwo:
自己估了六级分数,500分左右。外语教育网的老师讲得很好,我自己也很努力,一直坚持按照老师的方法复习。马年即将到来,希望能给我带来好运,顺利通过考试。
学员 doeiia:
虽然今年四级改革,大家都说翻译变难了,但是我依然很有信心。参加了外语教育网的四级课程,翻译题丝毫无压力,老师讲得和考题差不多。感谢老师一路的指引,祝大家新年快乐!
学员 ouemnx:
我报的是外语教育网的四级课程,总体感觉老师讲得还行,课程练习和讲解是按照改革后新题型设置的。开学就出成绩了,祝愿自己闯关成功!
学员 mlbafjlkafmb:
英语四级考试结束了,现在的心情真是复杂。通过短短一个月的学习,我的英语竟然可以提高得这么快。衷心地感谢外语教育网,感谢于兴武、王悦和冉老师,是你们让我燃起了英语学习的信心,英语六级考试我也会在网校学习。老师,祝福我吧,我一定会一次通关!
学员 ahogj:
外语教育网真的值得信赖,师资力量强,而且价格实惠。还有20多天就要四级考试啦,老师给我力量!
学员 ahigahe32:
外语教育网于兴武老师讲的英语六级课程生动透彻,深入浅出,让我的英语水平有了很大提高。还有不到一个月英语六级就要考试了,相信在老师的帮助下,加上我的努力,一定可以顺利通过考试。衷心感谢老师,祝您万事顺利!
学员 loiwu:
因为四六级改革了,心里没有底。所以,我跟同学一起报了外语教育网的六级课程,有老师的讲解和答疑,感觉比自学效果好很多,希望成绩出来后我会很happy!
学员 yopdm:
今年学习了外语教育网四级真题精讲课程,于兴武老师讲得很好。个人认为真题对于考试还是有很大帮助的,虽然翻译的题型改变了,但是总体的难度不是很大,感觉考得不错。顺便说一句,今天下午的火车,晚上我就能到家了,在这儿提前祝大家春节快乐!

精彩推荐

版权声明
   1、凡本网注明 “来源:外语教育网”的所有作品,版权均属外语教育网所有,未经本网授权不得转载、链接、转贴或以其他方式使用;已经本网授权的,应在授权范围内使用,且必须注明“来源:外语教育网”。违反上述声明者,本网将追究其法律责任。
  2、本网部分资料为网上搜集转载,均尽力标明作者和出处。对于本网刊载作品涉及版权等问题的,请作者与本网站联系,本网站核实确认后会尽快予以处理。
  本网转载之作品,并不意味着认同该作品的观点或真实性。如其他媒体、网站或个人转载使用,请与著作权人联系,并自负法律责任。
  3、本网站欢迎积极投稿
  4、联系方式:
编辑信箱:for68@chinaacc.com
电话:010-82319999-2371