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2007年英语阅读基本功之难句过关大全

2007-03-19 14:28中青英语角

  第一章 定语从句

  英语和汉语中的定语有很大的不同。汉语中定语只能前置,而英语中定语既可前置也可后置。两者的不同,不仅表现在结构上,也表现在意义上。英语中的定语从句有时从原因、结果、目的或条件等方面对中心词加以限定。因此,在对语法结构、上下文逻辑关系深刻理解的前提下,为了更明确地表明这种逻辑关系,可以将定语从句翻译成相应的状语从句。同时值得注意的是,定语从句与中心词之间常有分割成分,而该分割成分中与定语从句紧挨着的名词,常常会被误认为定语从句的中心词。

  因此,遇到这种结构,一定要根据上下文和常识进行判断。翻译定语从句时可采用提前译、顺序译、分译或转译等多种方法。

  1. As far as the third factor is concerned, the history of science shows many instances in which the force of authority has operated in such a manner as to build up an exceedingly powerful resistance to further investigation; in some cases centuries elapsed before this resistance was eventually broken down, as happened in cosmology, for example.

  第一层: As far as the third factor is concerned , 状语从句1 the history 主 of science 定 shows 谓 many 定 instances 宾 in which the force of authority has operated in such a manner as to build up an exceedingly power- 定语从句 ful resistance to further investigation ; in some cases 状 centuries 主 elapsed 谓 before this resistance was eventually broken down, as 状语从句2 happened in cosmology, for example.

  第二层: (状语从句1) As far as 引 the third factor 主语 is 系 concerned 表语

  (定语从句) in which 引 the force 主 of authority 定 has operated 谓 in such a manner as to build up an exceedingly powerful re- 状 sistance to further investigation

  (状语从句2) before 引 this resistance 主 was 系 eventually 状 broken down, 表 as happened in cosmology,for example 定语从句

  第三层: (定语从句) as 引 happened 谓 in cosmology, 状 for example. 插入语

  要点 本句由两个分句构成,以分号连接。第一个分句的主干为"the history of science shows many instances","in which"引导的定语从句修饰"instances","such ……as ……"表结果,后接不定式;在第二个分句中,before 引出时间状语从句:"before this resistance was eventually broken down";代词"as"在此是关系代词,引出定语从句:"as happened in cosmology".resistance:抵抗(力);阻力。cosmology:宇宙论,宇宙哲学。

  译文 至于第三个因素,科学史中有许多事例表明,权威的力量起到这样一种作用:它给进一步的研究设置了一道极其牢固的障碍;在许多情况下,要花上几个世纪的时间才能最终打破这道障碍。例如,在宇宙学中就发生过这样的事。

  2. Behaviorists suggest that the child who is raised in an environment where there are many stimuli which develop his or her capacity for appropriate responses will experience greater intellectual development.

  第一层: Behaviorists 主 suggest 谓 that the child who is raised in an environment where there are many stimuli which develop his 宾语从句 or her capacity for appropriate responses will experience greater intellectual development.

  第二层: (宾语从句) that 引 the child 主 who is raised in an environment where there are many stimuli which develop his or her capacity 定语从句

  for appropriate responses will experience 谓 greater intellectual 定 development. 宾

  第三层: (定语从句) who 引 is raised 谓 in an environment 状 where there are many stimuli which develop his or her capacity for ap- 定语从句

  propriate responses

  第四层: (定语从句) where 引 there 引 are 系 many 定 stimuli 主 which develop his or her capacity for appropriate responses 定语从句

  第五层: (定语从句) which 引 develop 谓 his or her 定 capacity 宾 for appropriate 定 responses

  要点 根据上下文的逻辑关系可以看出,本句中suggest的词义不是propose,而是bring an idea into the mind, 所以翻译为"…的看法是".who引导的定语从句修饰child,根据上下文的语义关系,翻译成条件句;where引导的定语从句修饰environment,用合译法译出;which引导的从句修饰stimuli,用分译法进行翻译。appropriate:适合的,相称的。 译文 行为主义者的看法是,如果一个儿童在有许多刺激因素的环境里长大,而这些刺激因素能够开发其相应的反映能力,那么这个儿童将会有更好的智力发展。

  3. I suggest transforming our social system from a bureaucratically managed industrialism in which maximal production and consumption are ends in themselves into a humanist industrialism in which man and full development of his potentialities - those of love and of reason - are the aims of all social arrangements.

  要点 本句为含有两个定语从句的主从复合句。主句的谓语动词suggest可接动名词作宾语。而宾语中的transform一词常用在"transform sth. from …… into……"结构中,译为"把…从…转变为…".句中两个in which分别修饰其先行词industrialism,翻译时宜采用前置法。两个破折号之间的those of love and of reason为potentialities一词的同位语。

  译文 我建议把我们的社会制度从以最大限度的生产和最大限度的消费为目的的官僚主义管理下的产业体制转变为一个充分发挥人的潜能——即爱和理智的潜能——为其全部社会工作之目的的人道主义产业体制。

  4. President Kennedy wanted people who raised questions, who criticized, on whose judgment he could rely, who presented an intelligent point of view, regardless of their rank or viewpoint.

  要点 本句中"who……","who……","on whose……","who……"四个定语从句并列,共同修饰中心词"people".

  译文 肯尼迪总统需要提问题的人、能提批评意见的人、做出可靠判断的人以及能提出明智看法的人,而不问他们的级别和观点。

  5. In the "soap war" between Proctor and Gamble and Unilever, tremendous use is made of statistics to measure the dynamic difference in market resulting from the proportional allocation to advertising, which constitutes such a large part of their production costs before selling, so that they regard their production costs as production plus advertising costs.

  要点 此句结构比较复杂,但主句很简单,主语为use,谓语为is made.主句正常语序为tremendous use of statistics is made to……, to measure……作目的状语,resulting from……为现在分词短语作difference的后置定语。which引导一个非限制性定语从句,修饰allocation to advertising.so that引导一个结果状语从句。plus为介词,意为"加上".soap war 为"肥皂广告大战".

  译文 在Proctor and Gamble和 Unilever两家企业之间的"肥皂大战"中,双方就大量使用了统计学知识来测量由相应的广告投入所引起的市场上的动态差异,这一项在售前的生产成本中占较大部分,所以他们把生产成本看作是生产费用与广告费用之和。

  6. Smart cards, which can carry as much as 80 times more information on them than conventional cards with a magnetic stripe, are already widely used in European countries where centralized banks can roll out new services on a nationwide basis.

  要点 本句为简单复合句。句架为Smart cards, which ……, are already widely used in European countries where……。which为关系代词,引导非限制性定语从句,修饰smart cards;where 为关系副词,引导定语从句,修饰countries.nationwide:全国范围内的。roll out:本意为"展开(卷起之物)",此处为引申义,指展开工作。

  译文 智能卡载有的信息量是普通磁卡信息载量的80多倍,已经在欧洲各国广泛使用,因而使欧洲各国中央银行得以在全国范围展开新型的服务。

  7. How well the prediction will be validated by later performance depends upon the amount, reliability, and appropriateness of the information used and on the skill and wisdom with which it is interpreted.

  要点 本句含有一个主语从句How well the prediction will be validated by later performance和一个定语从句with which it is interpreted.定语从句中it 指代prediction,该定语从句修饰the skill and wisdom.在翻译时主语从句用分译法,定语从句用合译法。validate:使有效;使有充分根据。

  译文 预测在多大程度上为后来的表现所证实,这取决于所采用信息的数量、可靠性和适宜性,还取决于用来解释预测的技巧和智慧。

  8. Thus, to rectify the positions taken previously, where we contented ourselves with condemnations, in my delegation's opinion, we must find an overall solution which would come to grips with both the substance as well as the superficial aspects which, after all, serve only to compel us to keep this problem constantly on the Security Council's agendas.

  要点 本句含有三个定语从句"where……condemnations","which would come to grips ……"和"which, after all, serve only to compel……".第二个定语从句译成同位结构;第三个定语从句同上下文有明显的因果关系,译成"因为…".overall:从头到尾;总的,全面的。

  译文 因此,我们代表团认为,要纠正我们过去采取的只是满足于进行谴责的那种立场,我们必须寻求一个全面的解决方法,既能解决本质方面的问题,又能解决应对表面的问题,因为仅解决表面问题毕竟只能迫使我们一次又一次地把这个问题列入安理会的议程。

  9. We may define chemistry as the science in which we deal with the chemical change in matter as a result of which it is possible to form a new substance.

  要点 本句中有两个由which引导的定语从句:第一个定语从句的先行词是science,而不是chemistry; 第二个定语从句的先行词是chemical change,而不是result或matter.

  译文 我们可以说,化学是论述物质化学变化的科学,通过化学变化可能获得新的物质。

  10. Time goes fast for one who has a sense of beauty, when there are pretty children in a pool and a young Diana on the edge, to receive with wonder anything you can catch!

  要点 本句由一个主句(Time goes fast)、两个定语从句(who……和you can catch)和一个状语从句(when……)组成。you can catch前省略了that.按照先发生的事情先叙述以及条件在先结果在后的汉语习惯,翻译时应采用逆序法。

  译文 对一个有美感,能以好奇心接收你所能抓到的任何东西的人来说,时间总是过得很快,比如当戏水池里有几个可爱的孩子,池边还有一位如黛安娜似的年轻女子时。

  第二章 倒装句

  英语句子通常有两种语序,一种是自然语序(Natural Order),又称正装语序,另一种便是本章要介绍的倒装语序(Inverted Order)。

  从形式上分,倒装有两种:全部倒装(Full Inversion)和部分倒装(Partial Inversion)。谓语动词全部位于主语之前的称作全部倒装,例如:In front of me stood a boy. (我面前站着一个男孩。)只将谓语动词的一部分(通常是助动词或情态动词)放在主语之前的称作部分倒装,例如:Only in this way can we do it better. (只有这样,我们才能做得更好一些。)从使用目的区分,倒装也有两种情况,即语法倒装(Grammatical Inversion)和修辞倒装(Rhetorical Inversion)。语法倒装是由于语法规则的要求而必须进行的倒装,例如:Who called me just now?(刚才谁打电话给我?)修辞倒装是出于修辞的需要而把正常语序转为倒装语序,例如:Out rushed the children.(孩子们冲了出去。)H·Fowler归纳倒装的原因有九种,即疑问、命令、惊叹、假设、平衡、衔接、点题(signpost)、否定和韵律(metrical)。这并不完全,还应加上强调和为使描写更加生动两种。在英语中,倒装句俯拾即是,用得非常普遍,但汉语却很少用,所以在翻译倒装句时,仍应按原文词序翻译,并照顾汉语的习惯,以保持译文句子结构流畅、匀称。本章只列举在阅读文章中常遇到的倒装现象,以使考生熟悉英语和汉语在语序上的差异。

  1. Jack London poured into his writings all the pain of his life, the fierce hatred of the bourgeoisie that it had produced in him, and the conviction it had brought to him that the world could be made a better place to live in if the exploited would rise up and take the management of society out of the hands of the exploiters.

  第一层: Jack London 主 poured 谓 into his writings 状 all the pain 宾 of his life, 定 the fierce hatred 宾 of the bourgeoisie 定 that it had produced in him , 定语从句1 and 连 the conviction 宾 it had brought to him 定语从句2 that the world could be made a better place to live in if the exploited would rise 同位语从句 up and take the management of society out of the hands of the exploiters .

  第二层: (定语从句1) that 引 it 主 had produced 谓 in him 状

  (定语从句2) it 主 had brought to 谓 him 间宾

  (同位语从句) that 引 the world 主 could be made 谓 a better place 宾 to live in 定 if the exploited would rise up and take the man- 状语从句 agement of society out of the hands of the exploiters.

  第三层: (状语从句) if 引 the exploited 主 would rise up 谓 and 连 take 谓 the management 宾 of society 定 out of the hands of the exploiters 状

  要点 本句为倒装句。如果宾语较长或宾语结构比较复杂,往往将宾语后置,采用倒装语序,以使句子保持平衡。本句的宾语由三个并列的名词构成,且第二和第三个名词后又带有限定性定语从句,故采用倒装语序,将动词"poured"的宾语放在状语"into his writings"之后。"all the pain……","the fierce hatred……"和"the conviction……"是"poured"的三个并列的宾语;其中,第一个that引导的定语从句修饰"hatred","it had brought to him"修饰"conviction",在该定语从句中其关系代词作宾语而被省略;第二个that从句则是"conviction"的同位语从句。

  译文 杰克·伦敦在作品中倾注了他一生中所遭受过的一切痛苦,倾诉了这种痛苦在他心中产生的对资产阶级的刻骨仇恨以及由此产生的这样的信念:如果被剥削者起来反抗,从剥削者手中夺回社会管理权,那么世界就会变成一个人人有好日子过的地方。

  2. Along with them goes social mobility, ambition to rise in the urban world, a main factor in bringing down the births in Europe in the nineteenth century.

  分 析: Along with them 状 goes 谓 social 定 mobility, 主 ambition 主 to rise in the 定 urban world, a main factor 同位语 in bringing down the births in Europe in the nineteenth century. 定

  要点 这是一个完全倒装句,主语是social mobility……century,谓语动词是goes.ambition to rise in the urban world 是对 social mobility的进一步说明。a main factor在意思上相当于which is a main factor in……century,修饰 ambition to ……world.本句可按原文顺序翻译。

  译文 伴随他们而来的是社会的流动性, 人们强烈地希望在城市里发展,这是19世纪欧洲出生率下降的主要因素。

  3. For example, they do not compensate for gross social inequality, and thus do not tell how able an underprivileged youngster might have been had he grown up under more favorable circumstances.

  要点 句中had he grown up …… 是虚拟条件中省略if的倒装结构。翻译时,要把if的含义译出。主句为并列谓语"…… compensate …… , and …… tell"结构。句中how引导宾语从句。虚拟条件句为宾语从句的状语。根据汉语的表达习惯,条件状语常前置。

  译文 例如,它们并不弥补明显的社会不公; 因此,它们说明不了一个物质条件差的年轻人,如果在较好的环境下成长,会有多大的才干。

  4. So involved with their computers do the children become that leaders at summer computer camps often have to force them to break for sports and games.

  要点 本句的基本结构是the children become so involved with their computers that……。因为把so involved with their computers 放在了句首,所以句子必须倒装。因为该句的动词是become,所以用do来帮助倒装。翻译时宜用正装语序。

  译文 参加计算机夏令营的孩子们对计算机如此着迷,以至夏令营的负责人常常不得不强迫他们停下来参加体育运动或做游戏。

  5. As the Internet becomes more and more commercialized, it is in the interest of business to universalize access - after all, the more people online, the more potential customers there are.

  要点 破折号后面的部分是用来解释句子主句的,在结构上是部分倒装句,属"(从句)the+比较级……,(主句) the +比较级"句型,这样的句子一般主谓不倒装。翻译时可用正装。universalize:使普遍化;使通用化。

  译文 随着国际互联网越来越商业化,普及上网会对商家有利, 因为上网的人越多,潜在的顾客数量就越多。

  6. Only after studies provided evidence of the harmful effects of such programs has it been possible to modify TV programming policies.

  要点 only是加强语气的词语,位于句首时,主谓语要倒装。这样的句子一般可按原文顺序翻译。has it been ……是主句,正装应是it has been……。

  译文 只有大量调研提供出证据表明此类节目产生不良影响后,电视节目审查政策才有可能改变。

  7. Unpopular as red has been in the past at the moment it is a favorite hair style.

  要点 这是一个主从复合句,主句是at the moment it is a favorite hair style.在让步状语从句中,作为表语的unpopular 放在 as前面位于句首,构成部分倒装。形容词+as从句在意思上等于although……,一般翻译成"虽然…".注意这个形容词不能放在动词后面,否则整个句子意思不同。

  译文 虽然过去红色不受欢迎,眼下红色染发剂却备受青睐。

  8. Lonely was seeing his daughter only twice a week since the divorce.

  要点 这是一个完全倒装句,主语是seeing his daughter……divorce.翻译时可正装。

  译文 他只是觉得离婚后每周只能看女儿两次让他感到孤独。

  9. So perilous was this one that he was the only security officer on the site.

  要点 该句的原结构是this one was so perilous that……,因为把 so perilous 放在句首,所以句子要主谓倒装。翻译时可正装。

  译文 做现场惟一的保安官员,这差使还真有点危险。

  10. In front of me stood the essential tools of the intelligence officer's trade - a desk, two telephones, one scrambled(改变频率使不被窃听) for outside calls, and to one side a large green metal safe with an oversized combination lock on the front.

  要点 这是一个并列句,由and连接。第一个分句中破折号前面是一个完全倒装句,主语是 the essential tools of the intelligence officer's trade.破折号后面的部分是用来解释trade.One scrambled for outside calls 等于one of which was scrambled for outside calls.第二个分句也是一个完全倒装句,只是在 to one side后面省去了动词stood.该句可按原文语序翻译,第二个分句中省去的动词应翻译出来。

  译文 展现在我面前的是情报官员这一行的基本用具——一张写字台、两部电话,其中一部是变频加密外线电话,在我旁边是一个大型的绿色金属保险柜,其正面有一把特大号复合密码锁。

  第三章 分割结构

  分割结构是一种修辞手段,在英语句子中,特别是在书面语中,比较常见。分割结构就是指把英语句子中原来属于一个整体的句子成分分割开,一部分留在句子的原来位置,另一部分远离原来位置。

  如:The best books are treasuries of good words, the golden thoughts, which, remembered and cherished, become our constant companions and comforters. 不难看出which become our constant companions and comforters原本是一个整体,被用作状语的过去分词remembered and cherished分割开。常见的分割结构形式有同位语或同位语从句与先行词的分割,定语或and定语从句与先行词的分割,主语与谓语的分割,谓语与宾语的分割。使用分割结构的目的是使语句结构平衡,避免头重脚轻,或者为了使表达的主题思想更加突出醒目,读起来更通顺流畅。分割结构的存在说明了英语在结构形式和表达方法上的生动性和灵活性,但也造成了句子结构的错综复杂。对于分割结构,只有从结构上和语意上弄清它才能避免理解上的错误,英译汉时要把原来属于一个整体部分的意义译出。

  如: An unusual present was given to him for his birthday, a book on ethics.过生日的时候他得到了一件不寻常的礼物——一本关于伦理道德的书。(present 和a book被分隔)

  再如: After Galileo's work the feeling grew that there were universal laws governing the motion of bodies and that these laws might apply to motion in the heavens as well as on earth.在伽利略著作之后,这样的认识加强了,即认为存在着支配物体运动的普遍规律,这些规律不仅支配着地球上的也支配着天体上的物体的运动。(the feeling和 that从句被分隔)

  此外,还有定语(或定语从句)与其中心词被分隔,某些词语与其所要求的介词被分隔,动词与其宾语被分隔,介词与其宾语被分隔等。总之,英语的分隔应遵循尾重原则(应当把长而复杂的成分放在句末,从而使结构平衡匀称,以避免主语部分太长,谓语部分太短)和句尾信息焦点原则(把新信息,即语义重点放在句子末尾)。阅读时要注意把原来属于一个整体的各部分找出来。

  1. Such a viewpoint, particularly prominent in the developing countries, is reinforced by the widely-held belief that it is not the peaceful application of nuclear energy that is endangering the survival of mankind.

  第一层: Such a viewpoint, 主 particularly prominent in the developing 定 countries, is 系 reinforced 表 by the widely-held belief 状 that it is not the peaceful application of nuclear energy that is end- 同位语从句 angering the survival of mankind.

  第二层: (同位语从句) that 引 it 形主 is not 系 the peaceful application 强调主语 of nuclear energy 定 that 引 is endangering 谓 the survival 宾 of mankind. 定

  要点 本句主干为"Such a viewpoint…… is reinforced by the widely-held belief";形容词短语"particularly prominent in the developing countries",作为插入语修饰"viewpoint",将主语和谓语分隔开来;介词短语"by the widely-held belief"是被动语态"reinforced"的行为主体;"that it is……mankind"是"belief"的同位语从句,这里还含有一个强调句式,即"it is not the peaceful application……that is endangering……".

  译文 这种在发展中国家显得尤为突出的观点被一种广泛持有的信念所加强,即并非和平利用核能正危害着人类的生存。

  2. No girl should marry a man whose last name has the same initial as hers, for, as the rhyme goes, "Change the name but not the letter, marry for worse instead of better."

  第一层: No girl 主 should marry 谓 a man 宾 whose last name has the same initial as hers , 定语从句 for, as the rhyme goes, "Change 状语从句 the name but not the letter, marry for worse instead of better."

  第二层: (定语从句) whose 引 last name 主 has 谓 the same initial 宾 as hers 定

  (状语从句) for, 引 as the rhyme goes, 状 "Change 谓 the name 宾 but 连 not the letter, 宾 marry 谓 for worse instead of better." 状

  要点 这是个主从复合句。for是连接词,引导状语从句。as the rhyme goes是插入语,插在for和它引导的从句之间,造成for和它引导的从句的分离,翻译时,可译成一个主谓结构。

  译文 姑娘不该嫁给与自己的姓的首字母相同的人,因为正如一首童谣所说:改姓不改首字母,婚后必将受其苦。

  3. Nor, if regularity and conformity to a standard pattern are as desirable to the scientist as the writing of his papers would appear to reflect, is management to be blamed for discriminating against the "odd balls" among researchers in favor of more conventional thinkers who work well with the team.

  要点 否定词nor放在句首时,主谓倒装。is放到了主语management前。同时,if引导的条件状语从句置于nor与句子的其他成分之间,造成了句子的割裂状态。条件状语从句中as desirable…… as the writing……可视为同级比较结构。句中who引导的定语从句修饰先行词thinkers,可采用合译的方法翻译。be blamed for为固定短语,意为"因…而受指责".in favor of ……在句中做状语。

  译文 假如像学术论文反映的那样,科学家们期望看到与某种标准模式符合的规律性和一致性。那么,如果管理者们歧视研究者中的"怪杰",而喜欢善于合作的较常规思维的人,这也是无可指责的。

  4. I have discovered, as perhaps Kelsey will after her much-publicized resignation from the editorship of She after a build-up of stress, that abandoning the doctrine of "juggling your life", and making the alternative move into "downshifting" brings with it far greater rewards than financial success and social status.

  要点 本句中as perhaps Kelsey will……引导的方式状语从句放到了主句的谓语动词discovered与that引导的宾语从句之间,从而造成动宾之间的分割。as引导的从句中省略了谓语动词discover,是为了避免重复。宾语从句中主语为"abandoning……and making……"并列的动名词短语;谓语为"bring sth with sth"结构,只是因宾语过长,而把with短语提前了。

  译文 我发觉,放弃那种"日夜操劳的生活"信念而选择"放慢生活的节奏"会带来比金钱和社会地位更大的回报。凯尔西在长期经受巨大压力后,从惹人注目的《女性》杂志编辑部退出之后,恐怕她也将与我有同样的感觉。

  5. Such an outcome, if it happens, could cause a political controversy; or it could lead to more power being transferred to the EU in the worst possible circumstances, namely when the Union is deeply unpopular.

  要点 这是个复合句。条件从句因为太短,置于主句的主谓之间,造成句子割裂,翻译时应将从句提到句首。namely when the……unpopular是一个状语从句,用来解释the worst possible circumstances.the EU: the European Union,欧盟。

  译文 这种结果一旦产生,就可能引起政治上的争吵;在最糟糕的情况下,即在欧盟很不得人心的时候,也可能使更多的权利落到欧盟手中。

  6. That fact, let alone the current division between the 11 euro countries and the four, led by Britain, that have not joined, is likely to mean that the Union should become a multi-system entity, with some countries signing up to everything and others choosing only some things.

  要点 句子的主干结构是That fact…… is likely to mean that……。with some countries signing up to everything and others choosing only some things是"with +复合结构"形式,表示伴随状态。短语let alone……not joined置于主谓之间,造成句子割裂,翻译时应将其还原,放在最后。分词短语led by Britain和定语从句that have not joined都修饰the four.euro:欧元。multi-:前缀,表示"多…的",如mutilateral,多边的:multiple,多个的。

  译文 这一事实可能意味着欧盟将成为一个多体系的实体,其中一些国家对每一件事都表示赞同,而另一些则不尽然;更不用说以英国为首的尚未加入欧洲统一货币体系的四国和已经 加入这一体系的十一个欧元国家之间目前已存在的分歧了。

  7. This trend began during the Second World War, when several governments came to the conclusion that the specific demands that a government wants to make of its scientific establishment cannot generally be foreseen in detail.

  要点 该句的主干结构是This trend began during the Second World War, when……。when引导定语从句,修饰the Second World War.that the specific……detail是conclusion的同位语从句,在该从句中,主语是 the specific demands of its scientific establishment,that a government wants to make是 demands的定语从句。该定语从句放在其先行词 demands和 of介词短语之间,造成句子的割裂。翻译时,可把被割裂的部分还原。

  译文 这种趋势始于第二次世界大战期间,当时一些国家的政府得出这样的结论:政府要向科研机构提出的具体要求通常是无法详尽预见的。

  8. Observations were made of the children at the beginning and at the end of preschool and first grade.

  要点 整个of短语作observations的定语,相当于Observations of the children at the beginning and at the end of preschool and first grade were made.因为定语太长,所以将其置于动词之后,以避免句子头重脚轻。这样就造成了句子的割裂,翻译时应将被割裂的部分还原。preschool:学前的。

  译文 人们对孩子们在学前班和小学一年级开始时和结束时的情况都曾进行过观察。

  9. Whether to use tests, other kinds of information, or both in a particular situation depends, therefore, upon the evidence from experience concerning comparative validity and upon such factors as cost and availability.

  要点 这是一个简单句。Whether to……situation是本句的主语,depends是谓语动词,两个"upon"后面是宾语。availability在句中是指"测试和信息容易得到或找到".therefore是副词,插在depends 和upon……之间,造成它们在结构上的割裂。翻译时,可把therefore提到句首。

  译文 因此,究竟是采用测试还是其他种类的信息,或是在某一特定情况下两者并用,须凭从有关相对效度的经验中得出的证据而定,也取决于诸如费用和有无采用的可能性等因素。

  10. I have been transformed from a passionate advocate of the philosophy of "having it all", preached by Linda Kelsey for the past seven years in the page of She magazine, into a woman who is happy to settle for a bit of everything.

  要点 该句的主干结构是I have been transformed from a passionate advocate of the philosophy of "having it all"……into a woman……。preached by……magazine是过去分词短语,作the philosophy of "having it all"的定语,插在from……into之中,造成了句子的割裂。翻译时,可把分词短语译成一个分句,其他照原文顺序翻译。

  译文 我从一个"全力以赴"的生活哲学——在过去七年里林达·凯尔西一直在《女性》杂志鼓吹这种生活方式——的积极倡导者,一改而成为随遇而安的女人。

  第四章 省略

  英国大文豪莎士比亚在他的名著《哈姆雷特》里写过这么一句名言:Brevity is the soul of wit.(言以简洁为贵。)写文章也好,说话也好,都要求生动活泼,简单明了,因此,"简洁"乃是一篇好文章的基本要求之一。

  文章要做到简洁,省略法(Ellipsis)是必用的。

  英语句子中的某些成分因上下文已提供了充分明确的信息而不必出现,或前面已出现的某些成分,为了避免不必要的重复,可以不再出现而不致引起误解或歧义,这种语言现象就叫作省略。例如:Glad to see you. 这是个简单句,主语I和谓语am可以省略。再如:London is on the Themes, and Paris on the Seine. 这是一个并列复合句,后半句省略了谓语动词is,因为前面已经出现过,后面不必重复。英译汉时,为了使译文明确达意,符合汉语习惯,要在正确理解原文的基础上,对原文中省略的部分或保留或补全,或对其进行灵活处理。

  有人将英语句子中的省略现象归纳为21种,本章只涉及在英语阅读中常遇到的比较复杂的省略现象。

  1. The transcription needs a certain amount of editing, as even if the computer can tell the difference between words of similar sounds such as write and right, it is still not yet able to do the work as well as an intelligent secretary.

  第一层: The transcription 主 needs 谓 a certain amount of 定 editing, 宾 as even if the computer can tell the difference between words of similar 状语从句

  sounds such as write and right, it is still not yet able to do the work as well as an intelligent secretary.

  第二层: (状语从句) as 引 even if the computer can tell the difference between words of similar sounds such as write and right , 状语从句1 it 主 is 系 still not yet 状 able 表 to do the work 宾 as well as an inte- lligent secretary . 状语从句2

  第三层: (状语从句1) even if 引 the computer 主 can tell 谓 the difference 宾 between words of similar sounds 定 such as write and right 同位语

  (状语从句2) as well as 引 an intelligent secretary 主

  要点 本句中as引导原因状语从句,其中该句还带有一个由"even if"引导的让步状语从句;介词短语"between words of similar sounds"修饰"difference","such as write and right"修饰"words","as well as……"为同等比较状语从句,其中省略了与主句相同的部分。intelligent:有才智的;理解力强的。

  译文 译稿需要一定量的编辑工作,因为,即使计算机能够区别同音异义词,如 write和right,它仍不可能把这项工作做得像有思维能力的秘书那样好。

  2. If a needle is thrown at random on a sheet of paper ruled with lines whose distance apart is exactly equal to the length of the needle, how often can it be expected to fall on a line and how often into a blank space?

  第一层: If a needle is thrown at random on a sheet of paper ruled with lines whose distance apart is exactly equal to the len- 状语从句 gth of the needle , how often 状 can 谓 it 主 be expected 谓 to fall on a line 宾 and 连 how often 状 into a blank space? 状

  第二层: (状语从句) If 引 a needle 主 is 系 thrown 表 at random 状 on a sheet of paper 状 ruled with lines 定 whose distance apart is exactly equal to the length of the needle 定语从句

  第三层: (定语从句) whose 引 distance apart 主 is 系 exactly 状 equal 表 to the length of the needle 宾

  要点 这是复合句。在if引导的状语从句中,ruled with lines 是过去分词,作paper 的定语,whose……needle 是 lines 的定语从句,whose distance apart 的意思是"它们之间的间隔".主句中and 后面是个省略句,省去了 can it be expected to fall.翻译时可将英文的被动语态译成汉语的主动语态。length:长度。rule paper with lines:在纸上划平行线。

  译文 如果把一根针随机地投到一张纸上,纸上画了许多平行线,它们之间的间隔等于针的长度,那么针落在线上的几率是多少?落在空白处的几率又是多少?

  3. All that a man has to say or do that can possibly concern mankind, is in some shape or other to tell the story of his love - to sing, and if he is fortunate and keeps alive, he will be forever in love.

  要点 本句是由and连接在一起的并列句。前一个分句的主干是All……is……to tell the story…… - to sing. all后面有两个that引导的定语从句,第一个that从句修饰all,第二个that指代其前的that从句,翻译时可表条件。to sing放在破折号之后,用以加强语气,其后可视为省略了宾语the story of his love, to tell和to sing是并列关系。

  译文 一个人应该说的或做的,只要关系到人类,那么都是以这样或那样的形式来讲述乃至讴歌自己的爱的故事;而且,如果他是幸运的、有活力的,他将永远是充满爱的。

  4. As families move away from their stable community,their friends of many years, their extended family relationships, the informal flow of information is cut off, and with it the confidence that information will be available when needed and will be trustworthy and reliable.

  要点 本句位并列句,前一个分句带一个As引导的状语从句, 状语从句中 move away from 后为并列平行结构their ……,their……, their…… 在and后的分句中, the confidence 省略了 "is cut off", it指的是信息被切断的情况。

  译文 随着家庭成员与他们稳定的社区、多年的老友和大家庭的亲属关系相分离,非正式的信息渠道被切断了,而那种在需要时就能得到真实可靠信息的信心也丢失了。

  5. And by the help of further reasoning, which if drawn out would have been exhibited in two or three other syllogism, you arrive at your final determination, I will not have that apple.

  要点 这是复合句。主句是you arrive at your final determination.by the help of …… 是介词短语作状语,which引导的定语从句修饰reasoning.if drawn out 是省略句,用作表示条件的状语从句,完整的句子是if the reasoning can be drawn out.翻译时采用顺序法,定语从句采用分句法。syllogism:三段论;演绎推理。

  译文 借助于进一步的推理,这种推理如果加以引申,还可表现为其他两三种演绎推理,你便会做出最终决定:"我不吃那个苹果了。"

  6. It is quite unnerving not to be able to see or to establish contact with the other person, even though we have learnt to have conversations with people we cannot see, as on the telephone.

  要点 这是复合句。主句中 it是形式主语,真正的主语是不定式短语not to be able to see or to establish contact with the other person.在状语从句中as是连词,意思是"正如…一样",as 后面省去了we have conversations.翻译时采用逆序法,把even though引导的让步状语从句放到句首。unnerving:使人不知所措;使人失去自信。

  译文 即使我们适应了像打电话一样在互相看不见的情况下谈话,这种看不见或接触不到对方的谈话也会使人感到很不自在。

  7. Actually we know of no type of astronomical body in which the conditions can be favorable to life except planets like our own revolving round a sun.

  要点 这是复合句。in which引导定语从句,修饰astronomical body.介词except引起的短语作状语。在介词短语like our own后面省略了planet.revolving为现在分词短语作定语,修饰our own planet.翻译时根据汉语习惯,将状语提前译出。

  译文 事实上,除了像地球这样围绕太阳旋转的行星以外,我们不知道是否在其他类型的天体上也有适合生命存在的条件。

  8. The increase in the numbers of married women employed outside the home in the twentieth century had less to do with the mechanization of housework and an increase in leisure time for these women than it did with their own economic necessity and with high marriage rates that shrank the available pool of single women workers.

  要点 这是主从复合句。其主句的谓语动词是had less to do with…… than……,意为"主要与…有关,而不是与…有关",因为句子结构比较清晰,省略了句子的并列部分,如在had less to do with the mechanization of housework and (with) an increase in leisure time省略了with;在……than it did with their own economic necessity and ( it did ) with high marriage rates省略了it did.句中that引导的定语从句修饰high marriage rates.翻译时采用融合法,把重要的部分放在句首。

  译文 20世纪已婚女性走出家门参加工作人数的增加主要是因为她们自己的经济需要,还与高结婚率使可参加工作的单身女工人数减少有关,而与家务机械化、妇女空闲时间增多关系不大。

  9. The European Union is an imperfect creature, with some of its actions based on fine principles of political economy and some on poor ones.

  要点 这是简单句。句中with some of its actions based on fine principles是独立主格结构,作状语。因为与前一部分结构相同,句子后一部分省略了(with)some (of its actions based)on poor ones括号中的词。翻译时采用顺序法,对省略部分也要进行相应省略,以使句子表达简洁。

  译文 欧盟是不完善的机构,它的一些举措是基于正确的政治经济原则之上的,而另一些却远非如此。

  10. To Americans, being on one's own suggests that one is a fully independent and functioning part of the whole capable and willing to make choices.

  要点 这是复合句,that引导宾语从句,其中capable and willing to make choices可以被看作宾语从句中的并列表语(其前省略了is)。翻译时采用顺序法。

  译文 对美国人而言,依靠自己的力量就是指这个人作为整体的一部分是完全独立并能起作用的,他有能力也愿意做出选择。

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