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  Text 3

  There was one thought that air pollution affected only the area immediately around large cities with factories and heavy automobile traffic. At present, we realize that although these are the areas with the worst air pollution, the problem is literally worldwide. On several occasions over the past decade, a heavy cloud of air pollution has covered the east of the United States and brought health warnings in rural areas away from any major concentration of manufacturing and automobile traffic. In fact, the very climate of the entire earth may be infected by air pollution. Some scientists consider that the increasing concentration of carbon dioxide in the air resulting from the burning of fossil fuels (coal and oil) is creating a “greenhouse effect”— conserving heat reflected from the earth and raising the world's average temperature. If this view is correct and the world's temperature is raised only a few degrees, much of the polar ice cap will melt and cities such as New York, Boston, Miami, and New Orleans will be in water.

  Another view, less widely held, is that increasing particular matter in the atmosphere is blocking sunlight and lowering the earth's temperature — a result that would be equally disastrous. A drop of just a few degrees could create something close to a new ice age, and would mane agriculture difficult or impossible in many of our top farming areas. Today we do not know for sure that either of these conditions will happen (though one recent government report drafted by experts in the field concluded that the greenhouse effect is very possible) Perhaps, if we are lucky enough, the two tendencies will offset each other and the world's temperature will stay about the same as it is now. Driven by economic profits, people neglect the damage on our environment caused by the “advanced civilization”. Maybe the air pollution is the price the human beings have to pay for their development. But is it really worthwhile?

  56. As pointed out at the beginning of the passage, people used to think that air pollution _______.

  [ A ] cause widespread damage in the countryside

  [ B ] affected the entire eastern half of the United States

  [ C ] had damaged effect on health

  [ D ] existed merely in urban and industries areas

  57. As to the greenhouse effect, the author __________.

  [ A ] share the same view with the scientist.

  [ B ] is uncertain of its occurrence

  [ C ] rejects it as being ungrounded

  [ D ] thinks that it will destroy the world soon

  58. The word “offset” in the second paragraph could be replaced by _________.

  [ A] slip into                 [ B ] make up for

  [ C ] set up                  [ D ] catch up with

  59. It can be concluded that ____________.

  [ A ] raising the world's temperature only a few degrees would not do much harm to life on earth.

  [ B] lowering the world's temperature merely a few degrees would lead major farming areas to disaster.

  [C] almost no temperature variations have occurred over the past decade.

  [D] the world's temperature will remain constant in the years to come.

  60. This passage is primarily about __________.

  [A]the greenhouse effect……

  [ B ] the burning of fossil fuels……

  [C] the potential effect of air pollution.

  [ D] the likelihood of a new ice age.

  Part B


  Read the following article in which five people talk about their ideas of dieting. For questions 61 to 65 , -match name of each speaker to one of the statements (A to C ) given below. Mark your answers on your ANSWER SHEET.


  You can always recognize dieters from the sour expression on their faces. They spend most of their time turning their noses up at food. They are forever consulting calorie charts, gazing at themselves in mirrors, and leaping on to weighing-machines in the bathroom. They spend a lifetime fighting a losing battle against spreading hips, protruding tummies and double chins. What a miserable lot dieters are!


  I began making some dietary and lifestyles changes during my second year of college and have been eating this way ever since. I like the way I feel when I don't eat animal foods so much more than the pleasure I used to get from eating them. I have much more energy; I need less sleep; I feel calmer; I can maintain an ideal body weight without worrying about how much I eat, and I can think more clearly.


  During my first year of college, I gained forty pounds when I began throwing the javelin. For the next twenty years, I carried all of this extra weight and kidded myself that I was in good shape since that's what I weighed in college. Now that I've lost all that extra weight, I feel great! People say all the time, "Well, how do you live without eating cheeseburgers or this or that?" and I say, "You just don't. It' s not even an option. It's not that hard once you get on it. "


  If you are on a diet, you're always hungry. You can't be hungry and happy at the same time. All the horrible concoctions you eat instead of food leave you permanently dissatisfied. A complete food it may be, but not quite as complete as juicy steak. So at least three times a day you will be exposed to temptation. How miserable to watch others tucking into piles of mouth-watering food while you munch a water biscuit and sip unsweetened lemon juice! And if hunger just proves too much for you, in the end you will lash out and devour five huge guilt-inducing cream cakes at a sitting. Then things will turn out to be even worse.

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