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英语讲义【157】怎样突出句子中的重点?

2007-07-05 15:39陈清霖

  有效的句子要有重点,并且要突出重点。

  句子的重点可以通过下列方法,加以突出:

  1. 把重点摆在句首或句尾。

  一般而论,最显眼的位置是在“句尾,其次是在句首,中间的位置最平淡,乏善可陈。例如:

  (1) Incorrect grammar and improper construction invariably distract readers'attention.
  (2) The history of vocabulary is, in many ways, the record of civilisation.

  把重点放在句尾是种“吊胃口”的方法,读者或听者非得读完或听完整句不可。

  2. 在复杂句里,把主句放在从句之后。

  除了名词从句和形容词从句之外,因为它们位置较固定,副词从句中有几种的位置灵活,可以在主句之前出现,也可以跟在主句之后。通常我们就把这样的副词从句提前,重点则放在后头的主句,如(3b):

  (3a) I came upon an old classmate when I went to town yesterday.
  (3b) When I went to town yesterday, I came upon an old classmate.

  副词短语更是如此,如 (4b):

  (4a) Steel is commonly used to make knives, razors and other useful tools because of its durability.
  (4b) Beacuse of its durability, steel is commonly used to make knives,razers and other useful tools.

  3. 把较重要或有分量的词语放在后头,如(5b)和(6b):

  (5a) I was delighted and amused by the classical opera
  (5b) I was amused and delighted by the classical opera.

  (6a) That singer's life was tragic and brief.
  (6b) That singer's life was brief and tragic.

  4. 把句子中一系列的项目作逻辑性的排列。例如:

  (7) Tony ate his dinner, watched TV, and then went to bed.
  (8) Were you bored with years of study in elementary school, high school and institute of higher education?

  5. 必要时,重复重要的语词或概念。

  例如:

  (9) Jackie enjoys the company of ladies. He likes their beauty, he likes their delicacy, he likes their vivacity, and he likes their silence.
  (10) ……the land stretched out without names. Nameless headlands split the surf; nameless lakes reflected the nameless mountains and nameless rivers flowed through nameless valleys and nameless bays.

  6. 尽量用主动说态,因此(11b)比(11a)好:

  (11a) A pedestrian was struck on the head by a flying stone.
  (11b) A flying stone struck a pedestrian on the head.

  7. 适当时候,可用倒装句和平行句,如:

  (12) Seven dwarfs lived here in the centre of the dark forest. → Here, in the centre of the dark forest lived seven dwarfs.
  (13) Severity breeds fear; roughness breeds hatred.
  (14) Honesty recommends that I speak; self-interest demands that I remain silent.

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