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英语讲义【49】条件句和让步句如何表达

2007-07-04 15:15陈清霖

  英语的句式多彩多姿,同一个意思可以透过不同句型反映出来。

  现在让我们看看两种出现率很高的句式,即条件句和让步句。

  英语条件句可以下列5种方式进行:

  ㈠由条件副词分句表达,如:
  ① If you go out in the rain, you will get wet.
  ② Unless a person tries hard, he won't succeed.
  ③ In case I forget about the meeting, please remind me.
  ④ He will be allowed to do it on condition that he abides by all the rules and regulations.

  条件副词分句里的连词“if”,在某些情况下可以省略,但句子要倒装,如:
  ⑤ Should it rain tomorrow/ If it should rain tomorrow, I shall not go out.
  ⑥ Had you worked harder/ If you had worked harder, you would have made it.

  ㈡由复合介词“in case of/ in the event of”引导的条件副词词组表达,如:
  ⑦ In case of fire, call the fire brigade.
  ⑧ In the event of an emergency, call up the police.

  ㈢由连词“supposing/ provided”引荐的分句表达,如:
  ⑨ Supposing (that) the matter was true, what would you say ?
  ⑩ I will lend you my car provided (that) you take good care of it.

  ㈣由“but for/ but that”引荐的词组或分句表达,如:
  ● But for your timely help, we would have been in hot water.
  ● But that Tom is sick, he would be here today.

  ㈤由祈使句表达,如:
  ● Work hard and you will succeed.

  现在来看看让步句的表达法。

  ⑴由让步副词分句表达,如:
  ● Although he is rich, he is not happy.
  ● Though Jim is learned, he lacks experience.

  ⑵由副词“however”构成的分句表达,如:
  ● However hard you may try, you will not get the job.
  ● We will have to finish the job, however long it takes.

  ⑶ 由代名词“whatever/ whoever”等表达,如:
  ● Some students refused to work whatever the teacher might say.
  ● She won't care whoever he is.

  ⑷由介词“despite”或复合介词“in spite of”引荐的让步副词词组表达,如:
  ● Despite being tired, some students went on studying until late at night.
  ● In spite of illness, David came to work.

  ⑸通过“no matter how/ no matter what”所构成的分句表达,如:
  ● No matter how cold it is, Helen always goes swimming.
  ● No matter what they did, their boss was not pleased.

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