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英语讲义【57】生动活泼的转化词

2007-07-04 16:19陈清霖

  英语的实词不但多义,而且同一词还可以属一种以上的词类。此外,从一种词类又可以转化为另一种词类,其中以⒈名词转化为动词、⒉动词转化为名词以及⒊形容词转化为动词,这三种最为普遍、最为生动。转化后的词具有该词基本的特性,因此转化名词有如真正名词,转化动词就像真正动词。

  ⒈名词→动词

  ① The workers found Bob's attitude hard to stomach.
  ② The parachutist had to nerve himself for the jump from his helicopter.
  ③ A few poor children had been dogging the tourists for some time.
  ④ Tuition schools have mushroomed for the last two years.
  ⑤ The traitor was knifed and stoned to death.
  ⑥ I leafed through a few pages of the book to see what it was about.
  ⑦ Personality clashes surfaced among some rival leaders.
  ⑧ Tom elbowed his way through the crowd.
  ⑨ It is impolite to ape one's superiors.
  ⑩ Delicious food made our mouths water.

  ⒉动词→名词

  ① The innocent girl was having a good cry.
  ② Active people are always on the go.
  ③ I often have a quiet read before going to bed.
  ④ People from all walks of life condemned a bad government.
  ⑤ Famine came in the wake of the drought.
  ⑥ The manager gave some lazy workers the sack.
  ⑦ Let me take a good look at these photos.
  ⑧ A visit to the Jurong Bird Park is a must for any tourist.
  ⑨ War is loathed by the haves and the have-nots.
  ⑩ If you have anything to discuss with me, don't hesitate to give me a ring.

  ⒊形容词→动词

  ① Don't idle away your precious time.
  ② Father's hair begins to grey.
  ③ How to quiet a fretful child?
  ④ We have no intention of seeing an innocent person humbled.
  ⑤ Something must be done to better the life of the underprivileged.
  ⑥ Language skills can be perfected by constant practice and regular reinforcement.
  ⑦ The robber wanted his victim to empty his pockets.
  ⑧ When the enemy's ships neared the land, our soldiers began to attack.
  ⑨ The man's muscles tensed as he saw the snake approaching him.
  ⑩ The hot weather soured the fresh milk.

  此外,有些形容词和其他词类也可以转化为名词。例如:

  ① The strong tend to bully the weak.
  ② Poor innocents deserve our greatest sympathy.
  ③Richard looked like a silly in such a situation.
  ④ The secretary knows the ins and outs of the matter.
  ⑤ Do you know the whys and wherefores of the accident?
  ⑥ Though a rich man now, Peter's earlier life was marked by ups and downs.

  上述这些转化名词,并未具有名词全部的特性。例如“the strong”和“the weak”形式是单数,意思是复数。还有④-⑥这些转化名词既有复数之形,也具复数之意。

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