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英语讲义【72】名词修饰语㈡

2007-07-04 16:41陈清霖

  上一期举出了10种名词修饰语,它们多数是出现在名词前面的单字单词。

  这里要谈及另外两种很重要的名词修饰语:一种是形容词短语( adjective phrases);另一种是形容词从句(adjective clauses)。

  形容词短语分介词短语(如例①)、现在分词短语(如例②)和过去分词短语(如例③):

  ① in the corner, on the table, from China, of great ability等,如: The books on the table are mine.

  ② standing on the platform, seeing the danger, hearing the noise等,如: Standing on the platform, the speaker looked nervous.

  ③ taken by surprise, awakened by the noise, frightened out of his wits等,如: Awakened by the noise, the baby cried.

  就位置来说,介词短语紧随被修饰的名词,如:

  ④ The man in the corner looks pale.

  ⑤ The flowers in the vase are fading.

  ⑥ I have met many visitors from China.

  现在分词短语由现在分词引导而出,可以在主语名词前面(如例 ⑦)或后面(如例⑧),也可以在宾语后面(如例⑨):

  ⑦ Looking at the gigantic stranger, the small girl cried.

  ⑧ Jim, seeing the danger, hurried home.

  ⑨ Can you see the fish swimming in the pool?

  过去分词短语,由过去分词带头,出现的位置和现在分词相同,如:

  ⑩ Taken completely by surprise, the enemy gave in.

  ● Peter, frightened out of his wits, stood rooted to the spot.

  ● We were sorry to see the dog chained to the tree all day long.

  现在分词短语和过去分词短语形式不同,性质也异。前者主动,后者被动。

  上述三种形容词短语出现率很高,不可等闲视之 .

  最后一种出现率高的名词修饰语,是众所周知的形容词从句。形容词从句由关系代词(the relative pronoun)“who, which, that, whose”等或关系副词(the relative adverb)“where, when, why”等引导而出现在被修饰的名词后头;这样的名词叫先行词(the antecedent)。例如:

  ● Dr Yang is a renowned scientist who specialises in physics.

  ● The book which deals with translation is Jason's masterpiece.

  ● Have you read the report on education that came out yesterday?

  ● David is the new director whose most urgent job is to reorganise the department.

  ● The writer whom you praised in your review felt greatly grateful for your admiration.

  ● This is the university where I studied 30 years ago.

  ● Gone are the days when people could live happily without the stresses and strains of a busy life.

  ● The reason why Harold suddenly resigned is not known.

  ● The host gave us such food as we could eat.

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