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英语讲义【151】句子合成法

2007-07-05 15:27陈清霖

  两个或两个以上简单句(Simple Sentence)可以合成一个较长的简单句、并列句(Compound Sentence)或复杂句(Complex Sentence)。通过句子的合成,我们得以更清楚地看出句子间的语义关系,而且还可以使句子多样化,增加文章的丰姿。

  现在就从三方面来看看句子合成法的问题。

  1. 由两三个简单句合成一个长的简单句。例如:

  (1) John ran away. He escaped the danger.
  → Running away, John escaped the danger.

  (2) The hunter took up his gun. He shot the boar.
  → The hunter took up his gun to shoot the boar.

  (3) The king died. The queen heard about it. She fainted.
  → On hearing about the king's death, the queen fainted.

  (4) Kelvin is my good friend. He is a strong supporter of social justice.
  → Kelvin, a strong supporter of social justice, is my good friend.

  (5) The rascal kicked the cat. He kicked it on the back. He kicked it intentionally.
  → The rascal kicked the cat on the back intentionally.

  2. 由两三个简单句合成一个并列句。例如:

  (6) John was sad. He kept quiet.
  → John was sad but he kept quiet.

  (7) Take the book. Leave it there.
  → Take the book or leave it there.

  (8) Sean did not come to class today. He had a bad headache.
  → Sean did not come to class today, for he had a bad headache.

  (9) Bruce was lying on the bed. He looked at the ceiling. He saw a lizard.
  → Lying on the bed, Bruce looked at the ceiling and saw a lizard.

  3. 由两三个简单句合成一个复杂句。例如:

  (10) Kelvin is getting rich. We know about it.
  → We know that kelvin is getting rich.

  (11) I like this book. It contains many amusing stories.
  → I like this book which contains many amusing stories.

  (12) Helen is sure to get her pay. It is due to her. Why does she complain?
  → Why does Helen complain since she is sure to get the pay due to her ?

  (13) The woman was exhausted. She had not slept well the previous night.
  → The woman was exhausted because she had not slept well the previous night.

  上面例子显示,简单句由“主语+谓语”(Subject + Predicate) 构成,有时还附有修饰性的短语。并列句由至少两个地位平等的并列分句透过并列连词 (Coordinating Conjunction)如“and, or, but, so, for”等连成。复杂句包括一个主句 (Main Clause)及至少一个从句 (Subordinate Clause), 通过从属连词(Subordinating Conjunction) 如“That, since, because, when, if”等合成。从属分句因功能不同而分成“名词从句”(Noun Clause), “副词从句”(Adverb Clause) 和“形容词从句”(Adjective Clause)。

  上述诸句式中,复杂句最为多采多姿,不妨多用。为了避免句子太长,难以控制,一个复杂句最好不要超过三个从句。

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