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英语讲义【74】名词分句

2007-07-04 16:59陈清霖

  在英语里,名词分句(the noun clause)是复杂句中三种从句的一种,起着名词的作用,可以是主语、宾语、同位语或补足语。

  名词分句多由从属连词“that”引导。例如:

  ① That the drowned boy is still alive is fortunate.
  ② He said that he was right to report the matter to the police.
  ③ Your assumption that all things will improve is unfounded.
  ④ The problem is that many people nowadays want to get rich fast.
  ⑤ I am sure that things will improve soon.

  ①里的名词从句当主句的主语;②里的当宾语;③里的当同位语;④里的是主语补足语;⑤里的是宾语补足语。

  当名词从句是谓语动词的宾语(见例②)或宾语补足语(见例⑤ )时,连词“that”通常可以省略。例如:

  ⑥ Tom said (that) he was right.
  ⑦ We are sure (that) things will get better.

  还有,用“that”引导的名词从句是陈述句( statements/declarative sentences)。例如③里的 (i)“All things will improve”和 (ii)“your assumption is unfounded” 连成复杂句之前,都是陈述句。但不是所有的名词分句都是用“that ”引导的陈述句。它们也可以是疑问句(questions/ interrogative sentences)。

  疑问句分两种:带疑问词(question words)和不带疑问词的。当带疑问词的直接疑问句(direct questions)转为间接疑问句( indirect questions)时,有关的疑问词便要起连接作用。例如:

  ⑧a. What problem may arise?
   b. No one knows.
   c. No one knows what problem may arise.

  ⑨a. Where is Tom?
   b. Tell me.
   c. Tell me where Tom is.

  ⑩a. Why was he absent?
   b. We want to find out.
   c. We want to find out why he was absent.

  当不带疑问词的疑问句转为名词从句时,就由连词“whether” 或“if”引导,如:

  (11)a. Will he come?
     b.I wonder whether he will come.

  (12)a. Are they wrong?
     b. May I know if they are wrong?

  ⑧c—⑩c以及11b—12b里的都是间接疑问句。请注意,㈠直接疑问的疑问号在间接疑问句中不见了;㈡间接疑问句的词序和陈述句的一样,即“主语+谓语”,而不是主谓对调;㈢同句中有两个名词从句时,连词要清楚列出,如:

  (13) The question is not whether our people will cooperate with our goverment but when they will do so.

  (14) Jason says that he has no immediate plans to go abroad and that he won't try anything new in near future.

  根据这原则,名词从句超过两个时,也要把连词写出来,使每个从句得以平衡,而且等量齐观,如:

  (15) I told Jim that he should create a good home environment, that he should have a room with good lighting, that he should allow enough hours for studying, and that he should not stay up without rhyme or reason.

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