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英语讲义【60】具副词功能的不定式动词短语

2007-07-04 16:22陈清霖

  不定式动词(the infinitive)或不定式动词短语(the infinitive phrase)的功能之一是修饰动词。这种具副词功能的不定式动词或短语,和分词短语一样,可以在句子中发挥不同作用,包括“目的、结果、原因、比较”。

  Ⅰ表示目的,如:
  ● To learn a language well, one must make great efforts and work with tenacity.
  ● To prevent war, big or small, it is important to promote international understanding.
  ● Zhiqiang came to my office to ask a question.
  ● The warden walked around the building to see that nothing went wrong.   表示“目的”的不定式动词短语可以在句首,也可以在句尾。在句首时,可以加上“in order”;在句尾时,可以附以“so as”,如:
  ● In order to win the table-tennis match, the players practised day and night.
  ● Betty worked very hard so as to catch up with the rest of the class.

  Ⅱ表示“结果”,如:
  ● Indonesia beat Denmark to take the first place in the badminton tournament.
  ● Sam passed the final examination to qualify for the next phase of study.
  表示“结果”的不定式动词短语出现在句尾,而且经常以预料不到的情况出现,如:
  ● After the short meeting, they separated, never to see each other again.
  ● Li Qi rushed to the bus station as fast as he could, only to find the last bus already gone.

  Ⅲ表示“原因”,如:
  ● I was really a fool not to listen to you at that critical moment.
  ● No gambler wins in the end and you would do well to avoid gambling of all forms.

  Ⅳ表示“比较”,如:
  ● She opened her lips, as though to speak.
  ● Her friend looked at him, as if to have something important to tell him.

  必须注意的是,含“比较”意思的不定式动词或短语前面要用“ as if ”或“as though”引导。

  除了直接修饰谓语动词之外,不定式动词或短语还可以和介词“ with, for”连用,如:

  ● With nobody to help, the poor man worked late into the night.
  ● The police removed the road block for the cars to pass.
  ● With little money to be used, Judy could not buy any more expensive things.
  ● For a lesson to be fruitfully taught, the teacher must make thorough preparations before going to class.
  ● For such a scheme to work well, the staff concerned have to be devoted and effective.
  ● With limited power to be exercised, the new manager could get nowhere.

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